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ʿAbdī

(232 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman historian. Among the Ottoman historians who bore the mak̲h̲laṣ ʿAbdī (cf. Babinger, 432 f.), the secretary ( kātib ) of Yūsuf Ag̲h̲a, chief of the eunuchs, is worthy of mention. He was an eye-witness of the magnificent festivities organized in Adrianople in June and July 1675 on the occasion of the circumcision of the crown-prince Muṣṭafā, son of Muḥammad (Meḥmed) IV, and of the marriage of the princess Ḵh̲adid̲j̲e with the second vizier Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a (cf. Hammer-Purgstall, vi, 307…

Nāḥiye

(155 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(a. nāḥiya “district, vicinity”), an administrative term of the Ottoman empire. It is found as a general term for the subdivisions of a wilāyet or province as early as the 9th/15th century, but only later becomes a specific term for the rural subdivision of a ḳaḍāʾ [ q.v.] or ḳażā ; this latter term may be compared with the French arrondissement and is governed by a ḳāʾim-maḳām [ q.v.], while the nāḥiye is under a mudīr . This official, who used to be appointed by the wālī , the governor of the province, received his instructions from the ḳāʾim-maḳām, to whom he was subordinate. The subdivis…

Mihr-i Māh Sulṭān

(486 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, daughter of the Ottoman sultan Süleymān II the Magnificent (926-74/1520-66). Mihr-i Māh (sometimes also written Mihr-ü-māh: cf. Ḳaračelebi-zāde, Rawḍat ul-ebrār , 458) was the only daughter of Süleymān q.v., as well as F. Babinger, in Meister der Politik , ii2, Berlin 1923, 39-63). While still quite young she was married to the grand vizier Rüstem Pas̲h̲a (cf. Babinger, GOW, 81-2) at the beginning of December 1539 (cf. J.H. Mordtmann, in MSOS, xxxii, Part 2, 37), but the marriage does not seem to have been a happy one. She used her enormous wealth—St. Gerlach in …

Pīrī Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(481 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(?-939/?1532-3), an Ottoman Grand Vizier, belonged to Amasya and was a descendant of the famous D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn of Aḳsarāy and therefore traced his descent from Abū Bakr. He took up a legal career and became successively ḳāḍī of Sofia, Siliwri and Galata, administrator of Meḥemmed IPs kitchen for the poor ( ʿimāret ) in Istanbul, and at the beginning of the reign of Bāyezīd II attained the rank of a first defterdār ( bas̲h̲ defterdār ). In the reign of Selīm I, he distinguished himself by his wise counsel in the Persian campaign (see J. von Hammer, GOR, ii, 412, 417 ff.), was sent in advanc…

Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊

(385 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, secretary of state for the Sultan’s ṭug̲h̲ra , chancellor, in Ottoman administration. The Sald̲j̲ūḳs and Mamlūks already had special officials for drawing the ṭug̲h̲ra, the sultan’s signature. As their official organisation was inherited in almost all its details by the Ottomans, this post naturally was included. Its holder was called nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ or tewḳīʿī . The nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ held the same rank as the defterdār s [ q.v.] and indeed even preceded them, for we find defterdārs promoted to nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊s but never a nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ becoming a defterdār. The nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ was i…

Naṣūḥ Pas̲h̲a

(873 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(d. 1023/1614), an Ottoman grand vizier, was of Christian descent and was born either in Gümüld̲j̲ine [ q.v. in Suppl.] (the modern Komotim, Thrace, Greece) or in Drama. According to some sources (e.g. Baudier and Grimestone, in Knolles), he was the son of a Greek priest; according to others (e.g. Naʿīmā, Taʾrīk̲h̲ 1 283, arnaʾud d̲j̲insi ), of Albanian origin. He came early in life to Istanbul, spent two years in the old Seray as a teberdār (halbardier) and left it as a čawus̲h̲ . Through the favour of the sulṭān’s confidant Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a, he rapidly attained high office. In ¶ quick successio…

