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(774 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, also nus̲h̲ādir , naws̲h̲ādir , Sanskrit navasadara , Chin, nao-s̲h̲a , sal-ammoniac. The etymology of the word is uncertain; perhaps it comes from the Pahlavi anōs̲h̲-ādar “immortal fire” as we find the form anūs̲h̲ād̲h̲ur in Syriac. The oldest references to the occurrence of salammoniac in a natural state are in the reports of ¶ Chinese embassies of the 6th-7th centuries, which were the subject of very full investigation in connection with a geological problem, the question of volcanoes in Central Asia, by H.J. von Klaprot…


(364 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
(a.), the spider. Al-Ḳazwīnī and al-Damīrī mention several species, the most dangerous of which is the poisonous tarantula, al-Rutailāʾ or al-Rut̲h̲ailāʾ . Al-Damīrī also describes a fieldspider of reddish colour with fine hair on its body; at the head it has four claws with which it bites; it digs a nest in the ground, and seizes its prey by night. The weaving spiders make their webs according to mathematical rules; according to some the male spins the warp and the female the woof; according t…


(184 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
the planet Mars. The etymology of the name is unknown. The sphere of Mars is the fifth sphere of the planets. It is bounded on the inner side by the sphere of the sun and on the outer side by the sphere of Jupiter, and its breadth is according to Ptolemy (xx, 376) 998 miles. Its period of revolution is estimated at 1 year, 10 months and 22 days. In about 17 years, after 9 revolutions, Mars comes back to the same spot in the heavens; it spends about 40 days in each sign of the zodiac and covers about 40 minutes each day. It is said to be one-and-ahalf times the size of the earth. Astrologers call Mars al-Naḥs al-a…


(997 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, the pearl. The ancient legend of its origin is found at great length in the Arabic authors, first in the Petrology ( Steinbuch , ed. Ruska) of Aristotle, then with variants in the Rasāʾil Ik̲h̲wān al-Ṣafāʾ and the later cosmographers. According to it, the aṣṭūrūs (’οστρεῖον) rises from the depths of the sea frequented by ships and goes out to the ocean. The winds there set up a shower of spray and the shells open to receive drops from This; when it has collected a few drops it goes to a secluded spot and exposes the…


(101 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, the common name for the white and yellow-red lily and for the blue iris which is more precisely described by the addition of asmānd̲j̲ūnī and is also called īrisā by the physicians. The name is a general Semitic one, but whether from s̲h̲es̲h̲ (six), as Low suggests, seems to me doubtful on account of the ū or ō always found in it. The root of Iris ftorcntina L. is still used in medicine. (J. Ruska) Bibliography Ibn al-Baiṭār, transl. Leclerc, ii. 306 al-Ḳazwīnī, ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-Mak̲h̲lūḳāt, ed. Wüstenfeld, i., p. 276 I. Löw, Die Flora der Juden, ii. I—4, 160—184.


(126 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, Bawraḳ, Būraḳ, borax. The description in Ḳazwīnī shows that the most different salts were confused under the general name of borax; he mentions natron as a kind of borax; i.e. the Armenian borax, the borax of the metal-founders, tinkār, which is brought from India, bakers’ borax, the borax of Zerāwand and of Kirmān. Even in the Petrology of Aristotle the peculiar property of borax is said to be that it melts all bodies, hastens smelting and facilitates casting. Natron is particularly mentioned in this connection as a kind of borax; tinkār is said to…


(390 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
— Arab, fad̲h̲zuhr, from the Persian Pā(w)zahr, i. e. removing poison — a highly esteemed remedy against all kinds of poison for which high prices were paid throughout the middle ages down to the xviiith century and to the present day in the East. The real (Oriental) bezoarstone is obtained from the Persian bezoar-goat ( Capra aegagrus Gm.) and according to Wöhler’s researches is a gallstone. A description of its properties and supposed effects is to be found as early as in the Kitāb al-Aḥd̲j̲ār, which is ascribed to Aristotle. The effect of poisons is to make the blood coagula…


