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(539 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a sect in Northern Mesopotamia to the south of Moṣul. This sect is also a kind of tribe called Sarlīs and lives in six villages, four of which lie on the right bank and two on thé left of the Great Zāb, not far from its junction with the Tigris. The principal village, where the chief lives, is called Warsak, and lies on the right bank; the largest village on the left bank is Sefīye. The Sarīls, like the other sects found in Mesopotamia (Yazīdīs, S̲h̲abaks, Bād̲j̲ūrān), are very uncommunicative with regard to their belief and religious practices, so that the o…

Kūt al-ʿAmāra

(487 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a place in al-ʿIrāḳ, on the left bank of the Tigris, between Bag̲h̲dād and ʿAmāra, 100 miles S. E. of Bag̲h̲dād as the crow flies. Kūt is the Hindustānī word koṭ meaning “fortress” found in other place-names in al-ʿIrāḳ, like Kūt al-Muʿammir; Kūt al-ʿAmāra is often simply called Kūt. Kūt lies opposite the mouth of the S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Ḥaiy, also called al-G̲h̲arrāf, the old canal connecting the Tigris with the Euphrates, which has several junctions with the Euphrates, e. g. at Nāṣirīya and Sūḳ al-S̲h̲uyūk̲h̲. The plains to the no…


(1,050 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(popular pronunciation Tikrīt, cf. Yāḳūt), a town on the right bank of the Tigris to the north of Sāmarrā (according to Streck the distance is a day’s journey) and at the foot of the range of the Ḏj̲abal Ḥamrīn. Geographically this is the northern frontier district of the ʿIrāḳ. The land is still somewhat undulating; the old town was built on a group of hills, on one of which beside the river, stands the modern town. To the north is a sandstone cliff 200 feet above the level of the river, on which…


(526 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(also Cavalla), a seaport on the Aegean Sea, opposite the island of Thasos on the boundary between Macedonia and Thrace. In ancient times Neapolis lay here, the port of the town of Philippi, just as Ḳawāla is now the harbour for the district of Drama. The town is partly built on a promontory which is still surrounded by walls which date from the middle ages; there is a harbour on both sides. An aqueduct has also survived from the middle ages. Ḳawāla was captured by the Turks from the Byzantines…


(536 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Turkish corsair and admiral in the xvith century. He was born in a village of Calabria called Licastelli, about 1500, as, at the time of his death in 1587, he is said to have been over ninety years old. Ochialy is the name by which he is known in Italian sources of the time; the Turkish sources call him Ulud̲j̲ ʿAlī, which name probably was given to him in Northern Africa. It may be the Arabic plural ʿulūd̲j̲ (from ʿild̲j̲), denoting his foreign descent (Hammer, G.O. R.2, ii. 481,751 gives conflicting statements). After being a captured galley slave, he became a Muḥammadan and e…


(666 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
was in the middle ages a large town in the canal region of the Tigris Delta, east of al-Baṣra. It was situated on the right bank of the Tigris and on the north side of the large canal called Nahr al-Obolla, which was the main waterway from al-Baṣra in a southeastern direction to the Tigris and further to ʿAbbādān and the sea. The length of this canal is generally given as four farsak̲h̲s or two barīds (al-Maḳdisī). Al-Obolla can be identified with ’Απολόγου ’Εμπόριον, mentioned in the Periplus Maris Erythraei (Geogr. Graeci Minores, i. 285) as lying near the coast. In a story told by al-Masʿūdī ( Mur…


(1,647 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town and seaport on the north coast of Asia Minor between the mouths of the Saḳariya [q. v.] and the Ḳi̊zi̊l I̊rmaḳ [q. v.] and about equidistant from the ports of Ṣamsūn and Ineboli, 75 miles N. E. of Ḳasṭamūnī [q. v.]. It is the celebrated Σινώπη of the ancients and has retained this name. Muḥammadan authors know it by the name of Sanūb (Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, p. 392 and Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī, Masālik al-Abṣār, N.E., xiii. 361), Ṣanūb (Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, ii. 348), Sināb (Anon. Giese, p. 34; Urud̲j̲ Beg, ed. Babinger, p. 73), Sīnūb (ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳ Pas̲h̲a Zāde, and, following him, a…

