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Aššur Basalt Statue (2.113G)

(407 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This is a Summary or Display inscription which is incised on the front, left hip and back of a broken basalt statue of Shalmaneser. It was discovered in the 1903 German excavations at the entrance to a Parthian building where it had been moved from its original location at the Tabira Gate. The statue had been broken into two large and many small pieces and the head was missing. The text appears to date to 833 bce based on the…

Sennacherib: the “Azekah” Inscription (2.119D)

(615 words)

Author(s): Cogan, Mordechai
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The remains of twenty-one lines of a tablet, one fragment of which (K 6205) was formerly ascribed to Tiglath-pileser III ( ANET 282b), the other (82–3–23, 131) to Sargon. The reference to the Judean city of Azekah, as well as the name of Hezekiah (partially restored) definitively set the location of the battles in Judah, but there is still some question as to their date.…

Pavement Inscription 4 (2.118G)

(233 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The text was inscribed on a pavement slab for the gates at Dūr-Šarrukīn (Khorsabad). Pavement Inscription 4 (2.118G) ( lines 31–41) (Sargon II) … who conquered Samaria and the entire land of Bīt-Ḫumria (Israel);1 who plundered Ashdod (and) Šinuḫtu,2 who caught the Ionians3 like fish in the middle of the sea; who deported the Kasku, all of Tabal, and Ḫilakku; who drove away Mita (Mi…

Annals: Calaḫ Bulls (2.113C)

(1,210 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This is a reconstructed recension (Recension D according to Schramm  EAK 2:76–77) based on inscriptions on two monumental bulls found at Calaḫ and supplemented by two small fragments of inscribed stones. The edition apparently dates to 841 bce1 and is the first edition of Shalmaneser’s annals that documents Shalmaneser’s campaign in his eighteenth regnal year against Hazael of Damascus…

Black Obelisk (2.113F)

(1,136 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Sculpted from black alabaster, the famous “Black Obelisk,” is 2.02 meters in height and contains the longest account of Shalmaneser’s reign, stretching down to the king’s thirty-first regnal year.1 It was discovered by Layard at Calaḫ in 1846. The text is identified as Recension F and dates to 828–827 bce. The Obelisk is formed in the shape of a ziggurat, having four sides with five panels on each…

The Calaḫ Annals (2.117A)

(2,314 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary In the final years of Tiglath-pileser’s reign,1 the royal scribes composed what became the final “full” edition of his Annals, made up of seventeen palû’s (or regnal years). This edition was inscribed between two registers of reliefs on stone slabs already in place decorating the walls of Tiglath-pileser’s palace at Calah (Nimrud). However, the palace was…

The Cylinder Inscription (2.118H)

(238 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Discovered at Khorsabad, the text is inscribed on four barrel cylinders (two in the Louvre at Paris and two in the British Museum in London). The inscription commemorates the founding of Sargon’s new capital at Dūr-Šarrukīn. The Cylinder Inscription (2.118H) ( lines 19–20)1 (Sargon) who subjugated the extensive land of Bīt-Ḫumria (Israel), who inflicted a decisive defeat on Egypt at Rap…

Summary Inscription 9–10 (2.117F)

(983 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The text is written on a large, very fragmentary clay tablet1 (18.4 cm wide) which was recovered in excavations at Nimrud in 1955. The reverse of the tablet preserves narrations of Tiglath-pileser’s Levantine campaigns, arranged geographically and set off by rulings across the surface of the tablet. Summary Inscription 10 (K 2649),2 following Tadmor’s designation (1994:180), is a tiny fragment (2.×.…

Antakya Stela (2.114A)

(664 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This inscription is carefully incised on a stone stela which was discovered by a farmer digging a well near the Orontes river about 1.5 km outside the city of Antakya (undoubtedly in the ancient territory of Unqi, see Hawkins 1995b:96). While the stela is damaged on the left side, from top to bottom, and on the top and top right corner, it records cle…

Sennacherib (2.119)

(45 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Sennacherib’s First Campaign: Against Merodach-baladan Sennacherib’s Siege of Jerusalem Sennacherib — Lachish Relief Inscription Sennacherib: the “Azekah” Inscription Sennacherib: the Capture and Destruction of Babylon Sennacherib (2.119)

