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From Büyükkale, Building E (3.40)

(317 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Accounts; Archive Shelf Lists From Büyükkale, Building E (3.40) (iii.2–3) “When they give [a festival (?)] in Šapinuwa to [the Stormgod (?)] in the third year.” ( iii.4) “When [they draw] from the road the Mother goddesses of the (king’s?) body.” ( iii.5–6) “When they celebrate the Spring Festival in Kulella for the Stormgod of Kul[ella].” ( iii.7–9) The word of Kantuzzi[li, Chief of the] priests (and) Prince: “When they pour […], and they call a little […], how they put down [……

ʿAmmiṯtamru, King of Ugarit, to the King of Egypt (RIH 78.3+30) (3.45M)

(1,235 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Outgoing Correspondence To Other Courts (13) ʿAmmiṯtamru, King of Ugarit, to the King of Egypt (RIH 78.3+30) (3.45M) 1 Subject: Isa 11:4–5; Ps 23:3; 45:5; Ezek 26:7; Dan 2:37; Ezra 7:12; Exod 20:17 Address and Prostration Formulae (lines 1–6) [To the Sun],2 the great king, the king of Egypt, the [goo]d [king], the just king, ee the [king of k]ings,3  ff master of all lands, […],4 say: Message of [ʿAmmiṯtam]ru,5 your servant. At my [master’s] feet I fa[ll]. Greetings…

The Case Against Ura-Tarḫunta and His Father Ukkura (3.33)

(2,367 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Courtcases; Records of Testimony Given in the Trials of Suspected Thieves and Embezzlers of Royal Property Commentary This tablet was found in the East magazine of the Great Temple in the Lower City (quadrant L/19). It was kept there, because since it contained statements supported by oaths taken in the temple of Lelwani, its proper repository was a temple. Not all such tablets, however, were kept in that location. Some were recovered in Buil…

Slave Sale (3.133A)

(239 words)

Author(s): Steinkeller, Piotr
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Sumerian Archival Documents; Contracts; Sale Transactions Commentary This text comes from Lagaš and dates to the Sargonic period (ca. 2250 BCE). Slave Sale (3.133A) Subject: Gen 10:10 (lines 1–6) Gala, Geme-LIŠ (and) her two daughters — they are his wife and children (i.e., of Gala); Lu-TAR (and) Šadu — they are his brothers. (lines 7–10) Lugal-ušumgal, the governor of Lagaš, bought them from Šu-ilišu, the judge. (lines 11–16) Puzur-Adad, son of Dudu, brother of Šu-ilišu, brought them from Akkade a (and) made them “cr…

A Loan of Silver to Ur-Enlila (3.136F)

(227 words)

Author(s): Steinkeller, Piotr
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Sumerian Archival Documents; Contracts; Loan Transactions Commentary The text may originate from Nippur and dates from the Ur III period (1st year of Šu-Sin). This is an antichretic loan transaction, in which the interest on the loan is covered by the produce of the pledged field (see COSB.3.136D above and COSB.3.136G below). A Loan of Silver to Ur-Enlila (3.136F) (lines 1–5) Ur-Enlila, the farmer, received from Ga’akam 9 shekels of silver (as a loan); its interest (is) 2 shekels and 36 grains of silver.1 (lines 6–7) (In lieu of th…

From an Official in Alashia to the King (RS 18.113a+b) (3.45U)

(687 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Between King or Queen and a Non-Royal Personage (21) From an Official in Alashia to the King (RS 18.113a+b) (3.45U) 1 Address (lines 1–3) To the king, [my] l[ord], s[ay]: Message of the Chief of Maʾ[ḫadu, your servant]. Prostration Formula ( lines 4–6) At the feet of my master [ (from) afar], seven times and seven times [do I fall.] Greetings ( lines 6–9) I do pronounce to Baʿlu-Ṣapuni, to Eternal Sun, to ʿAṯtartu, to ʿAnatu, to all the gods of Alashi[a] (…

Arad 21: A Son’s Letter (3.43J)

(92 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Hebrew Letters Arad 21: A Son’s Letter (3.43J) Subject: 1 Sam 24:20; Prov 13:21; 25:22 Your son Yehukal (hereby) sends greetings to (you) Gedalyahu [son of] Elyair and to your household. I bless you to Yahweh. And now, if my lord had done […] may Yahweh reward i my lord […].1 Biblical References i 1 Sam 24:20 Prov 13:21 25:22 Notes^ back to text1. This letter was originally ten lines long, but only the praescriptio and the beginning of the body are reasonably well preserved.

