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Nīlūfer K̲h̲ātūn

(374 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, épouse du sultan ottoman Ork̲h̲an et mère de Murād Ier [ q.vv.]. Son nom, en grec, était vraisemblablement (cf. J. von Hammer, GOR, I, 59) Nénuphar, c’est-à-dire fleur de lotus. Fille du seigneur de Yārḥiṣār (Anatolie, non loin de Bursa; cf. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Ḏj̲ihān-numā, 659) elle fut fiancée, d’après la légende, au seigneur de Belokoma (Biled̲j̲ik). ʿOt̲h̲mān [ q.v.], le fondateur de la dynastie à laquelle il donna son nom, aurait enlevé, en 699/1299, la jeune fille pour faire d’elle l’épouse de son fils Ork̲h̲an [ q.v.], alors âgé de douze ans. Idrīs Bitlīsī et, d’après …

Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a

(584 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ḵh̲od̲j̲a Meḥmed (1111-76/1699-1763), grand-vizir et homme de lettres ottoman qui naquit à Istanbul. Fils du kātib Meḥmed S̲h̲ewḳī. il fut très tôt employé dans la chancellerie en raison de ses talents remarquables, puis il entra au service des gouverneurs de Van, ʿĀrifī Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a et finalement Ḥekīm-zāde ʿAlī-Pas̲h̲a comme secrétaire et intendant suppléant. En 1141/1728, il revint à Istanbul, mais pour retourner l’année suivante à Bag̲h̲dād avec les fonctions de suppléant du reʾīs efendi. Aussitôt après la conquête de Bag̲h̲dād (1146/1733), il y obtint le poste de defterdār,…

Delvina

(760 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, ancienne résidence d’un sand̲j̲aḳ-bey ottoman en Albanie; à l’époque ottomane, Delvina (turc et albanais; grec Δέλβινον) formait un sand̲j̲aḳ du gouvernorat de Roumélie. Elle est située à une altitude de 230 m., à environ 17 km. du rivage de la mer Ionienne; elle consiste en une seule rue marchande au milieu de plantations d’oliviers, de citronniers et de grenadiers et est dominée par les ruines d’une ancienne forteresse, peut-être byzantine. Les habitants, avant 1940, étaient au nombre de 3000 environ, dont les…

Nesīmī

(611 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Seyyid ʿImād al-dīn, nommé Nesīmī, ancien poète et mystique ottoman vraisemblablement originaire de Nesīm non loin de Bag̲h̲dād. Comme il n’existe plus à l’heure actuelle de localité de ce nom, on ne peut pas établir d’une manière certaine si le laḳab ne doit pas purement et simplement être dérivé de nasīm «zéphyr, souffle de vent». Il semble à peu près démontré que Nesīmī est d’origine Turkmène, bien que le «Seyyid» qui précède son nom indique également une ascendance arabe. Le turc lui était aussi familier que le persan, car il a écrit des v…

Kirmāstī

(439 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, chef-lieu d’un ḳaḍāʾ d’Anatolie, à 22 km. au Sud-est de Mik̲h̲alid̲j̲ (cf. J. H. Mordtmann, dans ZDMG, LXV (1911), 101) et à 66 km. au Sud-ouest de Bursa, qui comptait, en 1960, 16 900 habitants. La ville est située sur les deux rives de l’Edrenos Čay (Rhyndacus), aujourd’hui appelé Mustafa Kemal Paṣa Çay. L’origine du nom de Kirmāstī, écrit souvent encore inexactement Kirmāsli̊, et qui laisse supposer un mot grec *Kερµαστὴ ou *Kρεµαστὴ, est incertaine; on ne sait pas non plus quelle cité antique se trouvait à…

Nesīmī

(601 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Seyyid ʿImād al-Dīn , known as Nesīmī, an early Ottoman poet and mystic, believed to have come from Nesīm near Bag̲h̲dād, whence his name. As a place of this name no longer exists, it is not certain whether the laḳab should not be derived simply from nasīm “zephyr, breath of wind”. That Nesīmī was of Turkoman origin seems to be fairly certain, although the “Seyyid” before his name also points to Arab blood. Turkish was as familiar to him as Persian, for he wrote in both languages. Arabic poems ar…

Ramaḍān-Zāde

(342 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
Meḥmed Čelebi Pas̲h̲a , Yes̲h̲ild̲j̲e , known as Küčük Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊, an Ottoman historian. He was born in Merzifūn [ q.v.] and was the son of a certain Ramaḍān Čelebi. He was a secretary in the dīwān , became in 960/1553 chief defterdār , in 961/1554 reʾīs ül-küttāb or secretary of state, and in 965/1558 secretary of the imperial signature ( ṭüg̲h̲ra [ q.v.]). He was later appointed defterdār of Aleppo, then governor of Egypt and finally sent to the Morea to make a survey ( taḥrīr ). He retired in 970/1562 and died in D̲j̲umādā I 979/September-October 1571…

