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(619 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town in Asia Minor, situated in the northern part of Cappadocia, to the south of the middle course of the Tozanli̊ Ṣu, the ancient Iris. The town is situated on both sides of a mountain valley opening to the north and between the town and the river there is a beautiful plain. In a northeastern direction, facing the river, lay in ancient times the well-known town of Comana Pontica, the name of which still survives in the village of Gümenek; the site of Toḳat was occupied by a fortress called Dazimon (on this identification cf. Ramsay, The Historical Geography of Asia Minor, London 1890, p. 329 sqq.…


(2,162 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(p.) or Ḳuhistān is the arabicised form of the Persian name Ḳūhistān meaning a mountainous country (derived from kūh, “mountain” with the suffix- istān) and corresponds to the Arabic designation al-Ḏj̲ibāl. As the Iranian plateau is very mountainous, we find many more or less extensive areas in it to which the name Ḳūhistān has been given, as Yāḳūt has already remarked (iv. 204). Many of these names have disappeared in course of time. Thus Ḳazwīnī (ed. Wüstenfeld, p. 228) says that the term Ḳūhistān is used for Media, which other geographers always call al Ḏj̲ibāl. In the S̲h̲āh-nāma of Fir…


(15,652 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(Khedive). The Persian word k̲h̲adīw or k̲h̲idīw meaning “lord” is one of the titles occasionally given to Muḥammadan rulers since the Middle Ages (cf. the xvith century Turkish historian ʿĀlī, Kunh al-Ak̲h̲bār, Constantinople, v. 17). This title was conferred in 1867 by the Ottoman Sulṭān ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz on Ismāʿīl Pas̲h̲a, the viceroy of Egypt. Though, since the firmān of 1841, the function of Pas̲h̲a of Egypt was already hereditary in the family of Muḥammad ʿAlī, Ismāʿīl desired a title indicating that his rank was higher than that of the other Ottom…


(764 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, town in Western Armenia near the southern bank of the Murād Ṣu (Arsanias), some 70 km. as the crow flies to the west of Ḵh̲ilāṭ. In pre-Muḥammadan times it was the principal town of the district of Taraun (Hübschmann, Idg. Forsch., xvi. 326; J.Saint-Martin, Mémoires Historiques et Géographiques sur l’Arménie, i., Paris 1818, p. 102). In Islāmic times the name Ṭarūn ¶ (as spelled by Yāḳūt, iv. 534) is sometimes used for the town itself as in Ṭabarī, iii. 1408 (cf. J. Markwart, Süd-Armenien und die Tigrisquellen, Vienna 1930, p. 354). The tradition of the Armenian historians conne…

Ḳara Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊

(630 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, leader of a serious rebellion in Asia Minor from 1599 to 1602. His proper name was ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm and he was chief of the corporation of Segbāns ( Segbān bölük bas̲h̲i̊). His followers consisted of Kurds, Turkomans and a large body of soldiers who had fled from the army in Hungary, chiefly on account of the Grand Vizier Čig̲h̲āla’s harsh and cruel treatment of them. They are therefore called Firārīs; another name is Ḏj̲alālīs; their rebellion is known as the Ḵh̲urūd̲j̲-i d̲j̲alāliyān. Ḳara Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊’s first act was the occupation of Ruhā or Urfa (= Edessa) in 1008 a. h. The former Beglerbe…

Ṣubḥī Muḥammad

(177 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Turkish historiographer. He was born at the beginning of the xviiith century (the date is unknown) as son of Beylikd̲j̲i Ḵh̲alīl Fehmī Efendi. He entered upon a long administrative career, beginning with the office of dīwān kātibi. Soon after, before 1150/ 1737, he was appointed waḳʿa-nuwīs as successor to S̲h̲ākir Ḥusein Bey and he combined this position with other functions till the end of the year 1156 (Feb. 1744) when he was appointed beylikd̲j̲i. The waḳʿa-mtwīslik was then given into the charge of Sulaimān ʿIzzī [q. v.]. Ṣubhī Efendi died in Ṣafar 1183 (June 1769). His Taʾrīk̲h̲ was…