K̲h̲alīl Pas̲h̲a

(1,616 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, name of three Turkish Grand Viziers. 1) Čendereli Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a in the reign of Murād II, vide čendereli. 2) Ḳaiṣarīyeli Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a, Grand Vizier under Aḥmad I and Murād IV. He was an Armenian by birth, born in a village called Ruswān in the neighbourhood of Ḳaiṣarīya (Münad̲j̲d̲j̲im Bas̲h̲i̊; the statement of the Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, ii. 286, that he came from Marʿas̲h̲ is incorrect). The date of his birth is not given but must be about 1560. Having been educated at court as Ič Og̲h̲lan, he entered the corps of the falconers and became dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ bas̲h̲i̊, in which capacit…

Kemāl Reʾīs

(476 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Turkish corsair and seacaptain during the reign of Bāyazīd II. In his youth he had been given as a present to the Sulṭān by the Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a Sinān, after which he was brought up as a page at the court. He began his career as a chief of ʿazabs, then took to the Mediterranean and captured in 892/1487 a Maltese Prince ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, iv., 78). In 896/1490, by order of Bāyazīd, he raided the Spanish coast in order to support the last Nasrid of Granada Mulay Ḥasan, who, in his critical situation had invoked the Sulṭān’s aid. This expedition is only recorded by Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa in his Taḳw…

San Stefano

(505 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, in Turkish Aya Stefanos, a little town on the sea of Marmora, twelve miles west of Constantinople. It probably takes its name from an old church (according to von Hammer) but it is not certain whether San Stefano is the ancient Hagios Stephanos, which was one of the places which Meḥemmed the Conqueror occupied before the investment of Constantinople (Ducas, ed. Bekker, Bonn 1834, p. 258, speaks of the πύργια τοῦ άγίου ΣτεΦάνου σὺν πολέμῳ). The Crusaders landed in its neighbourhood on June 23, …


(152 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a site in ʿIrāḳ, consisting of a number of artificial mounds, covering an extent of 4—5 miles. It is situated on the eastern side of the S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Ḥaiy, which links the Tigris to the Euphrates, at 8—10 hours from Nāṣirīya. Here the French consul in Baṣra, Ernest de Sarzec, discovered in 1877 archæological remains. Under his guidance excavations were begun in 1880, as a result of which the site proved to be that of the Sumerian town of Lagas̲h̲ or Sirpurla. The greater part of the material exc…

K̲h̲usraw Pas̲h̲a

(2,289 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of two Turkish grandviziers. 1. The Bosnian Ḵh̲usraw Pas̲h̲a, grandvizier under Murād IV. Brought up in the imperial palace, he held the offices of Siliḥdār and of Ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries (from 1033/1624) and later in Rad̲j̲ab 1036 (March—April 1627) he received the rank of Wezīr-i Ḳubbe-nis̲h̲in. In November 1627 after the failure of the grand vizier Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a [q. v.] to subdue the rebel Abāza Pas̲h̲a at Erzerūm, a council called by the Sulṭān decided, on the proposal of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām Yaḥyā Efendi, to depose Ḵh̲al…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Tiryākī

(293 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier under Maḥmūd I, was born about 1680 at Constantinople. His father was a Janissary. He began his career as a scribe and rose to important posts; in 1739 he played a role in the peace negotiations at Belgrad with Austria. He had been k i aya of the grand vizierate, viz. minister of the interior, when the sulṭān, under influence of his new ḳi̊zlar ag̲h̲asi̊, the so-called Bes̲h̲īr the Younger, dismissed his predecessor Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a and called him to the grand vizierate (August 1746). The twelve months of his period of office were not filled with wa…

