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(188 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, mark of ratification or initialling used in the Muslim west, from the time of the Muʾminid dynasty, on all official chancery documents. This ʿalāma , in principle inscribed by the sovereign’s own hand in the space provided for the purpose at the head of the document, beneath the basmala , consisted of a doxology, which varied under the different dynasties: al-ḥamdu li’llāh , under the Muʾminids and Saʿdids; al-ḥamdu li’llāh wa ’l-s̲h̲ukru li’llāh , under the Ḥafṣids; lā g̲h̲āliba illa’llāh under the Naṣrids of Granada. The ʿalāma was gradually replaced by illegible arabesque ini…


(614 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Spanish Mérida, from the Latin Emerita, ¶ a town in the south-west of Spain, in the modern province of Badajoz, where it is the capital of a partido , on the right bank of the Guadiana. Now somewhat decayed, it has only about 35,000 inhabitants. It is on the Madrid-Badajoz railway and is also connected by rail with Cáceres in the north and Seville in the south. The ancient capital of Lusitania, Augusta Emerita, was founded in 23 B.C., and under the Roman empire attained remarkable importance and prosperity. Numerous remains of Roman buildings still testify to …


(1,241 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Murcia , a town in the south-east of Spain, 43 m/140 feet above sea level in the centre of the famous huerta de Murcia (“gardens of Murcia”) watered by the river Segura (Ar. Wādī S̲h̲aḳūra [ q.v.] or Wādi ’lAbyaḍ , “the white river”). Murcia has a large population, 265,000 people (1980), and is the capital of the province of the same name and the see of a bishop; it has also a university; this province has over a million inhabitants, with an area of 11,317 km2. Its port, 40 miles to the south on the Mediterranean coast, is Cartagena, the Ḳarṭād̲j̲anna [ q.v.] or Ḳarṭād̲j̲cinnat al-K̲h̲ulafāʾ

Ak̲h̲bār Mad̲j̲mūʿa

(222 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, title of a short anonymous chronicle recording the conquest of al-Andalus by the Arabs, the period prior to the foundation of the Marwānid amirate of Cordoba, and the history of the amirate itself up to the reign of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III al-Nāṣir. This text, published on the basis of the unicum of the Bibl. Nat. in Paris, and translated into Spanish by Lafuente y Alcantara (Madrid 1867), has had little documentary ¶ interest since the discovery of the greater part of the Muḳtabis of Ibn Ḥayyān. It is an ill-proportioned and relatively late work, probably c…

Aḥmad Bābā

(550 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, otherwise Abu ’l-ʿabbās aḥmad b. aḥmad al-takrūrī al-massūfī , Sudanese jurist and biographer belonging to the Ṣinhād̲j̲ī family of the Āḳīt, born at Tinbuktū (now Timbuktu) 21 Ḏh̲u’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 963/26 Oct. 1556. All his ancestors in the male line were imāms or ḳāḍīs in the Sudanese capital in the 15th and 16th centuries, and he himself rapidly became a faḳīh of repute in learned circles in his country. At the time of the conquest of the Sudan by the Saʿdid Sulṭān of Morocco Aḥmad al-Manṣūr [ q.v.] in 1000/1592, Aḥmad Bābā refused ¶ to recognise the authority of the court of Marrāku…

al-Muʿtaḍid Bi ’llāh

(1,186 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abū ʿAmr ʿAbbād b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbbād , the most important and most powerful sovereign of the ʿAbbādid dynasty [ q.v.] who reigned over the little kingdom formed by his father Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Muḥammad b. ʿAbbād, with Seville [see is̲h̲bīliya ] as his capital, at the time of the break up of the Umayyad caliphate of Spain and the rise of the reyes de taifas ( mulāk al-ṭawāʾif [ q.v.]). In the course of a reign of more than 25 years (433-60/1042-69), he very considerably increased his territory by making himself the champion of the Spanish Arabs against the Berbers in…


(624 words)

