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Inscription of Narām-sîn: Campaign Against Armānum and Ebla (2.91)

(1,308 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Burkhart
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Old Akkadian Inscriptions Commentary This inscription was originally carved on the socle of a statue also showing the relief of a city on top of a mountain; it is preserved in three Old Babylonian copies on clay tablets from Ur. Exemplar A contains lines 1–118 and the captions describing the city, exemplar B has the lines 119–185 and two short captions while exemplar C seems to contain th…

Warad-Sin (2.101B)

(679 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; …

Nebuchadnezzar II’s Restoration of the Ebabbar Temple In Larsa (2.122A)

(650 words)

Author(s): Beaulieu, Paul-Alain
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumenta…

Ur-dukuga (2.97)

(258 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian cone inscription of Ur-dukuga, the thirteenth king of the Isin I dynasty (who reigned ca. 1830–1828 bce), records the construction of a temple of the god Dagan in the royal city of Isin. Dagan was an important Mesopotamian and West Semitic deity with major cult centres at ancient Tuttul (modern Tell Biʿa near the junction of the Euphrates and Balih rivers) and Terqa (m…

Tiglath-pileser III (2.117)

(43 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The Calaḫ Annals The Iran Stela Summary Inscription 4 Summary Inscription 7 Summary Inscription 8 Summary Inscription 9-10 Summary Inscription 13 Tiglath-pileser III (2.117)

Ninurta-kudurrī-uṣur — Suḫu Annals (#18) (2.115C)

(698 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Inscribed on a stone stela discovered on the island of ʿĀnā, this text descri…

Warad-Sin (2.101A)

(317 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian cone inscription of Warad-Sin (the thirteenth king of the Larsa dynasty who reigned from 1834–23 bce) records the construction of the chief storehouse in Ur. This building was apparently not a storeroom for grain, but rather a repository for precious objects donated to the city temples. Warad-Sin (2.101A) ( 1–4) For the god Nanna, lord who beams forth brightly in shining heaven, first…

Summary Inscription 4 (2.117C)

(1,342 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Incised on fragmentary pieces of an apparent pavement slab, this summary inscription was discovered in excavations at Nimrud and left in situ. It is preserved in squeezes that are no longer extant. Thought originally to be part of the Tiglath-pileser’s Annals (note Luckenbill  ARAB 1:§§ 815–819 and Oppenheim  ANET 283), Wiseman (1956:118) recognized correctly the text’s affinity to Summary Inscriptions 1 and 9. S…

Marduk-zakir-shumi (2.125C)

(235 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Seal Inscriptions Commentary At 19 cm high, this is one of the largest seals known, a worthy votive offering from a king of Babylon (second half of the ninth century bce) to the city’s principal deity. For the divine Marduk, the great lord, heroic, lofty, exalted, lord of all, lord of lords, high judge, rendering decisions for the inhabited world, lord of foreign lands, lord of Babylon, dwelling in the temple Esagil, his lord — Marduk-zakir-shu…

Esarhaddon (2.120)

(422 words)

Author(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Sennacherib’s destruction of Babylon (see  COS COSB.2.119E) was condemned by the city’s later Chaldaean rulers. Nabo-polassar, the founder of the Chaldaean Dynasty, declared war on the Assyrians and saw their destruction as just retribution (Gerardi 1986); Nabonidus, the last king of the Dynasty, also considered Sennacherib’s assassination as evidence of divine retribution ( ANET 309; Beaulieu 1989:105…

Rim-Sin (2.102D)

(441 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A rock-crystal jar, probably once used to hold unguent, was dedicated in Sumerian to the god Mardu/Amurrum for the life of Rim-Sin by the king’s chief physician. The evidence of the vessel’s inscription suggests that this purchased piece originally came from Larsa. It apparently belonged to a hoard from the Amurrum temple in Larsa that consisted of at least four pieces (s…

Shu-ilishu (2.93)

(291 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary The name of what is probably the third year of Shu-ilishu (the second king of the Isin I dynasty, who reigned ca. 1984–1875 bce) commemorates the construction of a standard for the moon god Nanna, tutelary deity of Ur. The deed is recorded in a Sumerian school tablet copy excavated by Sir Leonard Woolley at Ur. Standards, with divine or animal images on their tops, were often used in ancient Mesopota…

Nabopolassar’s Restoration of Imgur-Enlil, the Inner Defensive Wall of Babylon (2.121)

(1,717 words)

Author(s): Beaulieu, Paul-Alain
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary Nabopolassar (626–605 bce) was the founder of the Neo-Babylonian dynasty. He revolted against the Assyrians, ousted them from Akkad (i.e. Babylonia), and eventually helped the Medes to destroy the Assyrian empire. The following inscription discovered during the Iraqi restoration work on the site of Babylon and first published in 1985 commemorates Nabo…

Sennacherib (2.119)

(45 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Sennacherib’s First Campaign: Against Merodach-baladan Sennacherib’s Siege of Jerusalem Sennacherib — Lachish Relief Inscription Sennacherib: the “Azekah” Inscription Sennacherib: the Capture and Destruction of Babylon Sennacherib (2.119)

Tell Sheik Hammad Stela (2.114D)

(299 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This fragmentary text (× cm) is inscribed on a broken black basalt stela found in 18791 at Tell Sheik Hammad (ancient Dūr-Katlimmu).2 The fragment also preserves a partial relief of the king’s portrait and divine symbols. Tell Sheik Hammad Stela (2.114D) ( lines 1–2) [Adad-nirari, the great king,] the mighty [king], king of the universe, king of Assyria, son of Šamši-Adad, [king of the uni…

Hammu-rapi (2.107A)

(567 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Late Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary Hammu-rapi, the sixth king of the Babylon I dynasty reigned ca. 1792–1750 bce. The name of his 23rd year commemorates the laying of the foundation of the wall of Sippar, that of year 25 the construction of the wall itself. These deeds were commemorated in a long cone inscription known in both Sumerian and Akkadian versions. Ancient Sippar, cult center of the sun god Utu/Shamash was located at modern A…

The Sippar Cylinder of Nabonidus (2.123A)

(3,027 words)

Author(s): Beaulieu, Paul-Alain
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary This long and complex inscription occurs in several exemplars and fragmentary duplicates, all clay cylinders inscribed in Neo-Babylonian script and found in the remains of the Ebabbar temple in Sippar. One exemplar was found in Babylon, in the so-called “palace museum,” along with many older inscriptions removed from their original contexts; it is n…

Nabonidus (2.123)

(33 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary The Sippar Cylinder of Nabonidus Nabonidus’ Rebuilding of E-lugal-galga-sisa, The Ziggurat of Ur Nabonidus (2.123)

Rimut-ilani (2.125A)

(145 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Seal Inscriptions Commentary This seal was found in controlled excavations at Beer-Sheba in the Negev (Israel). There is no indication as to how it got there, but the seal owner’s father is either identical with or at least a namesake of Hadad-idri, king of Damascus in the ninth century,1 and the script of the inscription would be compatible with that time. Note, however, that the direction of the script (from top to bottom, not from left to right), might…

Summary Inscription 7 (2.117D)

(847 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This inscription is written on about half of a large tablet (23.×.5+ cm) which though it bears the label K 3751, was most probably discovered at Nimrud. The most detailed of Tiglath-pileser’s summary inscriptions, it was likely composed in or shortly after his 17th palû (regnal year) (i.e., 729 bce) (Tadmor 1994:154, 238–259). It preserves the only complete building account of Tiglath-pileser from Calah. Summary …
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