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Kuntillet ʿAjrud: Inscribed Pithos 2 (2.47B)

(783 words)

Author(s): McCarter, P. Kyle
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions; Hebrew Inscriptions Commentary The second pithos from Kuntillet ‘Ajrud, like the first, is decorated with a number of drawings, including a cow, an archer with his bow drawn, and a group of five human figures, standing with their hands extended as if in worship or supplication. The pithos also bears four separate inscriptions. First is a complete Hebrew abecedary, with the letters pe and ʿayin re…

Kuntillet ʿAjrud: Inscribed Pithos 1 (2.47A)

(916 words)

Author(s): McCarter, P. Kyle
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions; Hebrew Inscriptions Commentary A number of Hebrew inscriptions, primarily religious in content, were found in excavations conducted during the 1970’s by Ze’ev Meshel for the Tel Aviv Institute of Archaeology at the site of Kuntillet ʿAjrud, a major crossroads in the northeastern Sinai. The inscriptions were found in the ruins of the better preserved of the two buildings found at the site, which h…

Kuntillet ʿAjrud: Plaster Wall Inscription (2.47D)

(582 words)

Author(s): McCarter, P. Kyle
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions; Hebrew Inscriptions Commentary This inscription fell from the doorjamb of the entryway to the western storage room in the main building at Kuntillet ʿAjrud. Preserved on the plaster are portions of five lines of a much longer text, which was poetic in character and similar in striking ways to certain theophanic passages found in archaic biblical poetry. Though the script is Phoenician, the language is probably Hebrew (cf. notes 1 and 2). Kuntillet ʿAjrud: Plast…

Jerusalem Ostracon (2.49)

(269 words)

Author(s): McCarter, P. Kyle
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions; Hebrew Inscriptions Commentary The ostracon, a fragment of the shoulder of a storage jar bearing three incomplete lines of Hebrew script written in ink, was found in 1971 during N. Avigad’s excavations in the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem. The poorly-preserved inscription is of special interest because of its third line, which may read “Creator of the Earth,” a well-known epithet of the biblical an…

The Jerusalem Pomegranate (2.48)

(703 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions; Hebrew Inscriptions Commentary This inscription is carved on a thumb-sized ivory in the shape of a pomegranate (height 4.3 cm, diameter 2.1 cm). It has been dated on paleographic grounds to the end of eighth century bce. Since the text circles on the pomegranate, there is some uncertainty concerning the starting and ending points. The text appears to mention a sanctuary of Yahweh which may possibly be associated with the temple …

Lugal-murube Son of Zuzu (2.143)

(387 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions Commentary Dogs were sacred to Nintinuga, the goddess of healing, perhaps because they were thought to aid recovery by licking wounds. Numerous skeletons of dogs have been found in Isin, her sacred city, where she was worshipped as Nin-Isina, “our lady of Isin,” or as Gula, “the great (goddess).” The following literary text records the fashioning and dedication of the sculpture of a dog to the godd…

Silver Bowl (Brooklyn Museum 54.50.36) (2.51A)

(159 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions; Aramaic Inscriptions Commentary To Hanilat1 Silver Bowl (Brooklyn Museum 54.50.36) (2.51A) Bibliographical References Text: I. Rabinowitz, ‛“Aramaic Inscriptions of the Fifth Century B.C.E. from a North-Arab Shrine in Egypt.”  JNES 15:1–9. ( 1956 ) ’ ,  TAD D15.1. Studies: W. J. Dumbrell, ‛“The Tell el-Maskhuṭa Bowls and the ‘Kingdom’ of Qedar in the Persian Period.”  BASOR 203:33–44. ( 1971 ) ’ , Fitzmyer and Kaufman 1992:B.3.f.12. Notes^ back to text1. Elli…

Kuntillet ʿAjrud (2.47)

(42 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions; Hebrew Inscriptions Commentary Kuntillet ʿAjrud: Inscribed Pithos 1 Kuntillet ʿAjrud: Inscribed Pithos 2 Kuntillet ʿAjrud: the Two-line Inscription Kuntillet ʿAjrud: Plaster Wall Inscription Kuntillet ʿAjrud (2.47)

Silver Bowl (Brooklyn Museum 57.121) (2.51B)

