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Pahlawān

(340 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Muḥammad b. Ilden̄iz , Nuṣrat al-Dīn , Atābeg of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān in the later 6th/12th century. His father Ildeñiz [ q.v.] had in course of time risen to be the real ruler in the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire; the widow of Sultan Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l [ q.v.] was Pahlawān’s mother and Arslān b. Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l [ q.v.] his step-brother. In the fighting between Ildeñiz and the lord of Marāg̲h̲a, Ibn Aḳsunḳur al-Aḥmadīlī, Pahlawān played a prominent part [see marāg̲h̲a ]. From his father he inherited in 568/1172-3 Arrān, Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, al-D̲j̲ibāl, Hamad̲h̲ān, Iṣfahān and…

Ṣadaḳa

(838 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Manṣūr b. Dubays b. ʿAlī b. Mazyad , Sayf al-Dawla Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Asadī , ruler of al-Ḥilla of the Arab line of Mazyadids [see mazyad , banū ]. After the death of his father in 479/1086-7, Ṣadaḳa was recognised by the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Malik S̲h̲āh as lord of the territory on the left bank of the Tigris. During the fighting between sultan Berk-yaruḳ and his brother Muḥammad, Ṣadaḳa was at first on the side of the former, but when Berkyaruḳ’s vizier, al-Aʿazz Abu ’l-Maḥāsin al-Dihistānī, demanded a large sum of money fro…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḏj̲aʿfar

(313 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Abī Ṭālib , nephew of the caliph ʿAlī. ʿAbd Allāh’s father had gone over to Islam very early, and took part in the emigration of the first believers to Abyssinia, where, according to the common belief, ʿAbd Allāh was born. On his mother’s side he was a brother of Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr; the mother’s name was Asmāʾ bint ʿUmays al-Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿamiyya. After some years the father returned to Medīna taking his son with him. ʿAbd Allāh became known chiefly on account of his great generosity, and received the honorific surname of Baḥr al-Ḏj̲ūd , "the Ocean of Generosity". He…

Muḥammad b. Marwān

(404 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Ḥakam , Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, son of the first Marwānid caliph by a slave mother, hence half-brother to the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik [ q.v.], Umayyad commander and governor. In 65/684-5, he was sent by his father to al-D̲j̲azīra, probably with the aim of securing Armenia once more, and in the battle of Dayr al-D̲j̲āt̲h̲alīḳ in 72/691 in which ʿAbd al-Malik defeated Muṣʿab b. al-Zubayr, he commanded the advanced guard of the Syrian army. In the following year, ʿAbd al-Malik gave him the governorship of al-D̲j̲azīra and Armen…

ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥasan

(419 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Ḥasan , chief of the ʿAlids. ʿAbd Allāh was treated with great favour by the caliphs of the Umayyad dynasty, and when he visited the first ʿAbbāsid caliph Abu ʿl-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ at Anbār, the latter received him with great distinction. Thence he returned to Medīna, where he soon fell under the suspicion of the successor of al-Saffāḥ, al-Manṣūr. Yet ʿAbd Allāh owed his misfortune not so much to himself as to his two sons Mụḥammad and Ibrāhīm. Al-Manṣūr began to suspect them in 136/754, when …

al-ʿAbbās b. Muḥammad

(180 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh , brother of the caliphs Abu l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ and Abū Ḏj̲āʿfar al-Manṣūr. ʿAbbās helped to retake Malaṭya in 139/756, and three years later was appointed by al-Manṣūr as governor of al-Ḏj̲azīra and the neighbouring frontier district. He was dismissed in 155/772, but his name continues to figure frequently in the history of the following years, however little important his political part may have been. He especially and often distinguished himself in the wars against the Byzant…

al-Mustaʿṣim Bi ’llāh

(388 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Aḥmad ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Mustanṣir , the last ʿAbbāsid caliph of Bag̲h̲dād (640-56/1247-58), born in 609/1212-13. After the death of his father in D̲j̲umādā I or II 640/November-December 1242, he was raised to the caliphal throne, but he had neither the talent nor the strength to avert the catastrophe threatening from the Mongols; he allowed himself to be guided by bad counsellors who were not agreed among themselves but working against one another. In 683/1255-6, the Mongol K̲h̲ān Hūlagū [ q.v.] demanded that the Muslim rulers should make war on the Ismāʿīlīs of Alamūt. …