Atīna

(1,030 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Athens, capital of Greece. The history of Athens in pre-Islamic times will not be treated here. The first closer—admittedly hostile—contact with the Muslims was made in 283/896, when Saracen pirates occupied the town for a short time (cf. D. G. Kambouroglous, ‘H ἄλωσις ’Αθηνῶν ὑπὸτῶν Σαρακηνῶν Athens 1934). Certain Arabic remains, and influences on the ornamental style in Athens, have been traced back to this event (cf. G. Soteriou, Arabic remains in Athens in Byzantine times, in: Praktiká ( Proceedings ) of the Academy of Athens , iv (Athens 1929), reproduced by D. G. Kambouroglous, l.c…

Nesīmī

(601 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Seyyid ʿImād al-Dīn , known as Nesīmī, an early Ottoman poet and mystic, believed to have come from Nesīm near Bag̲h̲dād, whence his name. As a place of this name no longer exists, it is not certain whether the laḳab should not be derived simply from nasīm “zephyr, breath of wind”. That Nesīmī was of Turkoman origin seems to be fairly certain, although the “Seyyid” before his name also points to Arab blood. Turkish was as familiar to him as Persian, for he wrote in both languages. Arabic poems ar…

Ramaḍān-Zāde

(342 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
Meḥmed Čelebi Pas̲h̲a , Yes̲h̲ild̲j̲e , known as Küčük Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊, an Ottoman historian. He was born in Merzifūn [ q.v.] and was the son of a certain Ramaḍān Čelebi. He was a secretary in the dīwān , became in 960/1553 chief defterdār , in 961/1554 reʾīs ül-küttāb or secretary of state, and in 965/1558 secretary of the imperial signature ( ṭüg̲h̲ra [ q.v.]). He was later appointed defterdār of Aleppo, then governor of Egypt and finally sent to the Morea to make a survey ( taḥrīr ). He retired in 970/1562 and died in D̲j̲umādā I 979/September-October 1571…

Dimetoḳa

(1,029 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, also called Dimotiḳa , a town in the former Ottoman Rumeli. Dimetoḳa lies in western Thrace, in a side valley of the Maritsa, and at times played a significant role in Ottoman history. The territory has belonged to Greece since the treaty of Neuilly (27 November 1919), again bears its pre-Ottoman name of Didymóteikhon, and lies within the administrative district (Nomos) of Ebros. It has a population of about 10,000, and is the seat of a bishop of the Greek church as well as o…

Mīk̲h̲āl-Og̲h̲lu

(1,016 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an old Ottoman noble family. This family traced its descent to the feudal lord Köse Mīk̲h̲āl ʿAbd Allāh, originally a Greek (cf. F.-A. Geuffroy, in Ch. Schefer, Petit traicte de l’origine des Turcqz par Th. Spandouyn Cantacasin , Paris 1696, 267: L’ung desdictz Grecz estoit nommé MichaeliDudict Michali sont descenduz les Michalogli ), who appears in the reign of ʿOt̲h̲mān I as lord of Chirmenkia (K̲h̲irmend̲j̲ik) at the foot of Mount Olympus near Edrenos, and later as an ally of the first Ottoman ruler earned great merit for his share in aiding the latter’s expansion (cf. J. von Hammer, in G…

Nīlūfer K̲h̲ātūn

(367 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, wife of the Ottoman sultan Ork̲h̲an and mother of Murād I [ q.vv.], apparently the Greek Nenuphar (i.e. Lotus-flower) (cf. J. von Hammer, GOR, i, 59), was the daughter of the lord of Yārḥiṣār (Anatolia, near Bursa; cf. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa, D̲j̲ihān-numā . 659) and according to one story was betrothed to the lord of Belokoma (Biled̲j̲ik). ʿOt̲h̲mān [ q.v.], the founder of the dynasty which bears his name, is said to have kidnapped and carried her off in 699/1299 and to have destined her to be the wife of his son Ork̲h̲an [ q.v.], then only 12 years old. Idrīs Bitlīsī, and following hi…

Rāmī Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(742 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Ottoman Grand Vizier and poet, was born in 1065 or 1066/1654 in Eyyūb, a suburb of Istanbul, the son of a certain Ḥasan Ag̲h̲a. He entered the chancellery of the Reʾīs Efendi as a probationer ( s̲h̲āgird ), and through the poet Yūsuf Nābī [ q.v.] received an appointment as maṣraf kātibi̊ , i.e. secretary for the expenditure of the palace. In 1095/1684 through the influence of his patron, the newly-appointed Ḳapudān Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a, he became dīwān efendi , i.e. chancellor of the Admiralty. He took part in his chief’s journeys and camp…