(4,097 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the most important of the various Turkoman dynasties, which arose in Asia Minor after the break up of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire at the end of the viith (xiiith) century. They were for a time the most serious rivals of the Ottomans. The name goes back in the first place to the Turkoman chief Ḳaramān, who attained a certain degree of independence during the Mongol troubles in the middle of the viith (xiiith) century and was granted by the Sultan Rukn al-Dīn a territory, from which he himself had come, in Cilicia. His native district was then known as Ḳamar al-Dīn-Ili (no…

Ḳara Arslān

(877 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
ibn dāʾūd with the laḳab fak̲h̲r al-dīn, third Amīr of the line of the Ortoḳids [q. v.] of Ḥiṣn Kaifā and great-grandson of the founder of this dynasty. Statements differ regarding the year in which he succeeded his father Dāʾūd b. Suḳmān. According to Abū ’l-Farad̲j̲ Barhebraeus ( Chronicon, ed. Bedjan, Paris 1890, p. 305), Dāʾūd died in the Greek year 1455 (1143—44). The Arabic sources do not give the year; in any case Stanley Lane-Poole, who bases his view that Dāʾūd did not die till about 543 (1148) on a mistaken interpretation of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr ( Kāmil, xi. 73) ( Coins of the Urtuḳí Turkománs


(699 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the oldest and largest quarter of the Turkish Constantinople on the Asiatic side of the Bosporus, lying at the foot of the hill of Bulg̲h̲urlu, where the Asiatic coast advances farthest to the west, opposite the Tower of Leander (Ḳi̊z Ḳulesi). In ancient times the small town of Chrysopolis (already mentioned in Xenophon’s Anabasis, book vi., ch. vi. 38) existed on this site; it was then a suburb of the still older colony of Chalcedon (now Ḳāḍī Kiöy). Towards the end of the Byzantine Empire the name Scutari had come into use (cf. Phrantzes, ed. Bonn 1838, p. 111; ὅπου τὰ…

ʿOt̲h̲mān III

(291 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, twenty-fifth sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire and son of Muṣṭafā II, succeeded his brother Maḥmūd I on Dec. 14, 1754. He was born on Jan. 2, 1699 ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, i. 56) and had therefore reached an advanced age when he was called to the throne. No events of political importance took place in his reign. The period of peace which had begun with the peace of Belgrade in 1739 continued; at home only a series of seditious outbreaks in the frontier provinces indicated the weakness of the Empire. In the absence of any outst…

Tewfīḳ Pas̲h̲a

(896 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Ḵh̲edive of Egypt (1879—1892), was born on December 15, 1852 as the eldest son of the Ḵh̲edive Ismāʿīl Pas̲h̲a. He was educated in Egypt and began his political career at the age of 19 as president of the Council of State ( al-mad̲j̲lis al-k̲h̲uṣūṣī). On March 10, 1879, after Nubar Pas̲h̲a had resigned, he was appointed Prime Minister by his father. In his cabinet, as was the case in the former, an Englishman was Minister of Finance and a Frenchman Minister of Public Works. But already on April 9 of that year, Ismāʿīl, by a kind of “cou…

Murād V

(430 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Ottoman Sulṭān from May 31 till Sept. 7, 1876. He was born on Sept. 21, 1840 as son of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd and was deprived of all influence on public affairs during the reign of his elder brother ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, who had the plan of altering the succession in favour of his own descendants, so as to deprive Murād of his rights. Murād was called to the throne by the coup d’état of the recently established cabinet, of which Midḥat Pas̲h̲a [q. v.], Muḥammad Rus̲h̲dī and Ḥusain ʿAwnī were the le…

Was̲h̲mgīr b. Ziyār

(827 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Abū Ṭālib (and according to his coins Ẓahīr al-Dawla) or better Wus̲h̲mgīr, if the name means „catcher of quails” (cf. al-Masʿūdī, Murād̲j̲, ix. 30, note), second ruler of the Ziyārid dynasty, reigned 935—965. He only left his native land Ḏj̲īlān, after his brother Mardāwīd̲j̲ [q. v.] had come to power, and had lived until that time the primitive mountaineer life of his people (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, viii. 182). Under Mardāwīd̲j̲ he conquered Iṣfahān and drove from there ʿAlī b. Būye, who had taken that town when he was i…

Selīm III

(3,661 words)

