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Kay Kāʾūs

(471 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, mythical second king of the line of Kayānids [ q.v.] whose name contains twice over the royal title kay (Kay Ūs> Kāʾūs). His history has been delineated by A. Christensen from the Iranian religious tradition and from the national tradition echoed by the later Muslim historians ( Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, 73-90, 108-14). This Islamic historical tradition makes him the son of Kay Abīwēh > Abīh (except for Balʿamī, Firdawsī and al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, who make him the son of Kay Kubād [ q.v.]). He was a warrior-king who, according to Firdawsī, led a campaign into Māzandarān, whi…


(244 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Āzerī Turkish “Red River”), the ancient Amardus, a river which flows through Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲an and enters the Caspian Sea forty miles east of Sefīd-Rūd, “White River”, at its junction with the river S̲h̲āh-Rūd at Mend̲j̲il. Its source lies in the province of Ārdilān, and it begins by crossing ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī to the north; its right-bank tributary is the Zand̲j̲ān, on the left it receives the Ḳara-göl at Miyāne, then it runs along the southern slopes of Elburz, describing a great arc 125 miles…

ʿAmīd al-Dīn al-Abzārī

(194 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
al-anṣāri , asʿad b. naṣr , minister and poet, hailing from Abzār, south of S̲h̲īrāz. He was in the service of Saʿd b. Zangī, atabeg of Fārs; was sent by his master as an ambassador to Muḥammad Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh, refused the offers which were made to him, succeeded Rukn al-Dīn Salāḥ Kirmānī as minister and held his position until the death of Saʿd. Saʿd’s son and successor, Abū Bakr, had him arrested on the charge of having held a correspondence with the ruler of Ḵh̲wārizm and of having acted as a spy for him. He was imprisoned in the fortress of Us̲h̲kunwān, near Iṣṭak̲h̲r and …


(378 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t. “Red River”), the ancient Halys (῞Αλυς) or Alys(῎Αλυς), the largest river in Asia Minor. It rises in the mountains which separate the wilāyet of Sīwās from that of Erzerūm, waters the towns of Zarra (4,530 feet high) and Sīwās (4,160 feet high), then enters the province of Anḳara where it meets the mountain of Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲ and the Ḳod̲j̲a Dāg̲h̲ range which force it to make an immense detour of over 160 miles. Its course is at first southeast, then it turns northwards, and finally it reaches t…


(224 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Gīlān-s̲h̲āh , ispahbad of Ṭabaristān, known as the Great ( buzurg ) and the Virtuous ( d̲h̲u ’l-manāḳib ), son of Dābūya, conquered Māzandarān and restored peace to the frontiers. When defeated by the Daylamīs in their revolt, he fled to Āmul and entrenched himself in the castle of Fīrūzābād; he saved himself by the ruse of making his besiegers believe that he had enormous stocks of bread. He gave asylum to the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs when they were being pursued by al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, but fought aga…


(112 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.), charm, incantation; for etymology and usage in old Persian, see Salemann, in Gr.I.Ph . i/1, 304, and especially H. W. Bailey, in BSOAS, 1933-5, 283 ff. This word is now used in Persia to designate especially a charm against the biting of poisonous animals; certain darwīs̲h̲es who pretend to have the power to charm serpents, scorpions etc., will, for some gratuity, communicate their invulnerability to other persons. Often it is one part of the body which is so protected, as for instance the right or the left hand, and it is with this that the animals of this kind must be seized (Polak, Persie…


(270 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian word denoting an oval bowl of metal, wood or coconut (calabash), worn suspended by a chain from the shoulder, in which the dervishes put the alms they receive and the food which is given them. The etymology of this word is obscure; a popular one is given by the Persians: kas̲h̲ “draw” (imperative) and kūl “shoulder”, “what one draws over the shoulder”; but as we find a form k̲h̲ačkūl attested in the older poets (Anwārī, Sayf Isfarangī), this explanation can hardly be accepted. The dictionaries give as the first sense “beggar” and t…