Author(s): Lévi Provençal, E.
(a., pl. arbāḍ ), district or quarter of a town situated outside the central part or madīna [ q.v.]. This term, which is very frequently found in mediaeval Islamic historical texts of both the Occident and Orient, lies at the origin of the Spanish word ar-rabal, which has the same meaning. In the strongholds ( ḥiṣn or ṣak̲h̲ra ) of Muslim Spain, the name rabaḍ was given to the civil quarter situated below the strictly ¶ military quarter; it was also applied to the quarters of the lepers and of prostitutes, whilst amongst the Spanish Christians, it designated a parish. These quarters of a town …


(384 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
or Mārtula/Martula , Arabic forms of the name Mertola (Span. Mértola), a small town of southern Portugal, situated on the Guadiana (Wādī Ana) at 35 miles/55 km. from the mouth of that river. This place, the ancient Myrtilis of the Romans, enjoyed a certain importance during the period of Islamic domination. It depended administratively on Béja [see bād̲j̲a ] and, according to Yāḳūt and other geographers, was the best-defended stronghold of all the west of the Iberian peninsula. At the end of the 3rd/9th century, it was the headquarters of an independen…


(1,186 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(valencia), a town in Spain, the third in size as regards population, which exceeds 500,000, lying on the east of the Peninsula, 3 miles from the Mediterranean and from its port, el Grao. It is connected with Madrid by two railway Unes, one via Albaceta, 306 m. (490 km.) in length, the other via Cuenca, 251 m. (402 km.) in length, and by road (218 m. = 350 km.); the distance as the crow flies is however only 188 miles. ¶ Valencia is the capital of the province of the same name and the diocese of an archbishop. Its situation is a striking one, in the ce…


(1,500 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, (Morescoes), the name given in Spain to the Muslims who remained in the country after the capture of Granada by the Catholic Kings, Ferdinand and Isabella, on Jan. 2, 1492 and the dethronement of the last ruler of the Naṣrid dynasty. It is mainly from Spanish sources that we learn the history of the Morescoes down to their final expulsion from Spain. Arabic texts relating to them are very rare: the only record at all detailed is that of the Mag̲h̲ribī al-Maḳḳarī, a contemporary of the exodus of the Morescoes, in his Nafḥ al-Ṭīb. In proportion as the Spanish “reconquest” proceeded, group…


(297 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, from the Latin serra through the Spanish sierra, is the term applied by certain geographers of Muslim Spain to the mountains which stretch from the east to west in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The best definition is given by Ibn Faḍl Allan al-ʿUmarī. According to this author, the mountain range called al-S̲h̲ārāt stretches from the country behind Madīnat Sālim (Medinaceli) to Coimbra. This term therefore describes the mountains now known under the names of Sierra de Guadarrama (Ar. Wādī ’l-rām…


(247 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Arabie Tarrākūna), a little town in the north-east of Spain on the Mediterranean and capital of the province of the same name. This town, which now has a population of 23,300, occupies the site of the ancient acropolis of Tarraco, which became one of the centres of Roman domination in Spain and from the time of Augustus, the capital of the province of Hispania Tarraconensis. The Muslims when they occupied Tarragona retained its old name. They sacked it in 724, then occupied it for the whole of the Umaiyad Caliphate of Cordova, not without having twice to re…


(102 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
The study of the Latin and Catalan documents by R. Menéndez Pidal ( La España del Cid, Madrid 1929) as well as the discovery of new Arabic documents by E. Lévi-Provençal, have thrown new light on the story of the adventurous career of the Cid Campeador. Apart from the work cited above — which is fundamental, but too apologetical — the reader may be referred, for a survey of the question, to E. Lévi-Provençal, Le Cid de l’histoire (in Revue Historique, Paris 1937) and Nouveaux documents arabes sur le Cid, in Etudes d’histoire hispano-musulmane, first series [under the press]. (E. Lévi-Provença…

Tud̲j̲īb (Banū)

