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Nāḳūs

(168 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), pl. nawāḳīs , a kind of rattle once used and in some places still used by Eastern Christians to summon the community to divine service. It is a board pierced with holes which is beaten with a rod. The name, which comes from the Syriac nāḳōs̲h̲ā , is not infrequently found with the verbs ḍaraba or ṣakka in the old Arabic poets, especially when early morning is to be indicated, e.g. ʿAntara, app.; Labīd, 19, 6; ZDMG, xxxiii, 215; Mutalammis, ed. Vollers, 178, v. 6; al-Aʿs̲h̲ā, in Nöldeke’s Delectus , 26; Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī , xix, 92. According to tradition, Muḥam…

Minā

(1,371 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, later often pronounced Munā , a place in the hills east of Mecca on the road from it to ʿArafa [ q.v.]. The distance between the two is given by al-Muḳaddasī as one farsak̲h̲ , while Wavell calls it five miles and says the continuation to ʿArafa is nine miles. Minā lies in a narrow valley running from west to east, 1,500 paces long according to Burckhardt, surrounded by steep barren granite cliffs. On the north side rises a hill called T̲h̲abīr. Travellers from Mecca come down into the valley by a hill path with steps in it; this is the ʿAḳaba [ q.v.] which became famous in connection with Muḥam…

Allāhumma

(232 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
is an old Arabic formula of invocation: "Allāh!", for which also Lahumma is found (cf. Nöldeke, Zur Grammatik d. class. Arab., 6). Whether, as Wellhausen supposes in his Reste arabischen Heidentums 2, 224, it was originally meant for the god Allāh, higher than and different from the old Arabian gods, is rather doubtful, because every god might be invoked as "the God" (just as "the Lord". It was used in praying, offering, concluding a treaty and blessing or cursing (see Goldziher, Abhandlungen z. arab . Philol ., i, 35 ff.; cf. also the expression Allāhuma ḥayyi =much …

al-Ḥasan b. Zayd b. Muḥammad

(448 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. Ismāʿīl b. al-Ḥasan b. Zayd , a descendant of the preceding, founder of an ʿAlid dynasty in Ṭabaristān [ q.v.]. The high-handed rule of the Ṭāhirids on the one hand and, on the other, the settlement of ʿAlid elements in the region led to a rising in favour of al-Ḥasan b. Zayd, al-dāʿī al-kabīr , in 250/864. Al-Ḥasan, who was living at Rayy, was proclaimed sovereign by a section of the population of Ṭabaristān and received the allegiance of Wahsūdān b. Ḏj̲ustān of Daylam [ q.v.]. He succeeded in defeating the Ṭāhirid troops and seizing the towns of Āmul and Sāriya, while D̲j̲us…

Maymūna Bint al-Ḥārit̲h̲

(228 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the last wife that Muḥammad married. She stemmed from the Hawāzin tribe of ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa and was a sister-in-law of al-ʿAbbās. After she had divorced her first husband, a T̲h̲aḳafi, and her second, the Kuras̲h̲ī Abū Rukm, had died, she lived as a widow in Mecca where the Prophet wooed her, primarily no doubt for political reasons, on the ʿumra allowed to him in the year 7/629. His wish to marry her in Mecca was refused by the Meccans, in order not to prolong his stay there; the marriage therefore took place in Sarif, a village north of Mecca. Her brother-in-law al-ʿAbbās acted as her walī

S̲h̲uʿaib

(322 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a prophet mentioned in the Ḳurʾān who, according to Sūra xi. 91, came later than Hūd, Ṣālih and Lot; according to Sūra xxvi. 176—189 which belongs to the middle Meccan period he was sent to the “people of the thicket” ( al-Aika) who are again mentioned in 1. 13; xv. 78; xxxviii. 12. In the later Meccan Sūras, xi. 85—98; xxix. 35 sq.; vii. 83—91, he appears ¶ among the inhabitants of Madyan [q. v.] as their brother Only later commentators identify him with the unnamed father-in-law of Moses the Old Testament Jethro who lived in Madyan mentioned in xxviii. 21 sqq. (cf. v. 45), but there is no fo…

