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Kelek

(526 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, Kellek, Kelik (turco-arabe), curieux radeau fait d’outrés en peau de bique que l’on connaît déjà par les sculptures de Ninive et qui n’a guère changé au cours des siècles; c’est l’accadien kalakku, le syriaque kəlakkā. Le mot kelek, particulièrement cité par les voyageurs en Mésopotamie et en Perse, serait typique du cours supérieur du Tigre. Le kelik en usage entre Diarbekir et Bagdad est constitué de la manière suivante: sur une couche de 100 à 300 et parfois 400 outres en peau de chèvre gonflées et liées avec des cordes de 2 m. de long en fibre de réglisse, sont placées 5 poutres de bois de kawa…

Rabīʿa et Muḍar

(2,516 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, les deux plus grands et plus puissants groupes de tribus de l’ancienne Arabie du Nord. Le nom de Rabīʿa se rencontre très fréquemment dans la nomenclature des tribus arabes. Les tribus importantes portant ce nom et appartenant au groupe Muḍar, sont les suivantes: Rabīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa, dont les Kaʿb, Kilāb et Kulayb sont issus, ensuite les Rabīʿa b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Kaʿb, les Rabīʿa b. Kilāb, les Rabīʿa b. al-Aḍbat et les Rabīʿa b. Māik b. Ḏj̲aʿfar; de plus, les Rabīʿa b. ʿUḳayl et Rabīʿa b. Ḏj̲aʿda; trois …

Safīna

(4,183 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H. | Bosworth, C.E. | Réd. | G. Oman
(a., pl. sufun, safāʾin, safīn), désigne en arabe depuis les temps préislamiques un bateau. La marine et la navigation en général sont traitées dans Milāḥa. Le présent article abordera la question de la connaissance de la mer et des bateaux en Arabie à l’apparition de l’Islam, non traitée dans Mīlāḥa, puis les activités maritimes et fluviales. 1. L’époque pré-moderne. a) Aspects préislamiques et islamiques primitifs. Le mot le plus général pour «bateau» dans l’usage arabe ancien était markab, «transport», employé toutefois avant tout pour le voyage par terre, avec des ac…

ʿUḳayl

(2,605 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, ancienne tribu arabe et plus récemment, jusqu’à l’ère du moteur, avec la prononciation ʿAgēl, nom des caravaniers et marchands de chameaux. 1. La tribu. Sa généalogie s’établit comme suit: ʿUḳayl b. Kaʿb b. Rabīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa de la branche des Hawāzin des Ḳays-ʿAylān [ q.v.]; parmi les ramifications les plus importantes, on trouve les ʿUbāda et les Rabīʿa b. ʿUḳayl ainsi que les Ḵh̲afād̲j̲a [ q.v.] b. ʿAmr et les al-Muntafīḳ [ q.v.] b. ʿĀmir b. ʿUḳayl. Al-Muḳallad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar, ancêtre de la dynastie des ʿUḳaylides [ q.v.], fait remonter sa lignée directement à Ḥazn b. ʿUbād…

Asad

(1,413 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, Banū (plus tard, en dial.: Benī Sed), tribu arabe. C’est une tribu sœur des Kināna [ q.v.]; la conscience de cette parenté est remarquablement vivante, bien qu’elle n’ait que peu d’effet pratique, à cause de la grande distance qui les sépare. La patrie des Asad est située dans l’Arabie du Nord, au pied des montagnes autrefois habitées par les Ṭayy [ q.v.]. Contrairement à ces derniers, les Asad menaient une vie principalement nomade. Leurs terrains de parcours s’étendaient au Sud et au Sudest du Nafûd, depuis les montagnes de S̲h̲ammar [ q.v.] jusqu’au Wādī l-Rumma au Sud, et, au del…

al-Asad

(2,364 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
(a.), pluriel habit, al-usūd, al-usud et al-usd, le mot le plus courant pour désigner le lion. On le trouve souvent, également, comme nom de personne ou de tribu (voir les art. suivants; sur l’étymologie probable et les rapports avec d’autres racines, voir la discussion par C. de Landberg, II/11, 1237-40). Le vieux mot poétique, qui a été de plus en plus remplacé par al-asad, est al-layt̲h̲; on le trouve non seulement en sémitique (ace. nēšu, mais généralement en prose seulement: Landsberger, 76), mais aussi, selon Koehler ( Lex. in VT Libros, 481 b), en grec λϊς, λεϊς, où il est aus…

