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(5,340 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a Persian province and of its present capital. The name of the town was derived later from that of the province. The usual pronunciation is Kirmān, although, according to the tradition of Arab scholarship (Yāḳūt, iv. 263) the form Karman is more correct; the name, in any case, goes back to the form Carmania, which is found in Strabo (xv. 2, 14), and which in its turn is said to be derived from the name of an ancient capital, Carmana (Ptolemy, Geography, vi. 8; Ammianus Marcellinus, xxiii. 6, 48). According to Marquart ¶ ( Ērānšahr, p. 30) the name Carmania replaced that of Yūti…

Muṣṭafā II

(872 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the twenty-second Ottoman sulṭān, was a son of Muḥammad IV. Born in 1664, he succeeded to his uncle Aḥmad II on February 6, 1695, at a time when the empire was at war with Austria, Poland, Russia und Venice. The new sulṭān in a remarkable k̲h̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲erīf proclaimed a Holy War and carried out, against the decision of the Dīwān, his desire to take part in the campaign against Austria. Before his departure a mutiny of the Janissaries had cost the grand vizier Defterdār ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a his life (April 24, 1693) and the campaign was led by the new grand viz…


(857 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Bannāʾ al-S̲h̲aʾmī al-Muḳaddasī al-maʿrūf bi ’l-Bas̲h̲s̲h̲ārī as he is called on the first page of the Berlin manuscript (Cat. Ahlwardt, N°. 6034), is the author of the most original and at the same time one of the most valuable geographical treatises in Arabic literature. The name-form al-Muḳaddasī, denoting his origin from Jerusalem, goes back to Sprenger, who brought the Berlin manuscript from India and made this author first known in Europe (A. Sprenger, Die Post-und Reiserouten des Orients, Leipzig 1864, p. xviii.…

Muḥammad III

(651 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, thirteenth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born on May 16,1567, the son of Murād III and the Venetian lady Baffa, and reigned from January 27, 1593 until his death, December 22, 1603. He was the last sulṭān who, as crown prince, had resided as governor in Mag̲h̲nisa. During his short reign he does not seem to have exercised any great influence on the policy of the Empire, being mostly under the influence of his mother who, as wālide sulṭān, intervened in affairs of state through her protégés within and without the palace. Much against her will but on the insistence of a …

Ḳod̲j̲a Ili

(406 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a sand̲j̲aḳ in the old territorial division of the Ottoman empire. This sand̲j̲aḳ covered the north-west part of Bithynia, including the whole of the shore of the Gulf of Nicomedia. In the north it was bounded by the Black Sea, in the east by the Bosphorus and the Gulf of Nicomedia, in the south by the sand̲j̲aḳ of Brusa and in the east by that of Boli; on this side the Saḳaria forms the natural boundary but in the administrative division the eastern bank of this river was included in the sand̲j̲aḳ. The name Ḳod̲j̲a Hi is connected with Aḳče Ḳod̲j̲a, the famous g̲h̲āzī and companion-in-…


(684 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the part of the range of hills west of the Nile, which lies immediately to the east of Cairo and from which the mountains take a north-easterly direction, bordering the Nile delta to the south-east. It reaches a height of about 600 feet and consists, as does the greater part of the north African mountains, of limestome (cf. Description de l’Egypte, Etat moderne, Paris 1822, ii/ii. 751). The name Muḳaṭṭam (the Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs records also the popular form al-Muḳaṭṭab) does not go back to a pre-Muḥammadan nomenclature, nor is it considered, in spite of its correct Ar…


(1,694 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town lying in a plain among the mountain ranges that border the Iranian plateau on the south-west, now the capital of a Persian province between Kurdistān on the north and Luristān on the south. The geographical position of the town is approximately 34° 20′ North Lat. and 47° East Long.; the plain is traversed by the Ḳara Ṣu which runs to the north-east of the town in a south-easterly direction, joining the river Gāmāsiyāb (formerly the Gāwmāsā Rūd) farther south; the latter is a tributary of the Kerk̲h̲a [q.v.] and the most important water-course of the province. It was probably in this …