Loan of Grain (3.81)

(1,367 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Egyptian Aramaic Commentary This is the only loan document for grain and we cannot tell for certain whether it was drawn up after Anani son of Haggai bought his in-laws’ apartment or before (COSB.3.80), since it lacked day date. In the middle of December, in the first month of the Egyptian year, Anani went to Syene to borrow from the Egyptian-named Aramean, Pakhnum son of Besa, 2 peras 3 seah of emmer (approximately …

Document of Wifehood (3.76)

(3,029 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Egyptian Aramaic Commentary At forty-five lines, this is the longest contract in our collection. Emancipated and adopted seven years earlier (COSB.3.74), Jehoishma was given away not by her father Anani but by her adoptive brother Zaccur, who furnished her with a handsome dowry of 78.125 shekels plus seventeen unevaluated items (lines 4–21). This included a mohar of one karsh paid by the groom Anani son of Haggai. Th…

A Loan of Sheep Fat (3.136C)

(205 words)

Author(s): Steinkeller, Piotr
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Sumerian Archival Documents; Contracts; Loan Transactions Commentary This text comes from Nippur. It dates to the Ur III period (9th year of Šu-Sin, 10th month, 23rd day, ca. 2029 BCE). A Loan of Sheep Fat (3.136C) (lines 1–5) Adda-kala and Pussa, his wife, received 20 qû (liters) of sheep fat from Adda-kala (as an interest-free loan). (lines 6–7) They are to return it till the 30th day of the month ZÍZ.DURU5 (= 11th month). (lines 8–13) They swore by the name of the king that, if they do not return it (as specified), the…

The Bukān Inscription (3.89)

(751 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Miscellaneous Texts; Aramaic Stela Fragment Commentary This inscription was discovered in two fragments: the major piece was found in archaeological excavations in 1985 at Tapeh Qalâychi near Bukān, southeast of Lake Urmia in Azerbaijan, Iran; the other, smaller piece, was recovered on the antiquities market in 1990.1 Together the fragments (.×.5 m) preserve only the last thirteen lines of an Old Aramaic inscription. Although much of the original text that was abo…

The King to Ḥayyaʾil Regarding an Allotment of Logs (RS 16.264) (3.45Q)

(1,601 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Between King or Queen and a Non-Royal Personage (17) The King to Ḥayyaʾil Regarding an Allotment of Logs (RS 16.264) (3.45Q) 1 Subject: Gen 6:14; Exod 25:5; 1 Kgs 5:20, 22, 24; 9:11; Ps 22:18 Address (lines 1–3) Message (that) the king spoke: To Ḥayyaʾil:2 Reference to a Previous Letter from Ḥayyaʾil ( lines 4–6) Why do you keep sending me (the following message): “How am I to furnish3 the timbers4  jj for the temple of Damal?”?5 The King’s Decision ( lines 7–21)6 I …

A Loan of Silver to Šu-Ašli (3.136A)

(215 words)

Author(s): Steinkeller, Piotr
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Sumerian Archival Documents; Contracts; Loan Transactions Commentary This tablet and its envelope come from Nippur and date to the Ur III period (5th year of Šu-Sin, 2nd? month, ca. 2033 BCE). A Loan of Silver to Šu-Ašli (3.136A) (lines 1–3) Šu-Ašli received 25 shekels of silver from A-zida (as an interest-free loan). (lines 4–5) He is to return the capital of the silver to Nippur till the month Apin-du8-a (= 8th month). (lines 6–8) If he does not return (this) silver (as specified), he will measure out 2 kor (= 600 l…

Pgn to the King of Ugarit (RS 18.147) (3.45K)