Muḥammad b. Ṭāhir

(346 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Ṭāhir D̲h̲i ’l-Yamīnayn , last Ṭāhirid governor of K̲h̲urāsān. After the death of his father, Muḥammad received the governorship of K̲h̲urāsān (Rad̲j̲ab 248/September 862). In 250/864-5 the ʿAlid al-Ḥasan b. Zayd rebelled in Ṭabaristān, which led to a long and serious struggle [see muḥammad b. ʿabd allāh ]. When ʿAbd Allāh al-Sid̲j̲zī rebelled against Yaʿḳūb b. al-Layt̲h̲ al-Ṣaffār of Sīstān, and appealed for help to Muḥammad, who appointed him governor of al-Ṭabasayn and Ḳuhistān, Yaʿḳūb found a welcome pretext to invade K̲h̲ur…

K̲h̲usraw Fīrūz

(498 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, al-Malik al-Raḥīm Abū Naṣr b. Abī Kālīd̲j̲ār, a Būyid. After the death in Ḏj̲umādā I 440 (Oct. 1048) of Abū Kālīd̲j̲ār [q. v.] Ḵh̲usraw Fīrūz (var. Ḵh̲orra Fīrūz) was recognised as Amīr of the ʿIrāḳ while his brother Abū Manṣūr Fūlād̲h̲ Sutūn seized the town of S̲h̲īrāz. Soon afterwards Ḵh̲usraw Fīrūz sent an army under Abū Saʿd Ḵh̲usraw S̲h̲āh, who was also his brother, against S̲h̲īrāz; the town had to surrender and Abū Manṣūr was taken prisoner (S̲h̲awwāl 440 = March-April 1049) but released after…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad

(128 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
P. 27a, l. 14. On the part which in spite of his cruelty, he played in the history of Spain as precursor of his celebrated grandson ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III, see the article umaiyads, vi. 1006 sq.— l. 51. As Seybold, G. G. A., 1920, p. 182 observes the article in al-ʿAd̲h̲ārī should be omitted; we also find (al-ʿId̲h̲ārī) “addito semper articulo”; see Gildemeister, Catalogus librorum manu scriptorum or. qui in Bibl. Acad. Bonnensi servantur, p. 13 and Brockelmann, G. A. L., i. 337. — According to Seybold, to the Bibl. should be added: Ibn al-ʿAbbār, al-Ḥulla al-siyarāʾ, in Dozy, Notices sur quelque…

Bis̲h̲r

(225 words)

Author(s): Zettersteen, K. V.
b. al-Barāʾ, one of Muḥammad’s Companions. In the year 622, Bis̲h̲r took part in the second ʿAḳaba where his father, al-Barāʾ b. Maʿrūr took part. He was famous for his skill as a bowman and took part in the battles of Badr and Uḥud, the “Battle of the Ditch”, the campaign to Ḥudaibiya and the conquest of Ḵh̲aibar. After the capitulation of the Jewish population of Ḵh̲aibar in the year 7 (628), Bis̲h̲r was poisoned by a Jewess named Zainab bint al-Ḥārit̲h̲, because she had lost all her male relatives in the war and wish…

al-Ṭāʾiʿ

(333 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
li-Amr Allāh (or li ’llāh) ʿAbd al-Karīm b. al-Faḍl, ʿAbbāsid Caliph, born in 317 (929—930). His father was the caliph al-Muṭīʿ after whose deposition on 13th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 363 (Aug. 5, 974) he was proclaimed Commander of the Faithful. His mother, who survived him, was called ʿUtb. As Ibn al-At̲h̲īr justly observes (ix. 56), al-Ṭāʾiʿ during his reign had not sufficient authority to be able to associate himself with any enterprises worthy of mention. He is only mentioned in history, one may safely say, in connection with…

Ḳizil Arslān

(470 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Īldegiz, an Atābeg of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. His father, the Atābeg Īldegiz [q. v.], had been the real ruler in the whole Seld̲j̲ūḳ empire. Ḳizil Arslān”s mother was the widow of Sulṭān Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l I and mother of Sulṭān Arslān b. Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l [q. v.]. When Īldegiz died in 568 (1172), he was succeeded by his son Muḥammad Pahlawān; in 570 (1174—1175) the latter besieged Marāg̲h̲a while Ḳizil Arslān advanced on Tabrīz and when the lord of these two towns, the Ḳāḍī Ṣadr al-Dīn, entered into neg…