Köprü Ḥiṣāri̊

(120 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
“fortress of the bridge”, a village in the Ottoman province of K̲h̲udāwendigār [ q.v.] in northwestern Anatolia, and situated on the Čürük Ṣū river near Yeñis̲h̲ehir. It owes its historical fame to its being the site of a Byzantine fortress taken in 688/1289 by ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Ertog̲h̲rul, chief of the ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ group of Türkmens based on Eskis̲h̲ehir, after the previous capture of Biled̲j̲ik and during the course of the extension of Ottoman influence within the province towards Bursa [ q.v.]; cf. H. A. Gibbons, The foundation of the Ottoman empire, Oxford 1916, 32-3. (Cl. Huart) Bibliogr…


(205 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Kamāl al-Dīn, the most famous of Persian miniature painters, born in Herāt, a pupil of Pīr Saiyid Aḥmad of Tabrīz and favourite of the Tīmūrid Ḥusain-i Bāiḳarā and the Ṣafawī S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl. Bāber ( Memoirs, i. 412) praises his delicate talent but criticises him for making the lines of the chin too thick on beardless faces. He was still alive when Ḵh̲ōndemīr completed his Ḥabīb al-Siyar (930= 1524). Among the manuscripts illustrated by him may be mentioned a Tīmūr-Nāmah written by Sulṭān ʿAlī Mas̲h̲hadī, which belonged to the library of the Great Mog̲h̲ul Humāyūn, when i…


(144 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Edremīd, the ancient Adramyttium), a town in Asia Minor, capital of a ḳaza in the province of Ḵh̲udāwendigiār (Brusa), four kilometres (about 2½ miles) distant from the ¶ sea; 6200 inhab., of whom 4960 Mussulmans and 1240 Orthodox Greeks; preparation of olive oil and wine; thermal sulpho-ferrugineous springs in the village of Frenk. Commerce is carried on through the harbor of Akčei, 10 kilometres (a little more than 6 miles) distant from the town, with which it is connected by an alley of gigantic olive trees. — The ḳaz…


(80 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(a.), “dust”, an exceedingly fine kind of writing, the lines of which are finer than hairs and which requires to be read with the aid of a glass. It may be used in any of the various calligraphies. — It is also the name of a kind of decimal figures, which are very similar to the Hindu-Arabic numerals. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Cl. Huart, Calligraphes et Miniaturistes, p. 53 S. de Sacy, Grammaire Arabe 2, i. 91 and Pl. viii.


(88 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Osmanli-Turkish word which denotes the two great Musulman festivals: Küčük-bairam “the little festival”, also called S̲h̲ekerbairam “feast of sweets” on account of the custom of making presents of sweetmeats then, is the festival on the breaking of the fast ( ʿīd al-fiṭr) which lasts three days. The böyük-bairam, “the great festival”, usually called ḳurbān-bairam, “feast of the sacrifice”, is the ʿīd al-aḍḥā which lasts four days. A rikiāb-i humāyūn, “official reception”, is held at the Imperial Palace on each of these two festivals. (Cl. Huart)


(148 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian stylist, son of Mathurādās Kanbū of Multān; was for many years muns̲h̲ī (secretary) to Nawwāb lʿtibār-Ḵh̲ān, a eunuch in the service of the Mog̲h̲ul - emperor Ḏj̲ahāngīr and was then appointed ṣubadār (governor of Akbarābād (Agra) (1031 = 1622). He is the author of a collection of letters ( ins̲h̲āʾ), divided into seven sections, which bears his name and contains model letters as well as official documents (ed. with English transl. by Francis Balfour, Calcutta 1781, 21804, reprinted 1831; lith. Lahore 1869). The work was used by the English authorities as a mod…

