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(2,310 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.), at first usually called ḳāṭīg̲h̲ūriyās or the ten words ( alfāẓ), is the name given by the Muslim philosophers to the ten categories of Aristotle. Since Aristotle ¶ κατηγορία and κατηγορεῖν (the latter also occasionally in Plato) have been referred to the kinds (γένη, ad̲j̲nās) or forms (σχήματα, as̲h̲kāl) of predication in the judgment or the sentence, and at the same time, because correct judgment should correspond to being, to the kinds of being ( ad̲j̲nās al-mawd̲j̲ūdāt). The categories therefore have not only a logical but also — perhaps with the exception of …


(2,042 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.) is the word generally used in the terminology of philosophy to express the conception of time. Dahr, waḳt and ḥīn are synonyms. To distinguish it from time as perceived of the senses, time in the abstract is often called dahr (Pers. zurvān) or described as zamān maʿnawī, zamān muṭlaḳ, zamān ʿalwī etc. Speculations on time (or space) as the highest principle of the world, with which Islām was acquainted from Hellenistic and Persian tradition, were of course strictly avoided. The doctrine that time, like space, was one of the five principles of…


(158 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
In his article Filosofia “orientale” od “illuminativa” d’Avicenna (R. S. O., x., 1925, p. 433—467) C. A. Nallino has shown that Ibn Sīnā wrote a general work of a philosophical nature on the wisdom of the east — Ḥikma mas̲h̲riḳīya — of which one portion, the Logic, was printed in Cairo 1910 as Manṭiḳ al-Mas̲h̲riḳīyīn (wrongly given in the article ibn sīnā in the Bibl., as al-Mus̲h̲riḳīyīn). The work is said to differ in degree from his other more peripatetic works. The so-called Ḥikma mus̲h̲riḳīya = Ḥikmat al-Is̲h̲rāḳ therefore does not exist [see *ḥikma]. The beginning of the article al-is̲h…


(1,681 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a., pl. asbāb) is with ʿilla (pl. ʿilal), the general term for cause in the Peripatetic sense: the two expressions are used to a great extent synonymously like ἀρχή and αἰτία or ἀίτιον in Aristotle. Ibn Rus̲h̲d ( Mā baʿd al-Ṭabīʿa, Cairo, p. 15) says that sabab and ‘ilia are synonyms. Previous to him, Abū Ṣalt (d. 1134) used them in his Logic (Madrid, p. 50 of Arabic text) with the same meaning. Many examples for the synonymous use could also be quoted from the older writings of eastern Islām. Although for example God is usually called by the philosophers the first ʿilla, he is often called wit…


(680 words)

Author(s): de Boer, TJ.
(a.) and its opposite g̲h̲air or g̲h̲airīya are used to designate the Platonic categories of the identical (ταυτόν) and the different (θάτερον) [cf. annīya]. Weakening the conception of identity, one talks with reference to particular things of is̲h̲tirāk or ittifāḳ (similarity, agreement) as well as of iftirāḳ (difference). On the Aristotelian conception of these “categories” in Book v. of the Metaphysics cf. S. van den Bergh, ¶ ¶ ¶ Die Epitome der Metaphysik des Averroes, Leyden 1914, p. 18 sqq., 168 sq. (ταυτά ἕτερα, etc.). The “Theology of Aristotle” (ed. Dieterici, p. 108 sqq.) spe…


(162 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a., pl. āt̲h̲ār) is used as a technical term in the theory of causality, although not so common as fiʿl, ʿilla and sabab with their derivatives [q v.]. — From the muʾat̲h̲t̲h̲ir, i.e. from a higher, active being or thing, God, etc. emanate taʾt̲h̲īrāt, influences, to which correspond under certain conditions āt̲h̲ār, impressions in the lower beings or things. In contrast to the higher beings the latter remain passive (or better: receptive). This use of the word is most frequent in astrologers and natural philosophers with reference to the influ…