Dimetoḳa

(1,029 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, also called Dimotiḳa , a town in the former Ottoman Rumeli. Dimetoḳa lies in western Thrace, in a side valley of the Maritsa, and at times played a significant role in Ottoman history. The territory has belonged to Greece since the treaty of Neuilly (27 November 1919), again bears its pre-Ottoman name of Didymóteikhon, and lies within the administrative district (Nomos) of Ebros. It has a population of about 10,000, and is the seat of a bishop of the Greek church as well as o…

Mīk̲h̲āl-Og̲h̲lu

(1,016 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an old Ottoman noble family. This family traced its descent to the feudal lord Köse Mīk̲h̲āl ʿAbd Allāh, originally a Greek (cf. F.-A. Geuffroy, in Ch. Schefer, Petit traicte de l’origine des Turcqz par Th. Spandouyn Cantacasin , Paris 1696, 267: L’ung desdictz Grecz estoit nommé MichaeliDudict Michali sont descenduz les Michalogli ), who appears in the reign of ʿOt̲h̲mān I as lord of Chirmenkia (K̲h̲irmend̲j̲ik) at the foot of Mount Olympus near Edrenos, and later as an ally of the first Ottoman ruler earned great merit for his share in aiding the latter’s expansion (cf. J. von Hammer, in G…

Nīlūfer K̲h̲ātūn

(367 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, wife of the Ottoman sultan Ork̲h̲an and mother of Murād I [ q.vv.], apparently the Greek Nenuphar (i.e. Lotus-flower) (cf. J. von Hammer, GOR, i, 59), was the daughter of the lord of Yārḥiṣār (Anatolia, near Bursa; cf. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa, D̲j̲ihān-numā . 659) and according to one story was betrothed to the lord of Belokoma (Biled̲j̲ik). ʿOt̲h̲mān [ q.v.], the founder of the dynasty which bears his name, is said to have kidnapped and carried her off in 699/1299 and to have destined her to be the wife of his son Ork̲h̲an [ q.v.], then only 12 years old. Idrīs Bitlīsī, and following hi…

Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a

(567 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, K̲h̲od̲j̲a Meḥmed (1111-76/1699-1763), Ottoman Grand Vizier and littérateur. He was born in Istanbul, the son of the kātib Meḥmed S̲h̲ewḳī. and was soon on account of his unusual ability employed in the dīwān . He then acted as secretary and deputy-chamberlain to the governors of Van, ʿArifī Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a, and Köprülü-zāde ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], and, lastly, to Ḥekīm-zāde ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a. In 1141/1728 he returned to ¶ the capital and in the following year went back to Bag̲h̲dād as deputy to the reʾīs efendi . Soon after the conquest of Bag̲h̲dād in 1146/1733 he was appointed def…

Rusčuk

(1,940 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Lory, B.
, an administrative district and a port on the Danube in Bulgaria (often wrongly called and written as Rus̲h̲čuk), officially in Bulgarian Ruse (Pyce). It is situated at the confluence of the Rusenski Lom (Tk. Ḳara Lom) and the Danube, which then reaches a width of 1,300 m/4,264 feet. It faces the Rumanian port of Giurgiu (Tk. Yer Köki) and spreads out along terraces of loess, above the level of flooding. It is the main port on the Danube and the fourth largest town of Bulgaria, being a rail and…

Rūḥī

(336 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Woodhead, Christine
(d. after 917/1511), Ottoman historian. There is little definite information about this historian apart from his mak̲h̲laṣ Rūḥī. From ʿĀlī’s [ q.v.] reference to him in the Künhü ’l-ak̲h̲bār as Edrenewī Mewlānā Rūḥī, it is probable that he was a member of the ʿulamāʾ and had a family or professional association with Edirne (J. Schmidt, Muṣṭafā ʿĀlī’s Künhü ’l-aḫbār and its preface according to the Leiden manuscript, Istanbul 1987, 58). Any identification with Rūḥī Fāḍi̊l Efendi (d. 927/1528), son of the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām Zenbilli ʿAlī Efendi, remains hypothetical (Babinger, GOW, 4…

Aḳ Ḥiṣār

(568 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Babinger, Fr.
(T. "white castle"), name of several towns. 1. The best known is Aḳ Ḥiṣār in Western Anatolia, formerly in the wilāyet of Aydi̊n, since 1921 in that of Manisa, situated in a plain near the left bank of the river Gördük (a sub-tributary of the Gediz), 115 m. above sea level. Known as Thyatira (see Pauly-Wissowa, s.v.) in antiquity and Byzantine times, it owes its Turkish name to the fortress on a neighbouring hill. Annexed by the Ottomans in 784/1382, it was lost again during the disorders which followed Tīmūr’s invasion, and recaptured from the rebel Ḏj̲unavd [ q.v.] by Ḵh̲alīl Yak̲h̲s̲h̲ī B…