Kurbaʾil Statue (2.113E)

(485 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Engraved on a statue of Shalmaneser (measuring 103 cm in height), the text belongs to Recension E of his annals. Since the last regnal year narrated is the twentieth, the statue must date to 839–838 bce. While it belongs to the same recension as the Marble Slab ( COS COSB.2.113D), the narrative concerning Shalmaneser’s eighteenth year campaign against Hazael more closely follows that of the Calaḫ Bulls ( COS

Summary Inscription 13 (2.117G)

(532 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This inscription is engraved on a poorly preserved colossal bas-relief from Nimrud that depicts a large figure with a mace. The inscription is incised across the large figure. While a number of scholars have treated the text as a part of Tiglath-pileser’s Annals,1 others have noted its non-chronological elements as evidence of its summary type. In Tadmor’s recent treatment, he suggests that …

Sargon II (2.118)

(56 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The Annals The Borowski Stela The Aššur “Charter” Nimrud Prisms D & E The Great “Summary” Inscription The Small “Summary” Inscription Pavement Inscription 4 The Cylinder Inscription The Nimrud Inscription The Tang-i Var Inscription Sargon II (2.118)

Tell Al Rimah Stela (2.114F)

(736 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The stela was discovered at Tell al Rimah, near Jebel Sinjar, where it stood in “position inside the cella of a Late Assyrian shrine, set beside the podium, a placing that is unparalleled among the find spots of other royal stelae” (Page 1968:139). The monument is 130 cm in height and 69 cm in width. Like the Sabaʾa stela it has a relief of the king w…

The Nimrud Inscription (2.118I)

(513 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Inscribed on two slabs from Calah (Nimrud), this text is a summary inscription recording Sargon’s restoration of Aššur-naṣir-pal II’s palace. One slab is in Assyrian characters, the other in Babylonian. While the inscription is not dated, it appears to date to late 717 or early 716 bce (Naʾaman 1994:19–20). The Nimrud Inscription (2.118I) Subject: Isa 10:27–32 ( line 7–12) Pious prince, who met with Ḫumba…

The Great “Summary” Inscription (2.118E)

(911 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Discovered at Khorsabad (see introduction to Sargon’s Annals above,  COS COSB.2.118A), this summary inscription stood on the wall slabs of rooms 4, 7, 8 and 10 in Sargon’s palace. The Great “Summary” Inscription (2.118E) ( lines 23–27) From my accession year to my fifteenth regnal year, I decisively defeated Humbanigaš, the Elamite, in the district of Der. I besieged and conquered Samarina. I took as booty 27,2901…

Black Stone Cylinder (2.113H)

(205 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This short inscription is engraved on a small, black and white marble cylinder (1.×.1 cm) discovered on the northeast side of the small ziqqurrat in Aššur (i.e., the Anu-Adad temple). The cylinder was brought to Aššur by Shalmaneser as booty from Hazael of Damascus;1 and was perhaps used as a foundation deposit for the city wall. Black Stone Cylinder (2.113H) Subject: 2 Kgs 8:7–15; 10:32–34 ( lines 1–8) Booty fro…

Tiglath-pileser III (2.117)

(43 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The Calaḫ Annals The Iran Stela Summary Inscription 4 Summary Inscription 7 Summary Inscription 8 Summary Inscription 9-10 Summary Inscription 13 Tiglath-pileser III (2.117)

Tell Sheik Hammad Stela (2.114D)

(299 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This fragmentary text (× cm) is inscribed on a broken black basalt stela found in 18791 at Tell Sheik Hammad (ancient Dūr-Katlimmu).2 The fragment also preserves a partial relief of the king’s portrait and divine symbols. Tell Sheik Hammad Stela (2.114D) ( lines 1–2) [Adad-nirari, the great king,] the mighty [king], king of the universe, king of Assyria, son of Šamši-Adad, [king of the uni…

The Tang-i Var Inscription (2.118J)

(971 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Discovered in Iranian Kurdistan in 1968, this cuneiform inscription is found on a Neo-Assyrian relief that is carved into a niche in a rock face on the flanks of the Kūh-i Zīnāneh in the Tang-i Var mountain pass. The niche is approximately 170 cm in height and 150 cm in width and some 40 m above ground level. The relief depicts an Assyrian king in …
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