Asad

(1,429 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, banū (later, dialect: Benī Sed), Arab tribe. They are a tribe related to the Kināna [ q.v.]; the awareness of this interconnexion remained remarkably alive, though it had little practical effect owing to the great distance separating them. The homelands of the Asad are in North Arabia, at the foot of the mountains formerly inhabited by the Ṭayy [ q.v.]. In contrast to the latter, the Asad led a mainly nomadic life. Their grazing lands extended to the south and south-east of the Nefūd, from the S̲h̲ammar mountains [ q.v.] to the Wādi ’l-Rumma in the south, and beyond it in the neigh…

al-Asad

(2,423 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
(a.), plural usually al-usūd , al-usud, al-usd, the most usual word for lion. It is also frequently found as a personal or tribal name (see following article; concerning the presumable etymology and connexions with other roots, see dicussion by C. de Landberg, l.c., II/11, 1237-40). The old poetic word, which has been more and more replaced by al-asad, is al-layt̲h̲ ; this is found not only in Semitic languages (Akk. nēšu , this, however, generally only in prose: Landsberger, l.c., 76), but also, according to Koehler ( Lex . in VT Libros , 481b), in Greek λῖς, λεῖς where it is also use…

Safīna

(4,475 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H. | Bosworth, C.E. | Ed. | G. Oman
(a. pls. sufun , safāʾin , safīn ), a word used in Arabic from pre-Islamic times onwards for ship. Seamanship and navigation are in general dealt with in milāḥa , and the present article, after dealing with the question of knowledge of the sea and ships in Arabia at the time of the birth of Islam, not covered in milāḥa, will be confined to a consideration of sea and river craft. 1. In the pre-modern period. (a) Pre-Islamic and early Islamic aspects. The most general word for “ship” in early Arabic usage was markab “conveyance”, used, however, …

Tag̲h̲lib

(5,118 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, along with the Bakr the most important tribe of the Rabīʿa group in early Arabia. The real name of the founder of the tribe is said to have been Dit̲h̲ār; when one day his father wished him success in the words tag̲h̲lib “thou shalt conquer”, this name remained attached to him, but “according to all Semitic analogy” (cf. Yas̲h̲kur, Yad̲h̲kur, Jacob, Isaac etc.) it is not to be interpreted as 2nd pers. masc. but as 3rd pers. fern, imperf. The gender shows that the tribal name is older than the fable about the mythical ancestor; besides the older poets down to al-Farazd…

Tanūk̲h̲

(3,721 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, an old Arab confederacy which adopted a common genealogy and so is usually regarded as a tribe. The origin of the name and the early history of the Tanūk̲h̲ is so enveloped in fable that it is impossible to disentangle it, and nothing really historical can be gleaned out of the traditions, which differ among themselves very much in detail. If we take the version in the Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, xi. 159 sq. as the basis (corresponding: Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, ʿIbar, ii. 240 sq.; Bakrī, Muʿd̲j̲am, p. 16—17 and Wüstenfeld, Register, p. 444—445) we get the following picture: At the separation of the Ḳ…

ʿUtayba

(2,022 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a great and powerful Bedouin tribe of Central Arabia, second only in importance to the ʿAnaza or ʿUnayza [ q.v.], and playing a significant role in the history of Arabia in the last 150 years or so. Doughty describes them as having pasture grounds extending from al-Ṭāʾif [ q.v.] in the Ḥid̲j̲āz in the west to al-Ḳaṣīm [ q.v.] in northern Nad̲j̲d in the east. The name appears in various renderings in the travel accounts of Europeans, e.g. the ʿAteyba, pl. elʿAteybân of Doughty, and the ʾOṭeybah of Palgrave; according to J.J. Hess, the modern pronunciation use…

Ruwala

(1,633 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
(Arab, also: Ruwalā: Engl. Roála, Rwala, Ruwàlla, Ruweilah; German frequently: Ruala, Rualla, Ruola, also Rawalla and Erwalla; French Rou’ala, Roualla), the most important Beduin tribe in north Arabia at the p resent day. According to Nawwāf, the son of the Ruwala chief al-Nūrī b. S̲h̲aʿlān, who was living in Damascus in 1926, the Ruwala belong to the Ḍanā Muslim group of the ʿAnaza [q. v.] who all recognise his ¶ authority. The Ḍanā Muslim, according to Nawwāf, consist of the Benī Wahhāb (subdivisions: al-Ḥsene [Hesénneh, Hasanah] and Weld ʿAlī) and the Āl Ḏj̲lā…