(254 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions; Aramaic Inscriptions Silver Bowl (Brooklyn Museum 57.121) (2.51B) Subject: Ezra 7:17 (That which)1 Ḥarbek2 son of Pa (u)siri3 offered4  a to Hanilat the goddess5 Bibliographical References Text: I. Rabinowitz, ‛“Another Aramaic Record of the North-Arabian Goddess Han-ʾilat.”  JNES 18:154–155. ( 1959 ) ’ ,  TAD D15.1. Studies: W. J. Dumbrell, ‛“The Tell el-Maskhuṭa Bowls and the ‘Kingdom’ of Qedar in the Persian Period.”  BASOR 203:33–44. ( 1971 ) ’ , Fit…

The Temple of the Lord Ostracon (2.50)

(880 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions; Hebrew Inscriptions Commentary This is one of two ostraca in the Moussaïeff collection (for the other, see the Widow’s Plea Ostracon,  COS COSB.3). It is a five-line inscription that records a royal contribution of silver by a king ʾAshyahu to the temple of Yahweh to be made through the agency of a royal functionary named Zakaryahu. The ostracon is 10.9 cm x 8.6 cm, and is written in Hebrew script that dates1 on the basis of palaeography to the time of Josiah (640–609 bce)…

Kuntillet ʿAjrud: the Two-line Inscription (2.47C)

(384 words)

Author(s): McCarter, P. Kyle
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions; Hebrew Inscriptions Commentary Portions of at least three ink-on-plaster texts in very fragmentary condition were found where they had fallen on the floor of the so-called bench room, near the entryway of the main building at Kuntillet ʿAjrud. One of these is illegible except for a single word that admits of no obvious interpretation. The second, translated here, consists of two incomplete lines …

Ibbi-sin (2.142)

(181 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions Commentary Old Babylonian copy on a clay tablet of a royal inscription of neo-Sumerian date originally carved on the sculpture of an exotic animal, perhaps a leopard. Ibbi-sin (2.142) For Nanna, the impetuous bullock of Heaven, the lord who is first-born son of Enlil, his master, Ibbi-Sin, the god of his nation, the mighty king, the king of Ur, the king of the four heavenly quarters — (of) a “dappled dog” of Meluhha (= India?…

Silver Bowl (Brooklyn Museum 54.50.32) (2.51C)

(327 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions; Aramaic Inscriptions Silver Bowl (Brooklyn Museum 54.50.32) (2.51C) Subject: Ezra 7:17 That which1 Ṣeḥo son of Abdamru2 offered b to Hanilat Bibliographical References Text: I. Rabinowitz, ‛“Aramaic Inscriptions of the Fifth Century B.C.E. from a North-Arab Shrine in Egypt.”  JNES 15:1–9. ( 1956 ) ’ ,  TAD D15.3. Studies: William Henri Guiton, Le cri des pierres : le témoignage de l'archéologie à la Bible, (Paris, 1939) …

Silver Bowl (Brooklyn Museum 54.50.34) (2.51D)

(469 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions; Aramaic Inscriptions Silver Bowl (Brooklyn Museum 54.50.34) (2.51D) Subject: Gen 4:1; 5:9; Neh 2:19; 6:1–2, 6; Gen 25:13; 1 Chr 1:29; Isa 21:16–17; 42:11; 60:7; Jer 2:10; 49:28; Ps 120:5; Cant 1:5; Ezra 7:17 That which Kainu1  c son of Geshem2  d king3 of Kedar4  e offered f to Hanilat Bibliographical References  AC No. 44 Contineau 1932:142  DAE No. 78 W. J. Dumbrell, ‛“The Tell el-Maskhuṭa Bowls and the ‘Kingdom’ of Qedar in the Persian Period.”  BASOR 203:33–…

Tell el-Maskhuṭa Libation Bowls (2.51)

(325 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions; Aramaic Inscriptions Commentary In 1954 the Brooklyn Museum acquired three inscribed libation bowls, and then a fourth in 1957. They were said to have been found at Tel el-Maskhuṭa, ca. 12 miles west of Ismailia, and were published by Isaac Rabinowitz in 1956 and 1959 ( TAD D15.1–4). Three are to be dated to the first half of the fifth century ( TAD D15.1–3 =  COS COSB.2.51A-C) and the fourth to the second half ( TAD D15.4 =  COS COSB.2.51D). They we…