Ḳasṭallanī

(283 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
( kestelī , kestellī ), muṣliḥ al-dīn muṣṭafā , Ottoman theologian and Ḥanafī jurist, d. 901/1495-6. He was a native of Kestel (Latin Castellum ), a village near Bursa, where later in his career he built a mosque; from this village comes his nisba of Kestel(l)ī or, more grandiloquently, Ḳasṭallānī. He studied at Bursa under the famous scholar K̲h̲iḍr Beg, mudarris at the Sulṭān madrasa there, and after concluding his legal and theological studies became himself a teacher in Mudurnu, in the Urud̲j̲ Pas̲h̲a madrasa at Dimetoḳa (Demotica), and then in one of Meḥemmed II’s newly-fo…

Merkez

(329 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Muṣliḥ al-Dīn b. Muṣṭafā, the head of an Ottoman Ṣūfī order and saint. Merkez Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mūsā b. Muṣṭāfā b. Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ b. Had̲j̲dar belonged to the village of Ṣari̊ Maḥmūdlu in the Anatolian district of Lād̲h̲ikiyya. He was at first a pupil of the Mollā Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, son of Ḵh̲iḍr Beg [ q. v.], and later of the famous Ḵh̲alwatī S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Sünbül Sinān Efendi, founder of the Sünbüliyya, a branch of the Ḵh̲alwatiyya, head of the monastery of Ḳod̲j̲a Muṣṭāfā Pas̲h̲a in Istanbul (see Bursali̊ Meḥmed Ṭāhir, ʿOt̲h̲mānli müʾellifleri , i, 78-9). When th…

ʿÖmer Efendi

(366 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Ottoman historian, according to popular tradition originally called Elkazović or Čaušević, who belonged to Bosna-Novi (Bosanski-Novi). Of his career we only know that he was acting as ḳāḍī in his native town when fierce fighting broke out on Bosnian soil between the Imperial troops and those of Ḥekīm-Og̲h̲lu ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a (1150/1737). ʿÖmer Efendi at this time wrote a vivid account of the happenings in Bosnia from the beginning of Muḥarram 1149/May 1736 to the end of D̲j̲umādā I 1152/end of March 1…

ʿAzmī-Zāde

(568 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
muṣtafā , Ottoman poet and stylist, as a poet known under the name of Ḥāletī. Born in the so-called laylat al-berāt in Istanbul on 15 S̲h̲aʿbān 977/23 Jan. 1570. He was the son of ʿAzmī-Efendi, who was the well-known and well-respected tutor of Murād IV as well as a poet, writer, and translator (died 990/1582). As a pupil of Saʿd al-Dīn [ q.v.] who became famous as a historian, he studied law, and to him he owed his special love for historical investigation. He became müderris at the madrasa of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī-Ḵh̲ātūn in Istanbul, but in 1011/1602-3 he was transferred to Damascus as a ¶ judge. Two ye…

Ḳoyun Baba

(235 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, lit “father of sheep”, a Turkish saint. He is thought to have been a contemporary of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bektās̲h̲ [see bektās̲h̲iyya ] and is said to have received his name from the fact that he did not speak, but only bleated like a sheep five times a day at the periods for prayer. Sulṭān Bāyezīd II, called Walī , built a splendid tomb and dervish monastery on the site of his alleged grave at ʿOt̲h̲mānd̲j̲i̊ḳ (near Amasya, in Anatolia) which was one of the finest and richest in the Ottoman empire. Ewliyā Čelebi in his Travels ( Seyāḥet-nāme , ii, 180 ff.) describes very ful…

Ramaḍān Og̲h̲ullari̊

(681 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, a petty Anatolian dynasty. The earlier history of the Ramaḍān og̲h̲ullari̊ is, like that of most of the minor Anatolian begs ( mülūk-i ṭewāʾif ), wrapped in obscurity. According ¶ to tradition, this Turkoman family came in Ertog̲h̲rul’s time from Central Asia to Anatolia where they settled in the region of Adana and founded their power. Their territory comprised the districts of Adana. Sīs, Ayās, a part of the territory of the Warsaḳ Turkomans, Tarsūs, etc. The date of the earliest known prince of the dynasty, Mīr Aḥmad b.…