Bas̲h̲īr

(339 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Saʿd, a companion of Muḥammad. Bas̲h̲īr was born in Mecca and was one of the few Arabs of the pre-Muḥammadan period who could write. In the year 622 he took part in the second conference at ʿAḳaba and in the following years took part in several battles under Muḥammad. By command of the prophet he undertook in S̲h̲aʿbān 7 (December 629) an expedition with 30 men to Fadak against the Banū Murra. When he came upon them, his men took to flight but Bas̲h̲īr defended himself with the greatest valour…

al-Muʿtazz

(368 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
bi ’llāh, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad (or al-Zubair) b. Ḏj̲aʿfar, an ʿAbbāsid ¶ caliph, son of al-Mutawakkil and a slave-girl named Ḳabīḥa. After al-Mustaʿīn had been forced to abdicate, al-Muʿtazz was proclaimed caliph on 4th Muḥarram 252 (Jan. 25, 866). When he wanted to get rid of the two Turkish generals Waṣīf and Bog̲h̲a the younger, they got wind of his intentions and went back to Sāmarrā. On the other hand, he succeeded in putting his brother and successor designate al-Muʾaiyad to death and throwing the third brother Abū Aḥma…

ʿAbd Allāh

(434 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Muḥammed, Umaiyad prince in Spain. ʿAbd Allāh, who ascended the throne of Cordova after the sudden death of his brother al-Mund̲h̲ir in 275 (888), has been characterized as „one of the most repulsive phenomena in the whole history of Islām,“ and in truth his twenty-four years of power were a most unhappy period for his subjects. In order to secure his life and his throne against imaginary dangers, the suspicious tyrant treated his nearest relatives in the most cruel manner possible. His brothe…

Rukn al-Dīn

(465 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Sulaimān II b. Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslān II, a Sald̲j̲ūḳ ruler in Asia Minor. His father Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslān b. Masʿūd [q. v.] in his old age divided his kingdom among his many sons. The consequence of this was that the latter set up as independent rulers and began to fight with one another so that at his death in S̲h̲aʿbān 588 (Aug. 1192) complete anarchy reigned. In the course of time however, Rukn al-Dīn brought the whole kingdom under his sway. Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Maliks̲h̲āh who had received Sīwās and Aḳṣarā, b…

ʿĪsā

(483 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Mūsā b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās, nephew of the two first ʿAbbāsid Caliphs, al-Saffāḥ and al-Manṣūr. In the last year of his reign al-Saffāḥ had homage paid to his brother Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar and after him to his nephew ʿĪsā b. Mūsā as heirs-apparent. ʿĪsā, who a few years previously had been appointed governor of Kūfa, retained this office after the accession of Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr. When the ʿAlid Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh rebelled in Medīna in 145 (762), ʿĪsā was sent with an army against…

Abān

(197 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿOt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffan, governor, son of the third caliph. His mother was called Umm ʿAmr bint Ḏj̲undab b. ʿAmr al-Dawsīya. Abān accompanied ʿĀʾis̲h̲a at the battle of the Camel in Ḏj̲umādā I 36 (November 656); on the battle terminating otherwise than was expected, he was one of the first to run away. On the whole, he does not seem to have been of any political importance. The caliph ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān appointed him as governor of Medina. He occupied this position for seven years; he was then …

al-Muḳtafī

(421 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
li-Amri ’llāh, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad, ʿAbbāsid caliph, born on 12th Rabīʿ II 489 (April 9, 1096), son of al-Mustaẓhir and a slave girl. After the deposition of his nephew al-Ras̲h̲īd, al-Muḳtafī was acknowledged as caliph on the 8th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 530 (Sept. 17, 1136). While the Sald̲j̲ūḳs were fighting among themselves, he did his best not only to maintain his independence but also to extend his, rule and one district after the other in the ʿIrāḳ fell into his hands. In 543 (1148) a number of emirs announced their allegiance…
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