(414 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name of an Arab family several members of which attained distinction during Muslim rule in Spain in the period of the Mulūk al-Ṭawāʾif as well as under the Omaiyad caliphs. The family became divided into two branches, the Banū Hās̲h̲im of Saragossa and the Banū Ṣumādiḥ of Almeria. The family of the Banū Tud̲j̲īb had settled in Aragon at the conquest In the reign of the emīr Muḥammad I (239—273 = 852—886), its head was ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Tud̲j̲ībī and his authority over his fellow-tribesmen was rec…


(1,034 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm, Moroccan statesman and historian of the 18th century. Al-Zayyānī, a member of the great Berber tribe of ¶ the Zayyān in central Morocco, was born in Fās in 1147/1734-5. He received his education in this city. At the age of 23, he accompanied his parents on the Pilgrimage to Mecca and after an exciting journey, coming as well as going, which lasted over two years, he returned to Fās, where he obtained a position as secretary to the mak̲h̲zan [ q.v.] of sultan Muḥammad III b. ʿAbd Allāh. His ability, his knowledge of Berber dialects and the …

ʿAbd al-Malik b. Muḥammad b. Abī ʿĀmir

(537 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
al-Maʿāfirī Abū Marwān al-Muẓaffar , son and successor of the famous "major domo" ( ḥād̲j̲ib ) al-Mansūr [ q.v.] under the reign of the Umayyad caliph of al-Andalus His̲h̲ām II al-Muʾayyad biʾllāh. He was the real sovereign of Muslim Spain after the death of his father in Medinaceli (Madīnat Sālim) in 392/1002. ʿAbd al-Malik, second son of al-Manṣūr, was born in 364/975; his mother, an umm walad called al-Ḏh̲alfāʾ, survived him several years. Even before succeeding his father he gained experience as general in several campaigns, both in t…

Abū Ḥāmid al-G̲h̲arnāṭī

(465 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Muḥammad b. ʿabd al-Raḥmān (variant al-Raḥīm ) b. Sulaymān al-Māzinī al-Ḳaysī , Andalusian traveller and collector of ʿad̲j̲āʾib [ q.v.] at the beginning of the 6th/12th century, the perfect type of the Occidental raḥḥāla , drawn by the desire of ṭalab al-ʿilm and the spirit of adventure to the farthest limits of the lands of Islam. There is little biographical information about him and the main dates of his adventurous life are given by himself in his works. He was born in Granada in 473/1080, no doubt studied i…


(142 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Lorca, a town of Eastern Spain lying between Granada and Murcia and having a population at present of 58,600. It is the ancient Iluro or Heliocroca of the Romans. In the Islamic period, it formed part of the kūra of Tudmīr [ q.v.], and was famous both for the richness of its soil and subsoil and for its strategic position. Its ḥiṣn was one of the most substantial in Andalusia. It is situated at 1,200 feet above sea-level on the southern slope of the Sierra del Cáno, and dominates the course of the river Guadalentín. Under Arab rule …

Abū ʿUbayd al-Bakrī

(2,309 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Muḥ. b. Ayyūb , was, with al-S̲h̲arīf al-Idrīsī [ q.v.], the greatest geographer of the Muslim West, and one of the most characteristic representatives of Arab Andalusian erudition in the 5th/11th century. Although little is known about the details of the life of Abū ʿUbayd al-Bakrī, it is possible to describe the various aspects of his scientific activity, all of which seems to have taken place in his own country; in fact, he appears never to have travelled in the East, or even North Africa, which he …

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. ʿAlī b. Yūsuf al-Fāsī

(120 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the most famous representative of the Moroccan family of the Fāsiyyūn, b. in al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr 1077/1599, d. 1091/1680. He was the head of the zāwiya of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya in al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr. He wrote a fahrasa and some books on ḥadīt̲h̲ , but he is best known as one of the main representatives of Moroccan ṣūfism at the beginning of the 17th century. His descendants form today a very numerous and important branch of the religious and scholarly aristocracy of Fez (the inhabitants of the town being called, in order to avoid a confusion with the family of the Fāsiyyūn, ahl Fās ). (E. Lévi-Provenç…
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