Taḥrīf

(1,429 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), corruption of a document, whereby the original sense is altered. It may happen in various ways, by direct alteration of the written text, by arbitrary alterations in reading aloud the text which is itself correct, by omitting parts of it or by interpolations or by a wrong exposition of the true sense. The Muslims found occasion to deal with this conception in connection with those passages in the Ḳurʾān where Muḥammad accused the Jews of falsifying the books of revelation given them, i. e. the Thora, ḥarrafū [cf. ḳorʾān, vol. ii. 1066a]. This accusation was really the only way of…

Tabūk

(299 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town on the pilgrim road and on the railway from Damascus to Medīna (according to Yāḳūt four days’ journey from al-Ḥid̲j̲r and 12 from Medīna). It lies on a slight undulation of the sandy plain and has a very good well, probably the one mentioned in Arab legend. ¶ The most important building is the pilgrim’s fort built according to the inscription in 1064 (1654), the oldest parts of which can easily be distinguished from the later restorations. Beside it is a modern mosque built of beautifully hewn stones. Euting found the place empty excep…

Badr

(785 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, also called Badr Ḥunain, a small town southwest of Medīna, a short night’s journey distant from the coast situated at the union of the rood from Medīna and the caravan route from Syria to Mecca. The houses were, when Burckhardt visited it, built partly of clay and partly of stone and surrounded by a wretched mud wall. The inhabitants were, for the most part, Beduins of whom many however had only their booths in the town while they spent the night in their tents on the hills. In the time of Muḥamma…

Minā

(1,376 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, later often pronounced Munā, a place in the hills east of Mecca on the road from it to ʿArafa [q. v.]. The distance between the two is given by Muḳaddasī as one parasang, while Wavell calls it five miles and says the continuation to ʿArafa is nine miles. Minā lies in a narrow valley running from west to east, 1,500 paces long according to Burckhardt, surrounded by steep barren granite cliffs. On the north side rises a hill called T̲h̲abīr. Travellers from Mecca come down into the valley by a hill path with steps in it; this is the ʿAḳaba [q. v.] which became famous in connection with Muḥamma…

Ṭarsūs

(988 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town on the frontier between Asia Minor and Syria, the birthplace of the apostle Paul. It lies in a very fertile plain through which flows a river (Cydnos, later Nahr Baradīn). Situated at the junction of several important roads and not far from the sea, even in ancient times it played an important part as a trading centre and was distinguished in the Hellenistic period for the activity of its intellectual life. Christianity spread early there and bishops and metropolitans of Ṭarsūs are mentioned in the Acts of the Councils. When the Arabs had conquered these regions, the Umaiy…

al-Dārūm

(322 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
is mentioned by Muḳaddasī as the district in which Bait Ḏj̲abrīn [q. v., p. 597] was situated. It is the Hebrew Darom, the South, which term the Jews particularly applied to the southwest plain on the coast of Judaea and appears in Eusebius (who distinguishes it from Eleutheropolis) as Daroma. It is wrongly described by certain Arab historians as the goal of the expedition, on which Muḥammad shortly before his death was going to send Usāma b. Zaid; its real objective was, as is clear from the account of the campaign which was afterwards carried out, the southern lands east of Jordan. The name al…

al-Lāt

(385 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, an old Arabian goddess. The name (from al-ilāhat; cf. alilat) means “the goddess” but was the proper name of a definite deity, according to the Arabs themselves (e. g. Ibn Yaʿīs̲h̲, ed. Jahn, p. 44, 23) the sun. She is found as early as the Nabataean and Palmyran inscriptions and was later worshipped by various Beduin tribes (e.g. the Hawāzin; Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 849, 13). An oath by al-Lāt is frequently found in the poets, e. g. Abū Saʿd in Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 567, 7, Mutalammis, ed. Vollers, p. 2, 1, ʿAws b. Had̲j̲ar, ed. Geyer, p. 11, 2, and even in al-Ak̲h̲ṭal, Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, vii. 173. She had …