(270 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
(a.), the crab; the name is applied to the fresh water crab as well as to the sea-crabs, saraṭān nahrī and baḥrī. Al-Damīrī describes the crab as follows: “it can run very quickly, has two jaws, claws and several teeth and a back as hard as stone; one might think that it had neither head nor tail. Its two eyes are placed on its shoulders, its mouth is in its chest and its jaws are sideways. It has eight legs and walks on one side. It breathes both air and water. It casts off its skin six times a year. It builds itse…


(261 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, the constellation of the Pleiades. According to al-Ḳazwīnī, the group is made up of two brighter stars between which are three others close together like grapes in a bunch. The group is also called simply al-Nad̲j̲m “the (group of) stars” and the principal star (η; Alkyone) is called Wasaṭ, Ḏj̲awz or Naiyir al-T̲h̲uraiyā i. e. middle, heart or bright star of the Pleiades. The word T̲h̲uraiyā is a diminutive of t̲h̲arwā which means “existing in plenty” and would correspond to the Greek πλειάΣ if this name could be connected with πλεόΣ and not with πλεῖν “to naviga…


(186 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
(a.), the crown, the name of several constellations, namely: 1. al-Ikīl, is the name given to the stars β, δ, π, forming a blunt wedge close together on the brow of the Scorpion. These stars mark the seventeenth station of the moon. 2. al-Iklīl al-s̲h̲amālī, Greek στέφανοΣ Latin Corona, the northern crown, a constellation of eight stars which follows the staff of Bootes and is also called al-Fakka, the “breach”, and Ḳaṣʿat al-Masākīn, the “alms bowl”, Pers. Kāsa-i Darwīs̲h̲ān, the “beggar’s bowl” and Kasa s̲h̲ikasta, the “broken bowl”, because the ring of stars is broken at one spot. Al-Fakk…

Banū Mūsā

(756 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, more precisely Banū Mūsā b. S̲h̲ākir, the usual name for the three brothers Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Muḥammad, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Aḥmad and al-Ḥasan b. Mūsā b. S̲h̲ākir, who made a reputation under the ʿAbbāsids from al-Maʾmūn to al-Mutawakkil as mathematicians, astronomers and technicians and also at times played a part in politics. The father is said ¶ to have begun life as a bandit in Ḵh̲urāsān, then to have become an astronomer and geometer. We have no means of testing such stories or learning how a bandit could become an astronomer. If we assume however that Mūsā b. S̲h̲ākir like Muḥammad b. Mūsā al-Ḵh̲wār…


(611 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
(a.), a time, a period of time, especially the hour. Following the custom of the Greek astronomers, a distinction is made between the equal or astronomical (sidereal) hour, sāʿa falakīya, which corresponds to a revolution of the heavens of the fixed stars through 15° and is also ¶ called mustawiya (uniform), and the unequal, curved, muʿwad̲j̲d̲j̲a, also an hour of time, zamānīya, which is the result of dividing day and night each into 12 hours and therefore varies with latitude and season and in the higher latitudes becomes quite absurd. — In the language of religion sāʿa is also the hour …


(295 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, an old town between Mas̲h̲had and Marw, where the frontier between modern Persia and Russia turns from E. to S., on the lower course of the Harirūd, which is at this part filled with water for part of the year only and then disappears in the oasis of Tad̲j̲ān north of Sarak̲h̲s. Between the town and Marw lies a part of the desert of Karaḳūm [q. v.] which belongs to the area of the Teke-Turkomans. The Arab-Persian geographers ascribe the foundation of the town to Kai-Kāwūs, Afrāsiyāb or Ḏh̲u ’l…