(3,520 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.), syllogism, deduction. The ḳiyās occupies a central position in the logic of the Muslim philosophers, which is mainly derived from Peripatetic tradition [cf. manṭiḳ]. This word really corresponds to the Greek ἀναλογία and not to συλλογισμόΣ (see below). A syllogism is according to the usual use of the word a collection, listing or combination, but Aristotle gave it its special meaning as a technical term for a combination of statements from which a deduction can be drawn. For this we require (i. e. for a perfect categorical deduction, ḳiyās ḥamlī) three conceptions ὅροι, ḥudūd), a m…


(237 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.), like farḳ, ḳisma and other synonyms meaning separating, dividing, distinguishing, is much used in philosophical works to translate the διαίρεσιΣ, διαΦορά etc. In logic faṣl means the difference between two kinds or between two species: particularly in the section dealing with definition ( ḥadd) the differentia of a species (διαΦορά), which along with the statement of the next highest species comprises the definition, e. g. “Man is an intelligent (kind) creature (species)”. In this significance faṣl is one of the 5 (or 6) words dealt with by Porphyrios in the “Intr…


(91 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(plur. ʿAnāṣir) means, like aṣl, rukn, isṭuḳis (στοιχεĩον) etc., principle, basis, element in the general sense. It is used in the special sense of materia prima. The hellenising philosophers, as a rule, use arkān or isṭuḳisāt for the four elements of the sublunar world, which are composed of matter and form and, according to the prevailing view, are mutable. The material of the heavenly spheres is called rukn by these philosophers, more frequently however a fifth nature ( ṭabʿ). (Tj. de Boer) Bibliography Sprenger, Dict. of Techn. Terms, p. 960 sqq. ¶


(452 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.), a philosophical term = hayūlā, Gr. ὕλη is, like its correlative ṣūra, Gr. εἶδοΣ, a word of varied significance. In general it means that which can possibly exist (δυνάμει) but which really is not (has no form) but may become something through the adoption of opposed determinatives (forms). As the realisation of the possible is conceived as advancing by stages, a lower stage of form may again be conceived as material for a higher form of development. The question is further complicated even in Aristotl…


(87 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.) is the usual name for the conclusion resulting from the combination of the two premisses ( muḳaddamāt) in the syllogism ( ḳiyās). It corresponds to the Stoic ἐπιΦορά; this word in the works of Galen known to the Arabs is applied to the various discharges from the body but also means, as with the Stoics, the conclusion. Aristotle used the word συμπέρασμα: that which concludes or completes the syllogism. In place of the usual natīd̲j̲a we also find ridf or radf (= deduction). (Tj. de Boer)


(275 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
is said (1) of anything which is antecedent to another in time ( taḳaddum, opp. Taʾak̲h̲k̲h̲ur); (2) of the temporal, newly arisen, which no time has preceded; (3) of the absolute, i.e. in its nature without beginning ( ḳidam in this sense is usually synonymous with azal, azalīya; but some, e. g. Ḏj̲īlī, al-Insān al-Kāmil, B. 30, endeavour to show that there is a subtle distinction). In the last (3) sense, according to orthodox belief, the name al-Ḳadīm can be applied to God alone. The question whether God’s thought in relation to the (not yet) created world can be conce…


(1,535 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.), body. In philosophical language the body (σῶμα) is distinguished from the incorporeal (ἀσώματον), God, spirit, soul, etc. In so far as speculation among the Muslims was influenced by Neo-Platonism two features were emphasised: 1. the incorporeal is in its nature simple, indivisible, the body on the other hand is composite and divisible; 2. the incorporeal is in spite of its negative character, the original, the causing principle, while the body is a product of the incorporeal. The more or less naive anthropomorphism of the old Islām, i. e. the conception of God aft…