Ṣārī ʿAbd Allāh Efendi

(267 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Othman poet and man of letters, was the son of Saiyid Muḥammad, a prince of the Mag̲h̲rib who had fled to Constantinople in the reign of Sulṭān Aḥmad I, and had married the daughter of Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, brother of the Grand Vizier Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a. He was brought up by the latter, who had entrusted his education to S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Mahmūd of Scutari, accompanied him as tad̲h̲kirèd̲j̲i (“editor”) when during his second vizierate he was given the command of the troops in the Persian campaign, was appointed raʾīs al-kuttāb in 1037 (1627/28) in place of Muḥammad Efendi who had just died an…


(291 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.), “land of roses, rose-garden, the name of a celebrated didactic work, a mixture of prose and verse, by the Persian poet Saʿdī of S̲h̲īrāz, consisting of a preface, eight chapters (the lives and doings of kings, manners and customs of the derwīs̲h̲es, frugality, advantages of silence,, love and youth, infirmity and old age, importance of education and rules of conduct) and an epilogue. A number of anecdotes interwoven give us information on the personal experiences of the poet. The Gulistān was completed in 656 (1258), one year after the Bostān; it bears a dedication to the Atābe…

Abū Kālīd̲j̲ār

(1,035 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
al-Marzbān b. Sulṭān al-Dawla, a Būyide, had been appointed by his father as governor of al-Ahwāz in 412 (1021). On the death of the latter (415 = 1024) he was called to S̲h̲īrāz to succeed him, but he was forestalled by his paternal uncle Abu ’l-Fawāris b. Bahāʾ al-Dawla, governor of Kirmān, with the help of the Turkish guard, which preferred him. Abū Kālīd̲j̲ār gathered some troops, who defeated his uncle’s army and he entered S̲h̲īrāz, but he could not hold his own there because of the hostility…


(117 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p. bō-stān, “place of perfumes”), properly a “garden of sweet-smelling flowers”, also means “orchard”. As a loanword it appears in Turkish with the meaning of “vegetable-garden”, in which melons, water-melons and vegetables are grown; in Arabic (plur. basātīn) its meaning varies in different districts; in Bairūt, for example, bostān means a piece of ground (Cuche) planted with mulberry trees and surrounded by a hedge, in Algeria it means also “cypress” (Beaussier). — Bostān is also the title of a Persian didactic poem by Saʿdī, English translation by Forbes Falconer ( Selections, Lo…


(270 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Abulustain) is the capital of a ḳaza in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Marʿas̲h̲ (wilāyet of Aleppo), on the river Ḏj̲aiḥān (Pyramus) at the foot of the Kurd Dāg̲h̲, at an elevation of 3600 ft. It numbers 6500 inhabitants, of whom 3546 are Moslems and 2954 Christians. The town is surrounded by woods and gardens, and a great many ruins of castles from the time of the little-Armenian kings are scattered about the environs. There are 10 mosques and 1085 houses. The people earn a livelihood mainly by agriculture…


(198 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian historian, properly Waṣṣāf al-Ḥaḍrat “panegyrist of the court”, the name by which S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAbd Allāh b. Faḍl Allāh of S̲h̲īrāz is known. Employed as a taxcollector under the Mongols, he became the protégé of the minister and historian Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, who presented him to Ūld̲j̲āitū (712 = 1312), when the Īlk̲h̲ān was in Sulṭānīya. His history Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Waṣṣāf is the continuation of the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ḏj̲ahān-gus̲h̲ā of ʿAṭā Malik Ḏj̲uwainī; it is called Tad̲j̲ziyat al-Amṣār wa-Tazd̲j̲iyat al-Aʿṣār “division of the towns and propulsion of the centuries” …


(587 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Hebr. S̲h̲ēt̲h̲), Seth, the third son of Adam and Eve ( Gen., iv. 25, 26 and v. 3—8) was born when his father was 130 years of age, five years after the murder of Abel. When Adam died, he made him his heir and executor of his will. He taught him the hours of the day and of the night, told him of the Flood to come and taught him to worship the divinity in retirement at each hour of the day. It is to him that we trace the genealogy of mankind, since Abel did not leave any heirs and Cain’s heirs were lost in the Flood. It is said that he lived at Mecca performing the rites of p…
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