(211 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, the constellation of the Dragon. According to al-Ḳazwīnī, it consists of 31 stars none of which lies outside of the constellation. Apart from the general figure of the constellation which comes from Greek (and probably earlier from Babylonian) astronomy the Arabs have names for smaller groups of stars within it. Thus the star μ is called the Dragon’s tongue, al-rāfiḍ, “the isolated grazing camel”, the four stars (β γ ν ξ in the head al-ʿawāʾid̲h̲, “the young dam-camels”, a not very bright star between them al-rubaʿ, “the camel-foal”; the bright stars ζ η are called al-d̲h̲iʾbain, “the tw…

Ibn al-Baiṭār

(445 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn Ibn al-Baiṭar al-Mālaḳī, the celebrated botanist and herbalist. He probably belonged to the Ibn al-Baiṭār family of Malaga (cf. Ibn al-Abbār, al-Muʿd̲j̲am, N°. 35, 165, 241) and was born in the last quarter of the vith (xiith) century. As his teacher of botanical subjects, special mention should be made ¶ of Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Nabātī, with whom he used to collect plants in the vicinity of Seville. When about 20 he set out to travel through North Africa, Morocco, Algiers and Tunis to study botany. Reaching E…


(192 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Yūsuf, d. 651 (1253), is the author of the Kitāb Azhār al-Afkār fī Ḏj̲awāhir al-Asd̲j̲ār, one of the best known works on jewels which he describes — in all 25 kinds — according to their origin, provenance, natural and magical properties, defects and merits, price and appreciation ¶ of particular varieties. An edition and translation of the book which exists in good manuscripts is a great desideratum, as that by Count Raineri Biscia of 1818 (new edition 1906) no longer suits modern requirements. — Nothing is …


(179 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, an astrological magic table common in Morocco, the making and use of which is fully described by Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn in the Muḳaddima. The word is connected with Zīd̲j̲ [q. v.]; its fuller name is Zāyird̲j̲at al-ʿĀlam. The inventor is said to have been the Ṣūfī Abū ’l-ʿAbbās al-Ṣibtī (i. e. of Ceuta) who lived in the time of the Almohad Yaʿḳūb al-Manṣūr, i. e. at the end of the vith (xiith) century. The table has on one side a system of concentric circles with divisions corresponding to the signs of the zodiac and others for telling fortunes and answering questions on i…


(159 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
(a.), the Ram (Aries), the first constellation of the zodiac, after the Greek κριόΣ. It contains 13 stars which make up the figure and five others outside it. The ram is represented with its body facing the west but its head is turned back. The two bright stars on, the horn (β and γ) are called al-S̲h̲araṭān, “the two signs”, because they betoken the approach of the equinoxes; the bright star α outside the ram is called al-Nāṭiḥ, “the butter” sometimes it is included with α and β under the name al-As̲h̲rāṭ, “the signs”. The stars ε, δ in the tail, which form an equilateral triangle wi…


(213 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, also tilsim, tilism, tilasm etc. from the Greek τέλεσμα, a talisman, i.e. an inscription with astrological and other magic signs or an object covered with such inscriptions, especially also with figures from the zodiacal circle or the constellations and animals which were used as magic charms to protect and avert the evil eye. The Greek name is evidence of its origin in the late Hellenistic period and gnostic ideas are obviously reflected in the widespread use of such charms. The wise Balīnās is s…


(140 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
or Ṣabir, the aloe, the dried juice from the leaves of a group of African aloes belonging to the Liliaceae; a bitter drug and strong purgative, described as early as by Dioscurides, which is highly esteemed in Arab medicine. At the present day the aloe of Sokoṭrā is considered the best quality. Al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī ( Nuk̲h̲bat al-Dahr, ed. Mehren, p. 81) gives a good description of the plant; and a description of how the sap is obtained is given by al-Nuwairī; see also the lexicons (Lane, Lexicon, ii. 1645) (J. Ruska) Bibliography O. Warburg, Die Pflanzenwelt, iii. 448 I. Löw, Die Flora der Juden, ii. …
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