(1,969 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.), effusion, emanation, is much used in the Arabic tradition of neo-Platonism, as a name for the gradual but steadily descending creative development of the world out of God and its maintenance through his providence. No definition ( ḥadd) can be given of God’s being and of his creative activity, but it is possible to describe it in other words ( rasm), e. g. to say: He is the existent one from whom all else emanates ( yafīḍ). For this the philosophers primarily use the expressions of the Ḳurʾān and Tradition ( k̲h̲alḳ, ibdāʿ etc.) interpreted in a spiritual sense ( taʾwīl). At the same time…


(2,596 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.), return in the neo-Platonic sense, forms the main subject of the apocryphal “Theology of Aristotle”. The question deals mainly with the individual souls who have descended or fallen into this earthly world of bodies but are purified by knowledge and who return to their original home, the spiritual world, either in an ecstatic condition or after separation from their bodies by death. Mard̲j̲iʿ is used alongside of rud̲j̲ūʿ; the verbal forms from rad̲j̲aʿa are frequently employed; connected with these we find a number of expressions, sometimes related in meaning a…


(227 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a), plur. aḍdād, means in philosophical language, corresponding to the Greek ἐναντία, opposite, contrast, usually in the contrary sense. For the contradictory opposite naḳīḍ, tanāḳuḍ (ἀντίΦρασιΣ) are used, and for opposite in general various forms of ḳabala, because the contrasts are in a subject or substratum, which comprises it. According to the Categories ascribed to Aristotle, unique substance has no opposite. It is itself, as it is also kind and species. In this sense the theologians and philosophers say that God has no ḍidd. It is true that Iblis (the Devil) is called ʿaduww Allā…


(3,491 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.), being, existence and Mawd̲j̲ūd, being, existing, are the most common terms for the subject of Aristotelian metaphysics (τὸ εἶναι, τὸ ὄν). Before Aristotle found his way into Islām the early theological schools used (see As̲h̲ʿarī, Maḳālāt, i. 44 sq., 55, 70) as the commonest conception thing ( s̲h̲aiʾ) or body ( d̲j̲ism) with its qualities ( ṣifāt) and disputed as to whether God should be called a s̲h̲aiʿ or a d̲j̲ism. From the logic of Aristotle were added substance (οὐσία, d̲j̲awhar) with its accidents (συμβεβηκότα, aʿrāḍ) as the highest categories, and then the question …


(1,583 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a., pl. ʿālamūn, ʿawālim), world; the word is found as early as the Ḳurʾān, where in borrowed formulae we have references to the rabb al-ʿālamīn and the seven samawāt. Allāh is its lord and creator who has created it for man as a sign of his omnipotence. This transitory world ( dunyā) is of little value — “not worth the wing of a midge” is the traditional expression — in comparison with the next ( āk̲h̲ira). We are told very little about the structure of the world [cf. the article K̲h̲alḳ]; the subjects of interest, in the Ḳurʾān as well as in Tradition, are God, the spirit world and man. This became a…


(2,168 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a., plur. ḳuwan ) is a word of many meanings in philosophical language used to translate δύναμιΣ, according to the context it can be translated predisposition, aptitude, power, ability or possibility. The many meanings — whether they have a common foundation or not — may be best considered from two points of view. The concept δύναμιΣ has two opposites in the writings of Aristotle: 1. ἀδυναμία ( lā- ḳuwwa or ḍaʿf, inability or weakness); 2. ἐνέργεια ( fiʿl, activity, reality). Ḳuwwa in the former sense is dealt with in the Categories and Metaphysics (v. 12), in the latter mainly in the Metaphys…


(255 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
The following note may be added to the last section of this article. In the older versions of Greek logic (see nahẓar, p. 889, sect. 3) φιλοσοφία was translated by ḥikma; falsafa was also in use or came into use alongside of it. It is often used as a synonym, falsafa being preferred by the more or less pure Peripatetics, ḥikma by the followers of eclectic wisdom. To the latter belongs the ḥikmat al-is̲h̲rāḳ. That this was also called ḥikma mus̲h̲riḳīya and that Ibn Sīnā wrote a treatise on it is not correct. C. A. Nallino in his article Filosofiaorientaleodilluminativad’Avicenna (P. S. O., x…
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