Luṭf ʿAlī Beg

(259 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
Ād̲h̲ar, a Persian poet and biographer of the xviiith century. He was born in Iṣfahān on the 20th Rabīʿ I, 1123 (June 7, 1711) and spent his youth at Ḳūm and later at S̲h̲īrāz, where his father lived while governor of Lāristān and the coast of Fārs under Nādir S̲h̲āh. After the death of his father, he made the pilgrimage to Mecca and travelled in Persia, finally settling in Iṣfahān in the service of Nādir’s successors. He latterly adopted a life of seclusion and put himself under the spiritual direction of Mīr Saiyid ʿAlī Mus̲h̲tāḳ. He died in 1781. Luṭf ʿAlī Beg is best known for the collect…

Murād II

(1,360 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, sixth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born in 806 (1403—1404) and ascended the throne in May 1421, when he arrived in Adrianople some days after his father Muḥammed I’s death; his decease had been kept secret on the advice of the vizier ʿIwaḍ Pas̲h̲a until the new sulṭān’s arrival. As crown prince he had resided at Mag̲h̲nisa, and he had taken part in the suppression of the revolt of Simawna Og̲h̲lu Badr al-Dīn. Immediately after his accession he had to face the pretender known in Turkish his…

Sulṭān Walad

(815 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, eldest son of Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī and his second successor as head of the Mawlawī order, was born in Lāranda [cf. ḳaramān] in 623 (1226) before Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn’s family had settled in Ḳonya. He was called after Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn’s father, Bahāʾ al-Dīn Walad, known as Sulṭān al-ʿUlamāʾ. He was brought up among the Ṣūfīs who surrounded his father and seems to have been particularly intimate with S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Tabrīzī, while his younger brother Čelebi ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn was rather hostile to the latter’s influence. Sulṭān Wala…

Muḥammad ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(3,495 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(in European sources often Mehemed Ali or Mehemet Ali) was the well-known powerful viceroy of Egypt during the years 1805-1849 (which period comprises the entire reign of Sulṭān Maḥmūd II q. v.); and the founder of the khedivial, later royal dynasty of Egypt. Seen in the light of history his life-work fully entitles him to the epithet of “the Founder of Modern Egypt”. Muḥammad ʿAlī was born in 1769, possibly of Albanian extraction, in the town of Ḳawāla [q. v.] in Macedonia; he was engaged in the tobacco trade until he joined, as biñ bas̲h̲i in a corps of Albanian troops, the Turkish arm…


(12,725 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
The present article is intended to deal with the Muḥammadan geographical literature and, as such, is an attempt to fill a gap that was described as a serious omission in the Encyclopaedia by W. Barthold in his introduction to the facsimile edition of Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam (Leningrad 1930, p. 7). The word d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfiyā (sometimes vocalised d̲j̲ag̲h̲rāfiyā) itself only came rather late to denote ¶ the science of geography. With the older geographical authors it is mostly used for the well-known geographical work of Ptolemy (cf. Fihrist, p. 268) and for that of Marinus of Tyre (cf. al-Masʿūdī, Tan…


(214 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, in the terminology of Turkish mystics, has two meanings: 1. a member of a ṭarīḳa, who accompanies a neophyte of the order during his initiation, as a spiritual interpreter. When a murīd is initiated in the Bektās̲h̲ī ṭarīḳa, he is led by two terd̲j̲umāns into the presence of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ and eleven other persons representing the eleven imāms. During the ceremony the terd̲j̲umāns guide him and say for him the formulas he has to recite (cf. J. P. Brown, The Darvishes or OrientalSpiritualism, ed. H. A. Rose, London 1927, p. 206 sqq.). The function of these terd̲j̲umāns is analogous to…

Muḥammad IV

(968 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, nineteenth Sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, was born on December 30, 1641 and was placed on the throne on August 8, 1648, after the deposition, soon followed by the execution, of his father Sulṭān Ibrāhīm. The power in the slate was at that time divided between the court, where the old wālide Kösem [q. v.] and Sulṭān Muḥammad’s mother, the wālide Tark̲h̲ān, held the reins, and the rebellious soldiery of the Janissaries and the Sipāhīs. The lack of stability in the government at this time is shown by the fact, that, until the nomination of the grand vizier …
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