Hind Bint ʿUtba

(365 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. Rabīʿa , mother of Muʿāwiya; this Meccan woman, who belonged to the clan of the ʿAbd S̲h̲ams (see the list of her maternal ancestors in Muḥ. b. Ḥabīb, Muḥabbar , 19), had mairied as her third husband Abū Sufyān b. Ḥarb, to whom she bore other children besides the future caliph. Traditions hostile to the Umayyads draw an extremely repellant portrait, apparently something of a caricature, of this short, stout woman who quite certainly had a highly passionate temperament and who on different occasions m…

al-Ḥasan b. Zayd b. al-Ḥasan

(165 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib was a pious man, who, following the example of his father and grandfather, abandoned all political aspirations and reconciled himself to ʿAbbāsid rule. His daughter became the wife of al-Saffāḥ while he himself lived at the Caliph’s court, and is even said to have occasionally communicated the views of his ʿAlid relatives and their dependants to al-Manṣūr. In 150/767 al-Manṣūr made him governor ¶ of Medina, but in 155/772 he aroused the Caliph’s wrath and was dismissed, imprisoned and had his property confiscated. But restitution was made to…

Had̲j̲ar

(396 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
in South Arabia means “town” and is therefore often found in place-names; for example there was a Had̲j̲ar in Nad̲j̲rān, one in Ḏj̲āzān and several in Mād̲h̲in, all in South Arabia. The best known is Had̲j̲ar in southern Baḥrain, the ancient capital of the land. It lay in a fertile district rich in palms ( Ḥamāsa, p. 811, v. 1; whence the proverb, Prov. Arab., ed. Freytag, iii. 539) and exported a celebrated kind of date-honey. The population was very mixed (cf. Nöldeke, Ṭabarī, transl., p. 59 et seq.). Under Persian rule a Persian governor, to whom the Arab chief was subordinate, …

Muʾta

(847 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town in the centre of a fertile plain in the land east of Jordan, east of the southern end of the Dead Sea, about two hours’ journey south of Kerak, celebrated for the defeat of the Muslims there in Ḏj̲umādā I of the year 8. According to the Arabic account, the reason why Muḥammad sent 3,000 men to this region was that an envoy whom he had sent to the king (presumably the imperial commandant) of Boṣrā had been murdered by a G̲h̲assānid, but the real reason seems to have been that he wished t…

Bilāl

(487 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. Rabāḥ, the first Muʾad̲h̲d̲h̲in, a slave of Abyssinian origin, who belonged to a man of the tribe of Ḏj̲umaḥ b. ʿAmr, was early attracted by Muḥammad’s preaching and joined his little band of followers. For this he was persecuted by the Prophet’s enemies, but remained steadfast in his belief in the one God, which induced Abū Bakr to purchase him and give him his freedom. He fled with Muḥammad to Medīna where he immediately found a welcome from Saʿd b. Ḵh̲ait̲h̲ama. He afterwards dwelled in the…

Oḥod

(1,321 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a mountain about three miles north of Medīna, celebrated for the battle fought there in the year 3 which ended unfavourably for Muḥammad. It is a part of the great range of hills which runs from north to south but here spreads to the east over the plain and thus forms an independent group of hills. The rocky walls surmounted by a rectangular plateau — without peaks, Yāḳūt says — “which rise like masses of iron” (Burton) above the plain are quite destitute of trees and plants and only the face …

al-Bat̲h̲anīya

(527 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, corresponds in name to the Bas̲h̲an of the Old Testament, the etymology of which is given by the Arabic bat̲h̲na “soft, fertile area”. Historically however it does not coincide with the kingdom of Bas̲h̲an, mentioned in the Old Testament, which comprised the whole northern half of the Eastern land of Jordan, but was first applied to the district of Batanaea which in the Graeco-Roman period only denoted one, though a central, section of this kingdom. As the districts of Gaulanitis, Trachonitis and Auranitis were then ¶ distinguished from Batanaea the Arabs mention also Ḏj̲awān a…
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