Pečewī

(665 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Woodhead, Christine
, Ibrāhīm (982- ca. 1060/1574-ca. 1649-50), Ottoman historian. Pečewī was born in 982/1574 in Pécs in southwestern Hungary, whence his epithet Pečewī (or, alternatively, Pečuylu, from the Croatian ). His family had a long tradition of Ottoman military service. Both his great-grandfather Ḳara Dāwūd and his grandfather D̲j̲aʿfer Beg served as alay begi in Bosnia; his father (name unknown) took part in campaigns in Bosnia, and in ʿlrāḳ during the 1530s (Pečewī, Taʾrīk̲h̲ , i, 87, 102-6, 436-7, ii, 433). Pečewī’s mother was a member of the Ṣoḳollu [ q.v.] family. At the age of 14, after…

Kenʿān Pas̲h̲a

(718 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Göyünç, Nejat
, also nicknamed Ṣari̊ (“pale-faced”) and Ṭopal (“Lame”), High Admiral ( Ḳapudān Pas̲h̲a , [ q.v.]) under the Ottoman Sultan Meḥemmed IV, d. 1069/1659. He originated from the northeastern shores of the Black Sea (Russian or Circassian?) and came as a slave into the service of Baḳi̊rd̲j̲i Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, Ottoman governor of Egypt. On the latter’s execution he was taken by Sulṭān Murād IV into the Palace and educated there. He was promoted to be Ag̲h̲a of the stirrup-holders ( Rikāb-dār ag̲h̲asi̊ ) (Chronicle of Wed̲j̲īhī, f. 91b of the Vienna MS.), became …

Riḍā

(230 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Schmidt, J.
, an Ottoman biographer of poets. Meḥmed Riḍā b. Meḥmed, called Zehir Mār-zāde, was born into a family living in Edirne. Of his life we know only that he was for a time, respectively, müderris with a salary of 40 aḳčes , nāʾib and müfti —he held this latter function at Uzun Köprü near Edirne—and that he died in his native town in 1082/1671-2. Besides a collection of poems ( Dīwān ) and a work with the title Ḳawāʿid-i fārisiyye (no manuscript of these works has yet been found), Riḍā wrote a Tad̲h̲kirat al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ , a biographical collection in which he dealt in al…

Pečewi

(702 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Woodhead, Christine
, Ibrāhīm (982-vers 1060/15 74-vers 1649-50), historien ottoman né à Pécs [ q.v.] en Hongrie du Sud-ouest, d’où son nom de Pečewī (ou alternativement de Pečuylu), du croate Sa famille avait une longue tradition de service militaire chez les Ottomans. Son arrière-grand-père Ḳara Dāwūd ainsi que son grand-père Ḏj̲aʿfar Beg servaient comme alay begi en Bosnie; son père (dont le nom est inconnu) prit part à des campagnes en Bosnie et en ʿIrāḳ dans les années 1530 (Pečewī, Taʾrīk̲h̲, I, 87, 102-6, 436-7; II, 433). La mère de Pečewī faisait partie de la famille Ṣoḳollu [ q. v.]. A quatorze ans, a…

Riḍā

(206 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Schmidt, J.
, Meḥmed Riḍā b. Meḥmed, appelé Zehir Mār-zāde, biographe de poètes d’époque ottomane, naquit dans une famille d’Edirne. De sa vie, nous savons seulement qu’il fut un temps müderris au traitement de 40 aḳčes, nāʾib et müftī — il occupa cette dernière fonction à Uzun Köprü, près d’Edirne — et qu’il mourut dans sa ville natale en 1082/1671-2. Outre un recueil de poèmes ( Dīwān) et un ouvrage intitulé Ḳawāʿid-i fārisiyye (aucun ms. de ces œuvres n’a encore été découvert), Riḍā écrivit une Tad̲h̲kirat al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ, recueil biographique dans lequel il traite par ordre alphabétique …

Aḳ Ḥiṣār

(536 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Babinger, Fr.
(turc: «château blanc»), nom de plusieurs villes. I. La plus connue est Aḳ Ḥiṣār, en Anatolie occidentale; dépendant autrefois du wilāyet ¶ d’Aydiʾn et, depuis 1921, de celui de Manisa, elle est située dans une plaine, à proximité de la rive gauche du Gördük (un sous-affluent du Gediz), à une altitude de 115 m. Connue dans l’antiquité et à l’époque byzantine sous le nom de Thyatira (voir Pauly-Wissowa, s.v.), elle doit son nom turc à la forteresse bâtie sur une colline voisine. Annexée par les Ottomans en 784/1382, elle fut reperdue durant les désordres qui suiv…
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