Brill’s Digital Library of World War I

Search

Your search for 'tei_subject:"Germany"' returned 424 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Field Hospitals (Germany)

(707 words)

Author(s): Eckart, Wolfgang U.
Field Hospitals (Germany) At the start of the war, 12 field hospitals were available for each infantry corps, and four to eight reserve field hospitals for each reserve corps. Two replacement field hospitals were assigned to the replacement divisions, and in the winter of 1914–1915 two Territorial Army field hospitals were assigned to the Territorial Army brigades. A total of 461 Prussian, 64 Bavarian, 44 Saxon and 23 Württemberg field hospitals were set up (no new ones were created in 1918). In ad…

Falkenhausen, Ludwig Alexander Baron von

(303 words)

Author(s): Afflerbach, Holger
Falkenhausen, Ludwig Alexander Baron von (September 13, 1844, Guben – May 4, 1936, Görlitz), German general. Falkenhausen had been a soldier since 1862, and had taken part in the wars of 1866 and 1870/1871. As commanding general of the XIIIth Army Corps, he had been placed on the inactive list in 1902. Recalled to active service at his own request in 1914, onSeptember 15 he took over command of the Falkenhausen Division (from April 1916 Army Division A) that, after the end of the border engagements b…

Planning for the Endgame: The Central Powers, September 1916–April 1917

(10,180 words)

Author(s): Sondhaus, Lawrence
Sondhaus, Lawrence - Planning for the Endgame: The Central Powers, September 1916–April 1917 Keywords: Central Powers | Erich Ludendorff | Franz Conrad | Paul von Hindenburg | Western Front ISFWWS-Keywords: International Relations during the War | Germany | Austria-Hungary | The Military and Naval War | Italian-Austrian Front | Russian Front | Western Front | Naval Warfare | Economy Abstract: Between September 1916, when Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff were granted sweeping authority over the war effort of the Central Powers, and Apri…

Cambrai

(605 words)

Author(s): Werth, German
Cambrai City in the north of France on the canalized River Scheldt (L’Escaut). The “Tank Battle of Cambrai” in November of 1917 saw the first operational massed deployment of British tank forces – a veritable revolution on the battlefield. On November 20, after only a brief burst of fire and without the normal artillery preparation lasting several days, the newly-created British Tank Corps breached the German Hindenburg Line near Havrincourt. The 400 tracked vehicles were supported by six infantry and three …

Brändström, Elsa

(445 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Uta
Brändström, Elsa (March 26, 1888, Saint Petersburg – March 4, 1948, Cambridge MA), Swedish philanthropist and nurse. The daughter of the Swedish ambassador in Saint Petersburg, Brändström continued to be known throughout Europe long after her death; in Germany she enjoyed nearly saintly status as the “Angel of Siberia.” This veneration was bestowed on her for the courage and commitment she had shown in caring for German and Austrian prisoners of war in Russia, and above all for her personal humanitarian work in Russian camps between 1915 and 1920. Living in Saint Petersburg at the o…

German Southwest Africa

(920 words)

Author(s): Zimmerer, Jürgen
German Southwest Africa German colony on the Atlantic coast in southern Africa between Angola to the north, South Africa to the south, and Botswana to the east; the modern Namibia. Placed under the protection of the German Reich by Bismarck in 1884, German Southwest Africa was the only German African colony suited for substantial European settlement. Accordingly, the influx of German emigrants was actively encouraged. The arbitrary attitude of the German administration towards the African population was marked by a high degree of cruelty. Thus in the war agai…

War Welfare Office

(930 words)

Author(s): Verhey, Jeffrey
War Welfare Office Wide sections of the population that had never before been counted among the recipients of poor relief turned for help from the government care services. Many working women were dismissed from their jobs at the beginning of the war. These were joined by the families of soldiers and the surviving dependents of the fallen. The existing statutes in Germany, France, and Great Britain failed to fully address the real needs of those made poor by the war circumstances. The laws passed by the combatant nations early in the war still did not address the problem adequately. Wartime w…

The Mater Dolorosa on the Battlefield— Mourning Mothers in German Women’s Art of the First World War

(10,203 words)

Author(s): Siebrecht, Claudia
Siebrecht, Claudia - The Mater Dolorosa on the Battlefield— Mourning Mothers in German Women’s Art of the First World War Keywords: First World War | German women's art | maternal sacrifice ISFWWS-Keywords: Women and War | Visual Arts | Germany | Religion | Society | Home fronts Abstract: A predominant theme in women's art of the First World War is that of maternal sacrifice. Contemporary women's literature, short stories and poetry also present the experience of mothers sacrificing their sons for the fatherland as the most im…

War Press Office

(630 words)

Author(s): Albes, Jens
War Press Office (German Kriegspresseamt), a government department that was responsible for the control and censorship of the press in Germany. After the creation of the Central Censorship Office in February 1915, the German Supreme Army Command and the War Ministry intensified their efforts to exert a “positive” influence on the press. The visible expression of this policy was the establishment of the War Press Office on October 14, 1915, an agency that was directly subordinated to the Supreme Army…

Grosz, George (Georg Ehrenfried Grosz)

(447 words)

Author(s): Jürgens-Kirchhoff, Annegret
Grosz, George (Georg Ehrenfried Grosz) (July 26, 1893, Berlin – July 6, 1959, Berlin [West]), German graphic artist and painter. Like so many others, young Grosz applied in November 1914 for military service as a volunteer. As he later wrote that he was moved not by enthusiasm, but probably by the opportunity of choosing a regiment. As early as May 1915 he was discharged on health grounds as unfit for service. Fear of another call-up, which finally took place in January 1917, crippled Grosz’s artistic work. He remained however productive. In 1917 there appeared the First Georg Grosz Portf…