Author(s): Krāmers, J. H.
, the twenty-eighth Sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, reigned from 1203 (1789) to 1222 (1807). He was born on Ḏj̲umādā I 26, 1175 (Dec. 24, 1761), a son of Sulṭān Muṣṭafā III and the Wālide Sulṭān Mihr-S̲h̲āh (d. 1805; see Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, i. 83) and succeeded on Rad̲j̲ab II, 1203 (Apr. 7, 1789), to his uncle ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd I [q. v.] who had died on that day. Selīm’s reign is characterised by disastrous wars against the European powers and revolts in the interior, showing the weakness of the Ottoman Empire, and at the same time by th…

Olčaitu K̲h̲udābanda

(703 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, eighth Īlk̲h̲ān of Persia, reigned from 1304 till 1317. He was, like his predecessor G̲h̲āzān, a son of Arg̲h̲ūn and a great-grandson of Hūlāgū. At his accession ¶ he was 24 years of age. In his youth he had been given the surname of Ḵh̲arbanda, for which different explanations are given (cf. the poem by Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn reproduced on p. 46 of E. G. Browne, A Literary History of Persia, iii. p. 46 sq. and Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, ii. 115), but E. Blochet, in his Introduction à l’histoire des Mongols (G. M. S., xii. 51), has explained the name as a Mongolian word, meaning “the third”. The Byzantin…


(176 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Arabic word which, like maḥall from the same root, originally means a place where one makes a halt. Maḥalla thus came to have the special meaning of a quarter of a town, a meaning which has also passed into Turkish (e. g. the Yeñi Maḥalle quarter in Constantinople), into Persian and Hindūstānī (where the popular pronunciation is muḥalla); the term formerly applied to a quarter of a town used to be dār (as in old Bag̲h̲dād). The maḥalla’s are often under the administration of a special official called muk̲h̲tār. In Egypt the word maḥalla is frequently found as the first element in the…

Selīm I

(4,293 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, ninth sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, known in history as Yawuz Sulṭān Selīm, reigned 918—926(=1512—1520). He was one of the sons of Bāyazīd II, born in 872 (= 1467/68) or 875 (= 1470/71) ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, i. 38). Towards the end of his father’s reign, he was governor of the sand̲j̲aḳ of Trebizond. Although his brother Aḥmed, older than he but younger than prince Ḳorḳud, had been designated his successor by Bāyazīd, Selīm also cherished designs on the throne, knowing that he had the support of the greater part of the army.…

Tell al-ʿAmarna

(360 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, site on the right bank of the Nile, opposite the little town of Mallawī, in the province of Minya. The distance between the Nile and the mountains (here called Ḏj̲abal al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Saʿīd) is about 3 miles, while to the north and the south the mountains come close to the river, leaving an area of about 5 miles in length. One of the villages situated here is called al-Tell (or al-Till); Tell al-ʿAmarna seems to be a “European concoction” (Flinders Pétrie) and is properly Tell al-ʿAmārina, from …

ʿOt̲h̲mān I

(1,888 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, very often called ʿOt̲h̲mān G̲h̲āzī, founder of the dynasty of Ottoman sulṭāns and the first in the traditional series of the members of the dynasty. We are only imperfectly acquainted with the life and personality of this founder of a great empire but we may conclude from the fact that his name ¶ has remained attached to the dynasty of the ʿOt̲h̲mān Og̲h̲ullari̊ or Āl-i ʿOt̲h̲mān and is later found in the description of the empire and its inhabitants as ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ or ʿOt̲h̲mānī, that behind the name of ʿOt̲h̲mān there lies a powerful personal…

Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Alayi̊

(791 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(t.), the “ceremony of the sword” also called taḳlīd al-saif or taḳlīd-i s̲h̲ems̲h̲īr. It was the ceremony of investiture of the Ottoman Sulṭāns, which took the place of coronation. The ceremony generally took place shortly after the baiʿat, or homage to the new Sulṭān. The latter, leaving his palace went by barge with great pomp to the faubourg of Aiyūb. Here he disembarked and went to the türbe of Abū Aiyūb al-Anṣārī [q. v.], accompanied by the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām, the Ḳāḍī ʿAsker, the Grand Vizier, the Naḳīb al-As̲h̲rāf and a li…
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