Ḳoč Ḥiṣār

(437 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of several places in Asia Minor. The meaning — if it is not ¶ simply a corruption of Ḳod̲j̲a Ḥiṣār — is “castle of the ram” and it may be compared with proper names like Ḳoyun Ḥiṣār, Toḳlu Ḥiṣār, Keči Ḥiṣār. 1. Ḳoč Ḥiṣār in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Kang̲h̲ri is a little town on the Dewrek Cai, twenty-five miles north of the town of Kang̲h̲ri. It is on the high road from Constantinople to Boli, Amasia and Erzerūm, between Ḳarad̲j̲a Wīrān and Ṭosia. According to Ewliyā Čelebi, this Ḳoč Ḥiṣār was captured by ʿOt̲h̲mān in 708 (1308) and comp…

Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a Lala

(654 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a famous military commander in the Ottoman history of the xvith century. The date of his birth is not given. He was a native of Ṣoḳol, the ¶ same Bosnian locality from which came the grand vizier Ṣoḳolli [q. v.], and began his service in the imperial serāy. He rose in rank under the grand vizier Aḥmad (1553—1555), but was not in favour with the letter’s successor Rustam Pas̲h̲a, who made him in 1556 lālā to prince Selīm with the object of ruining him. The outcome of this nomination was the contrary of what was expected; Muṣṭafā became the chief originator of the intr…


(901 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, is the Italian form of the name of the Greek town Naupactos which the Turks call Ine Bak̲h̲ti̊. This is how the Turkish form is transcribed, e. g. by Leunclavius ( Annales Turcici, p. 35) while von Hammer ( G. O. R., iii. 318) transcribes it as Aina Bak̲h̲ti̊, which he translates ¶ “Spiegelglück”; in view of the Greek form however it is very probable that the Turks originally pronounced it Ine Bak̲h̲ti̊. The town is situated in the ancient Locris, north of the strait which leads from the Ionian Sea towards the Gulf of Corinth, known since the middle ages as the Gulf of Lepanto. After forming from t…

Sulaimān I

(4,968 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the tenth and the greatest of the Ottoman Sulṭāns, reigned from 1520 to 1566. The Turks call him Ḳānūnī Sulṭān Sulaimān and western authors Soliman the Magnificent. Some Western historians like Leunclavius and, more recently, Jorga call him Sulaimān II, the first Sulaimān having been, according to them, the son of Bāyazīd I who lived at Adrianople. In Turkey however the opinion that Sulaimān the Legislator is the first of the name has prevailed; he is always called Sulaimān Ḵh̲ān Awwal and the ten s̲h̲erfe of the four minarets of the Sulaimānīya mosque signify, according to the Ḥadīḳat al-…

Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a

(678 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Viceroy (Ḵh̲edive) of Egypt from 1854 to 1863. Muḥammad Saʿīd, youngest son of Muḥammad ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā, was born in 1822. His father had a very high opinion of this, his fourth, son whom he sent when only 19 to Constantinople to conduct negotiations regarding the tribute to be paid by Egypt. Saʿīd, who was francophil, was not on good terms with his nephew and predecessor, ʿAbbās I [q.v.]. The latter had done everything possible to induce the Porte to alter the law of succession formulated by the Sulṭān’s firmān in favour of Muḥammad ʿAlī and to s…


(1,245 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, turkicised form of the Arabic tard̲j̲amān (cf. Muḥammad Ḥafīd, al-G̲h̲alaṭāt al-mas̲h̲hūra, p. 110) meaning an interpreter. The word is of Aramaic origin and early entered the Arabic language. Interpreters must have always played an important part in the commercial and diplomatical relations of Islāmic states with foreign peoples, but their activity begins to enter into clearer historical light only in the vith (xiith) century; from that time date the earliest known treaties between Christian towns or states and Muslim rulers of the countries around the M…