Strange Fronts, Strange Wars: Germany’s Battle for “Islam” in the Middle East during the First World War, and British Reactions

(12,391 words)

Author(s): Lüdke, Tilman
Lüdke, Tilman - Strange Fronts, Strange Wars: Germany’s Battle for “Islam” in the Middle East during the First World War, and British Reactions ISFWWS-Keywords: Religion | Politics | Middle East | The Ottoman Empire and the Middle East | Germany | Britain Other Fronts, Other Wars? Joachim Bürgschwentner, Matthias Egger and Gunda Barth-Scalmani , (2014) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2014 e-ISBN: 9789004279513 DOI: 10.1163/9789004279513_019 © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Lüdke, Tilman

Internment in a Neutral Country: The Arrival of the Prisoners of War

(9,740 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Susanne
Wolf, Susanne - Internment in a Neutral Country: The Arrival of the Prisoners of War Keywords: Dutch | Germany | Great Britain | Hague treaty | internment | Netherlands | neutral country | prisoners of war (POW) Abstract: The treaty concluded between Germany and Great Britain allowed for the transfer of long-term and seriously ill Prisoners of war (POWs) from captivity into internment in the Netherlands. The idea of a neutral country volunteering to take on responsibility for sick and wounded soldiers from belli…

Wilhelm, German Crown Prince

(367 words)

Author(s): Schranz, Daniel
Wilhelm, German Crown Prince (May 6, 1882, Potsdam – July 20, 1951, Hechingen), crown prince of the German Reich and of Prussia. Wilhelm was born in 1882 as the first son of the later Kaiser Wilhelm II. He began his military career at the age of 14, interrupting it for a time to study political science in Bonn. In fall 1911 he was named commander of the First Life Guards Hussars Regiment in Danzig (Gdańsk). Though hardly qualified, he assumed command of the Fifth Army when war broke out in August 19…

Holtzendorff, Henning von

(337 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Holtzendorff, Henning von (January 9, 1853, Prenzlau – June 7, 1919, Jagow [Uckermark]), German grand admiral. Holtzendorff entered the navy in 1869, took part in the war of 1870/1871, and in 1900 served as commander of a capital ship during the Boxer Rebellion. After various commands on land (commander in chief of the navy, chief of staff of the Baltic Division, commander of the dockyard at Danzig [Gdańsk]), from 1906 to 1909 he was commander of the First Squadron, and in 1910 took command of the …

Gorlice-Tarnów, Battle of

(1,005 words)

Author(s): Stone, Norman
Gorlice-Tarnów, Battle of Two towns in Galicia (now situated in modern Poland). Even though the German Supreme Army Command was determined to decide the war in the West, developments in early 1915 brought the focus of attention to the East. The weaker the Austro-Hungarian army became, the more the German allies felt compelled to provide direct support. The situation deteriorated when Italy, hoping for territorial gains, threatened the Dual Monarchy with war. Now the German Eleventh Army (August von…

Hoeppner, Ernst von

(360 words)

Author(s): Pöhlmann, Markus
Hoeppner, Ernst von (January 14, 1860, Tonnin Island of Wolin [now in Poland] – September 27, 1922, Gross-Mockratz, Island of Rügen), German general. Educated in the cadet corps, in 1879 Hoeppner entered the 6th Regiment of Dragoons, and was appointed major general in 1912. At mobilization he became chief of the general staff of the Third Army, leading its operations during the Battle of the Frontiers and on the Marne, until the Army entered the positional war. On February 14, 1915, Hoeppner took o…

South Tyrol

(754 words)

Author(s): Afflerbach, Holger
South Tyrol The part of the Tyrol situated south of the Brenner. Between August 1914 and May 1915, South Tyrol was disputed territory between the Italians and Italy’s Triple Alliance partners Austria-Hungary and the German Reich. At issue initially was Trentino (according to the census of 1910: 393,111 inhabitants, of whom 366,844 were speakers of Italian and Ladin, 13,893 German-speakers, 2,666 speakers of other languages, and 9,708 foreigners, the greater portion of them North Italians), then th…

New Writers, New Literary Genres (1914–1918): The Contribution of Historical Comparatism (France, Germany)

(9,272 words)

Author(s): Beaupré, Nicolas
Beaupré, Nicolas - New Writers, New Literary Genres (1914–1918): The Contribution of Historical Comparatism (France, Germany) Keywords: Literature | Experience of combat | French Army and its combattants | Germany | Culture | Intellectuals and the War | Legacy ‛Warfare and Belligerence’ Pierre Purseigle, Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2005 e-ISBN: 9789047407362 DOI: 10.1163/9789047407362.013 © 2005 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Beaupré, Nicolas

Paris, Berlin: War Memory in Two Capital Cities (1914–1933)

(12,440 words)

Author(s): Julien, Elise
Julien, Elise - Paris, Berlin: War Memory in Two Capital Cities (1914–1933) Keywords: Home fronts | Society | France | Germany | Legacy | Politics ‛Warfare and Belligerence’ Pierre Purseigle, Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2005 e-ISBN: 9789047407362 DOI: 10.1163/9789047407362.016 © 2005 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Julien, Elise

Denmark

(672 words)

Author(s): Bohn, Robert
Denmark Constitutional monarchy, ruler Christian X (ruled 1912–1947). Since the annexation of Schleswig-Holstein (1867) by the Prussian State, and the measures of Germanization in North Schleswig, the mood in Denmark had been decidedly anti-German. The army and navy were mobilized at the outbreak of war, owing to fears that, because of its control of access to routes to the Baltic, the country might become the target of British or German military operations. The Royal Navy, however, exercised res…
▲   Back to top   ▲