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Pādis̲h̲āh

(646 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), the name for Muslim rulers, especially emperors. The Persian term pād-i s̲h̲āh , i.e. (according to M. Bittner, in E. Oberhummer, Die Türken und das Osmanische Reich , Leipzig 1917, 105) “lord who is a royalty” in which the root pad is connected with Sanskrit patis , lord, husband, fern, patni , Greek πότνια and δεσ-πότης, Lat. potens (G. Curtius, Griech . Etymol ., 377), was originally a title reserved exclusively for the sovereign, which in course of time and as a result of the long intercourse of the Ottomans with the states of…

Merzifūn

(709 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Bosworth, C.E.
, also Mārsiwān , modern Turkish spelling Merzifon, a town of north-central Anatolia, lying in lat. 40°52′ and long. 35°35′E. and at an altitude of 750 m./2.464 ft. It is situated on the southern slopes of the Tavşan Daği, with a rich and fertile plain, the Sulu Ova, on its south, where fruit, vines, nuts, opium poppies, etc. are cultivated, and with the towns of Çorum [see čorum ] at 69 km./42 miles to the south-west and of Amasya [ q.v. ] at 49 km./30 miles to the south-east. The town most probably occupies the site of the ancient Phazemon (Φαζημών) in the district of Phazemonitis…

Ṣafī al-Dīn Audabīlī

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Savory, R.M.
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Abu ’l-Fatḥ Isḥāḳ, son of Amīn al-Dīn D̲j̲ibrāʾīl and Dawlatī, born 650/1252-3, died 12 Muḥarram 735/12 September 1334 at Ardabīl [ q.v.], eponymous founder of the Ṣafawid Order of Ṣūfīs and hence of the Ṣafawid dynasty, rulers of Persia 907-1148/1501-1736 [see ṣafawids ]. Traditional hagiographical accounts depict Ṣafī al-Dīn as being destined for future greatness from infancy. As a boy, he spent his time in religious exercises, experienced visions involving angelic beings, and was visited by the abdāl and awtād [ q.vv.]. As he grew up, he could find no murs̲h̲id

Og̲h̲ul

(304 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Bosworth, C.E.
(t.), a word common to all Turkic languages (cf. W. Radloff, Versuch eines Wörterbuches der Türk-Dialecte , St. Petersburg 1888-1911, i/2, cols. 1015-16), found as early as Ork̲h̲on Turkic and meaning “offspring, child”, with a strong implication of “male child”, as opposed to ḳi̊z “girl” [ q.v.] (Sir Gerard Clauson, An etymological dictionary of pre-thirteenth century Turkish, Oxford 1972, 83-4), original plural og̲h̲lan , still thus in Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī ( Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-turk , facs. ed. Atalay, iv, Dizini , 425-6; C. Brockelmann, Mitteltürkischer Wortschatz

Sinān Pas̲h̲a, K̲h̲od̲j̲a

(1,834 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine | Babinger, Fr. | Dávid, G.
, the name of two Ottoman dignitaries. 1. The vizier, scholar and prose writer (845-91/1440-86). Sinān al-Dīn Yūsuf Pas̲h̲a was born probably in 845/1440, in Bursa, the son of K̲h̲i̊ḍr Beg b. Ḳāḍī D̲j̲elāl al-Dīn (d. 863/1459 [ q.v.]), the first Ottoman ḳāḍī of Istanbul. Through his mother, a daughter of Mollā Yegān (d. 878/1473), he was also descended from a second ʿulemāʾ family prominent in the early Ottoman period. After initial appointments as müderris in Edirne, he was promoted by Meḥemmed II to a teaching post at the Istanbul ṣaḥn-i themāniye [ q.v.], to be held jointly with that of k̲h̲…

Rag̲h̲ūsa

(2,805 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Bosworth, C.E.
, the mediaeval Arabic form of the name of the Dalmatian city of Ragusa , until the advent of Bonaparte a free state, the modern Dubrovnik in Croatia (see 2. below), situated in lat. 42° 40ʹ N., long. 18° 07ʹ E. 1. History up to the beginning of the 19th century. Ragusa, the Roman Ragusium (see PW, 2. Reihe, 1.A. 1, col. 130), is situated on the south side of a peninsula which runs out into the Adriatic, picturesquely situated (50 feet) at the foot and on the slopes of Mount Sergius, and was founded in the 7th century by Romance fugitives from Epidau…
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