(557 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Incoming Correspondence From Other Courts (11) Pgn to the King of Ugarit (RS 18.147) (3.45K) 1 Address (lines 1–3) Message of PGN, your father: To the king of Ugarit, [my son], say: Greetings ( lines 4–5) May it be well with you. May the gods guard you, may they keep you well. Report of Well-being and Request for Return of News ( lines 6–8) Here with me, it is well. There wi[th] my son, whatever is [w]ell, return word (of that) [to me]. Reference to Previous Correspondence Rega…

Lachish 2: Thanks and Good Wishes (3.42A)

(455 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Hebrew Letters Lachish 2: Thanks and Good Wishes (3.42A) Subject: 1 Sam 2:24; 1 Kgs 10:7; 2 Kgs 19:7; Jer 51:46; Prov 15:30; 25:25; 2 Kgs 8:13 Salutation (lines 1–2) To my lord Yaush.1 May Yahweh2 give you good news3  a at this very time. Humble Thanks for Being Remembered ( lines 3–5) Who is your servant (but) a dog4  b that my lord should remember5 his servant? May Yahweh give my lord first knowledge6 of anything you do not already know. Biblical References a 1 Sam 2:24 1 Kgs 10:7 2 Kgs 19:7 Jer 51…

Archive Shelf Lists (3.HI.C.3)

(143 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Accounts Commentary These texts, also called “catalogs,” list the tablets in the state archives of Ḫattuša. They indicate the author and/or title/incipit of the work, how many tablets it comprised, the tablet’s form (ordinary tablets called DUB, special tablets called im.gÍd.da “long tablet”), and whether or not all known tablets were found. All such tablets were found in Boğazköy itself; to date none has been reported in Maşat (Tapikka), Kuşakli (Šarišša…

ʿAmmurāpiʾ to the King of Egypt(RS 34.356) (3.45N)

(296 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Outgoing Correspondence To Other Courts (14) ʿAmmurāpiʾ to the King of Egypt (RS 34.356) (3.45N) 1 First Address (lines 1–2) [To the Sun, the] great [king], king of kin[gs], [my master], say: Message of ʿAmmurāpiʾ, [your servant]. First Body ( lines 3–8) […] NMY, [your] messenger, has arrived […] [the Sun], the great king, my master, to [me …]. Then I, your servant, greatly re[joiced? …] my good master […] the Sun, my master, has sent […] the [Su]n, the gre…

The King to the Queen-Mother In the Matter of the Amurrite Princess (RS 34.124) (3.45D)

(1,486 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Correspondence Between Members of the Royal Family (4) The King to the Queen-Mother1 In the Matter of the Amurrite Princess (RS 34.124) (3.45D) 2 Subject: 1 Kgs 2:19; Ps 51:19; 147:3; 19:12; 1 Kgs 11:1–3; 1 Kgs 10:2, 10; 1 Sam 10:1; 16:1, 13; 1 Kgs 1:39; 2 Kgs 9:1–3, 6; Pss 23:5; 133:2; Exod 20:5–6 Address (lines 1–3) [To the queen, my mother, say: Message of the] k[ing, your son.] Prostration and Greeting Formulae ( line 4–6) At my mother’s feet [I fall]. j With my mother 〈ma…

Demotic Self-Dedication Texts (3.EG.B.2)

(269 words)

Author(s): Ritner, Robert K.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Egyptian Archival Documents; Contracts Commentary Attested from Memphis and the Faiyum during the Ptolemaic period, “self-dedication texts” date to the second century bce. The texts show similarities both to the Saïte self-sales into slavery and to earlier oracular amuletic decrees issued by temples in the name of a protective deity. Amuletic decrees of the Third Intermediate Period (Dynasties 21–22) present the god as listing a long series of individual evils from which…

Document of Wifehood (3.71)

(2,087 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Egyptian Aramaic Commentary This record of a free man-handmaiden marriage presents a unique opportunity to reconstruct the haggling that went on between groom and master regarding the status of the bride and the rights of the parties to the contract. Tamet’s status may be described as comparable to the biblical “slave woman designated for a man” for the purpose of marriage (Lev 19:20). In rabbinic terms she was “part slave and part free.” Not yet manumitted, she was not enti…
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