ʿAbdī Efendi

(144 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman historian. The only information about his life is that he worked under the sultans Maḥmūd I and Muṣṭafā III, i.e. about 1730-64. His history, called either simply ʿAbdī Taʾrīk̲h̲i , or Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Sulṭān Maḥmūd Ḵh̲ān , deals mainly with the antecedents of Patrona Ḵh̲alīl’s rebellion and with the revolution itself (1730-1) and is one of the main contemporary sources for this event. MSS are to be found in Istanbul, Esʿad Efendī, 2153 and Millet Kütübk̲h̲ānesi 409. (Fr. Babinger) Bibliography F. R. Unat, 1730 Patrona ihtilali hakkinda bir eser Abdi tarihi, Ankara 1943 Osmanli Müel…

Newʿī

(559 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Yaḥyā b. Pīr ʿAlī b. Naṣūḥ , an Ottoman theologian and poet, with the nom de plume ( mak̲h̲laṣ ) of Newʿī, was born in Malg̲h̲ara [see malḳara ] (Rumelia), the son of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Pīr ʿAlī, in 940/1533. Up to his tenth year he was taught by his learned father and then became a pupil of Ḳaramānīzāde Meḥmed Efendi. His fellow pupils were the poet Bāḳī [ q.v.] and Saʿd al-Dīn, the famous historian [ q.v.]. He was an intimate friend of the former. He joined the ʿulamāʾ , became müderris of Gallipoli in 973/1565 and after filling several other offices became a teacher in the Medrese of Mihr u Māh Sulṭān [ q.v.].…

Nedīm

(535 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Aḥmed , an Ottoman poet, born in Istanbul, the son of a judge named Meḥmed Bey who had come from Merzifun. His grandfather (according to Gibb, HOP, iv, 30) was a military judge named Muṣṭafā. Aḥmed Refīḳ mentions as his great-grandfather Ḳara-Čelebi-zāde [ q.v.] Maḥmūd Efendi, who also was a military judge. The genealogy given by Aḥmed Refīḳ is, however, wrong because he confuses Ḳaramānī Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] with Rūm Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a. The statement that Aḥmed Nedīm is descended from D̲j̲elāl al-Dīn is therefore simply the result of confusion. Little is known of his life. He was a müderris

ʿĀṣim

(460 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, aḥmad , imperial historiographer of the Ottoman empire, born in ʿAyntāb (the modern Gaziantep) in south-eastern Anatolia about the year 1755. He was the son of Seyyid Meḥmed, a clerk of the court, who became famous as a poet under the name of Ḏj̲enānī. His family was one of the old-established ones in the place. In his early youth he acquired an equally fluent knowledge of Arabic and Persian, and this helped him in later years to achieve his fame as a translator ( müterd̲j̲im ) of well-known dictionaries. To begin with, Seyyid Aḥmed was the secretary of th…

Newres

(466 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, the names of two Ottoman poets. 1. ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ , known as Newres, or more accurately, Newres-i Ḳadīm, “Newres the Elder”, to distinguish him from ʿOt̲h̲mān Newres [see below], came from Kirkūk in northern ʿIrāḳ and was probably of Kurdish origin. He seems, however, to have come to Istanbul at an early age to prosecute his studies. Here he became a müderris but in the year 1159/1746 entered upon a legal career. According to the Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , he held the office of ḳāḍī in Sarajevo and Kütahya. His sharp tongue, which found particular expressi…

Nīksār

(579 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, the classical Neo-Caesarea in Bithynia, a town lying on the southern rim of the Pontic mountain chain of Asia Minor (the modern Turkish Kuzey Anadolu Dağlari) on the right bank of the Kelkit river. It is situated at an altitude of 350 m/1,150 feet in lat. 40°35′ N. and long. 36°59′ E. The nucleus of the town is picturesquely situated at the foot of a hill, crowned by the ruins of a mediaeval castle which was erected from the material provided by the numerous buildings of antiquity there. Here in remote antiquity was Cabira and after its decline …