Rabīʿa and Muḍar

(2,520 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, the two largest and most powerful combinations of tribes in ancient Northern Arabia. The name Rabīʿa is a very frequent one in the nomenclature of the Arab tribes. More important tribes of this name within the Muḍar group are the Rabīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa, from which came the Kaʿb, Kilāb and Kulaib, then the Rabīʿa b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Kaʿb, Rabīʿa b. Kilāb, Rabīʿa b. al-Aḍbaṭ and Rabīʿa b. Mālik b. Ḏj̲aʿfar; also the Rabīʿa b. ʿUḳail and Rabīʿa b. Ḏj̲aʿda; three branches of the ʿAbd S̲h̲ams also bear this nam…

al-Safīna

(2,772 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
(a.), the usual word for “ship” in general, in a more special sense than markab which means “conveyance” in the widest sense of the word. There is a vast number of terms in Arabic for the various kinds of ships, but they are for the most part foreign loanwords, in which connection” it may be noted that the loanword usually expresses the main distinctive idea of any given type of ship (cf. Kindermann, op. cit., p. 112 sq.). Even the common word safina is not of Arabic origin (see ibid., p. 108), unlike markab, but the use of this word for “ship” shows on the other hand, as Fraenkel, Die aram. Fremdw., p. …

ʿUḳail

(2,762 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, 1. an old Arab tribe, 2. to-day, in the pronunciation ʿAgēl, the name for caravan-leaders and camel-dealers. 1. The genealogy of the tribe is ʿUḳail b. Kaʿb b. Rabīʿa [q. v.] b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa of the Hawāzin branch of the Ḳais-ʿAilān [q. v.]; among the larger sections are the ʿUbāda and Rabīʿa b. ʿUḳail as well as the Ḵh̲afād̲j̲a [q. v.] b. ʿAmr and ¶ al-Muntafiḳ (q. v.; modern pronunciation: Muntafič) b. ʿĀmir b. ʿUḳail. Al-Muḳallad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar, the ancestor of the dynasty of the ʿUḳailids [cf. ʿoḳailids], traced his descent direct from Ḥazn b. ʿUbāda. Al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī ( op. cit., p. 297) …

al-Sūḳ

(1,727 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
(a., pl. aswāḳ), market, fair. All the ideas associated with the conception of market have already been discussed in the main article and need not be further considered here. A few remarks however seem to be necessary regarding the significance of the market in the history of early Islām; we shall confine these to the old market-place and the rise of the city markets. Of the old Arabian markets that of ʿOkāẓ [q. v.] is the best known as a result of the part it plays in poetry. While the position of the other markets associated with it, Ḏh̲u ’l-Mad̲j̲āz, Mad̲…

ʿUtaiba

(1,980 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
(ʿUtêibah, ʿUtêbah, ʿOteiba, ʿOtêba, also Öttēba; now usually written ʿAtaiba, ʿAteyba [ nisba: ʿAtaibī, ʿAtabī; pl. pauc.: el-ʿAteybân, ʿAtabān] etc.; in their own pronunciation, however: ʿÖtäbe, nisba: ʿÖtêbī, pl. pauc: ʿÖtbân Q. J. Hess]), the largest and most powerful Beduin tribe in modern Central Arabia, second in importance only to the ʿAnaza [q. v.] of all in the Peninsula. The name ʿUtaiba (in form a diminutive of ʿUtba) is applied in the older literature not to a tribe (the only isolated instances are several times in Ibn ʿAbd Rabbihi, al-ʿIḳd, Cairo 1316, iii. 61, the var…

ʿUḳayl

(2,549 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, an old Arab tribe and in recent usage, until the motor age, in the pronunciation ʿAgēl, the name for caravan-leaders and camel-dealers. 1. The tribe. Its genealogy is ʿUḳayl b. Kaʿb b. Rabīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa of the Hawāzin branch of the Ḳays-ʿAylān [ q.v.]; among the larger sections are the ʿUbāda and Rabīʿa b. ʿUḳayl as well as the Ḵh̲afād̲j̲a [ q.v.] b. ʿAmr and al-Muntafiḳ [ q.v.] b. ʿĀmir b. ʿUḳayl. Al-Muḳallad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar, the ancestor of the dynasty of the ʿUḳaylids [ q.v.], traced his descent directly from Ḥazn b. ʿUbāda. Al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī ( Nihāya , 297) bes…

Rabīʿa and Muḍar

(2,465 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, the two largest and most powerful combinations of tribes in ancient Northern Arabia. The name Rabīʿa is a very frequent one in the nomenclature of the Arab tribes. More important tribes of this name within the Muḍar group are the Rabīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa, from which came the Kaʿb, Kilāb and Kulayb, then the Rabīʿa b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Kaʿb, Rabīʿa b. Kilāb, Rabīʿa b. al-Aḍbaṭ and Rabīʿa b. Mālik b. D̲j̲aʿfar; also the Rabīʿa b. ʿUḳayl and Rabīʿa b. D̲j̲aʿda; three branches of the ʿAbd S̲h̲ams also bear this n…
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