(2,473 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the town of Salonika in Macedonia, situated at the foot of the Gulf of Salonika, to the east of the mouth of the Wardar and at the foot of a hill which commands it on the north-east. It is the ancient Greek town of Θεσσαλονίκη, founded on the site of Therma by Cassander, who gave the new city the name of his wife, the sister of Alexander the Great (Strabo, VII, vii. 4). Towards the eleventh century, the popular form Σαλονίκιον appears ( Chronicle of the Morea) on which is based the form Ṣalūnīḳ or Ṣalūnīḳ in al-Idrīsī, the Bulgarian form Solun, the western form Salonika and fina…

Mūsā Čelebi

(509 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, one of the younger sons of the Ottoman sulṭān Bāyazīd I. According to some sources he was younger than his brother Muḥammad I [q. v.], who is generally considered as the youngest. Mūsā had been taken prisoner in the battle of Angora (1402) and was left by Tīmūr in custody with the Germiyān Og̲h̲lū Yaʿḳūb Beg. The latter sent him afterwards to his brother Muḥammad in Amasia, and for some time he became Muḥammad’s helper in the reestablishment of Ottoman power in Anatolia; he is even said to hav…

Sulṭān Öñü

(515 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, is the ancient name of the part of Phrygia in Asia Minor, situated to the N.W. of Eski S̲h̲ehir, which was the birthplace of the Ottoman power. The name existed already in the time of the Seld̲j̲ūḳs, for it is mentioned in the Chronicle of Ibn Bībī (Houtsma, Recueil de textes relatifs a l’histoire des Seldjoucides, iii. 217) as a frontier district of the Seld̲j̲ūḳ empire, the protection of which was trusted to frontier warders ( uč begleri) such as Ertog̲h̲rul. Among the early Ottoman historians Nes̲h̲rī (ed. Nöldeke, Z.D.M.G., xiii. 190) mentions Sulṭān Öñü as the place where Erto…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Rūm

(586 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, vizier and, according to some sources, grand vizier under Sulṭān Muḥammad II. As his surname indicates he was a Greek renegade. After having had an education in the palace he was destined for a military career and became at one time beylerbey. The dates of his birth and of his military advancements are not recorded. He had taken part in the final campaign of Muḥammad II against Ḳaramān in 1466 and was charged by the sulṭān with the transfer of parts of the population of the conquered regions to Constantinople, instead of the grand viz…


(1,485 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, surnamed “Ṭawīl”, “the Tall”, one of the most famous of Turkish grand viziers. He was born in the early years of the xvth century in the village of Sokol in Bosnia. His family was called Sokolewitch, of which Ṣoḳolli is the Turkish form. According to a panegyrical biography written about 1570 entitled Ḏj̲awāhir al-Manāḳib (cf. T. O. E. M., N°. 29, p. 257 sqq,), which is regarded as the best authority for the youth of Ṣoḳolli, Sokol means “falcon’s nest”. He was the eldest son and was taken from his parents under the dews̲h̲irme in the early years of Sulaimān I’s reign. …

Murād IV

(1,177 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, fifth son of sulṭān Aḥmad I, and seventeenth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born 28th Ḏj̲umādā I 1021 (July 27, 1612) and called to the throne as a result of the mutiny of the Janissaries and Sipāhīs, which had forced Muṣṭafā I to abdicate, on September 11, 1623. When the lives of Murād and his brothers were in danger, they had been hidden by Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a. But even after his enthronement Murād IV’s position was far from strong. The turbulent and continuously mutinying Janissaries and Sipāhīs were the rea…


(959 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, name of several princes belonging to the Ottoman dynasty: 1. Muṣṭafā Čelebi, eldest son of Bāyazīd I; the date of his birth is not recorded. He disappeared in the battle of Angora (July 1402). This Muṣṭafā is the first Ottoman prince to bear this name, which, like such other names as Bāyazīd and Murād, originated in mystical circles in Asia Minor in the xivth century. According to the Byzantine sources, this Muṣṭafā is the same as the person called by the majority of the Turkish sources: Dözme Muṣṭafā, who came forward in 1419 as pretender to the Ottoman throne against Muḥammad …
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