Nefʿī

(813 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(980-1044/1572-1635), the greatest satirist of the Ottomans. ʿÖmer Efendi, whose nom-de-plume ( mak̲h̲laṣ ) was Nefʿī came from the village of Ḥasan Ḳalʿa near Erzerūm (eastern Anatolia). Not much is known of his early life. He spent his early years in Erzerūm where the historian ʿĀlī [ q.v.], who was a defterdār there, became acquainted with him. During the reign of Aḥmed I, fate brought him to the capital Istanbul where he worked for a time as a book-keeper. He failed in an attempt to gain the sultan’s favour or that of his son, the unfortunate ʿOt̲h̲mān II, with some brilliant ḳaṣīdas . It wa…

Merzifūn

(514 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, also called Mārsiwān, a town in the Anatolian wilāyet of Siwas [q. v.] and in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Amasia [q. v.] at the beginning of the fertile plain of Ṣulu Owa, with 11,334 inhabitants (in 1927), of whom the Armenians have had to migrate, which produces a good deal of wine and makes some cotton. Merzifūn before the World War was the centre of activity of the Protestant missions in this region and contained the Anatolia College. The town most probably occupies the site of the ancient Phazemon (Φαζημών) in the district of Phazemonitis; the name is probably a development of Φαζημών. Ibn Bībī (cf. Rec…

Awlonya

(596 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Alb. Vlora, Valona, town in southern. Albania. (see arnawutluḳ ) Awlonya, usually called Valona, is today a town of about 10,000 inhabitants. It lies in the bay of the same name, and is some 2½ m. (4 km.) inland from the harbour. It played an important part in antiquity as Aulon (hence Avlona). Concerning its history in the Middle Ages, cf. Konst. Jireček, Valona im Mittelalter , in: Ludwig v. Thallcózy, Illyrisch-albanische Forschungen , i, Munich and Leipzig 1916, 168/87. In June 1417, the Ottoman armies entered the area of Valona, and occupi…

K̲h̲osrew

(396 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
Mollā , a famous Ottoman jurist, whose real name was Meḥmed b. Farāmurz b. ʿAlī. According to one statement he was of Turkoman (tribe of Warsaḳ) descent and born in the village of Ḳarg̲h̲i̊n (half way between Sīwās and Toḳat); according to others, however, he was of “Frankish” descent and the son of a “French” nobleman who had adopted Islām. According to Saʿd al-Dīn his father was of Romaic ( Rūm ) descent. K̲h̲osrew became a pupil of the famous disciple of Taftazānī, Burhān al-Dīn Ḥaydar of Herat (cf. Isl ., xi, 61 and Saʿd al-Dīn, Tād̲j̲ al-tawārīk̲h̲ , ii, 430), and …

Nassads

(241 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, the common European form of the name given to the light wooden warships built in Nassau or Hohenau (Lower Austria), the “Nassauer” or “Hohenauer”, Magyar naszád , pl. naszádok , Slav, nasad , which were used on the Danube. They were usually manned by Serbian seamen who were called martalos [ q.v.] (from the Magyar martolóc , martalóz , lit. “robber”). According to a Florentine account, this Danube flotilla in 1475 consisted of 330 ships manned by 10,000 “nassadists” armed with lances, shields, crossbow or bow and arrow, more ¶ rarely with muskets. The larger ships had also cannon. …

Nūḥ b. Muṣṭafā

(252 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman theologian and translator, was born in Anatolia but migrated while still quite young to Cairo where he studied all branches of theology and attained a high reputation. He died there in 1070/1659. He wrote a series of theological treatises, some of which are detailed by Brockelmann, II2, 407-8, S II, 432. His most important work, however, is his free translation and edition of S̲h̲āhrastānī’s celebrated work on the sects, his Terd̲j̲eme-i Milal we-niḥal which he prepared at the suggestion of a prominent Cairo citizen named Yūsuf Efendi (cf. Brockelmann, I2, 551, S I, 763). It…

Aynabak̲h̲ti̊̊

(410 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Turkish name for Lepanto, or Naupaktos, in Greece. It is on the Gulf of Corinth, has a picturesque position, but is—these days—an impoverished small town, called Epaktos by the people and Lepanto by the Italians. It is surrounded by crumbling walls which date from the times of Venetian rule, and is dominated by a fortress. In the Middle Ages, Aynabak̲h̲ti̊ ruled over the Gulf of Corinth, and in 1407 it came under Venetian rule (cf. Vitt. Lazzarini, L’acquisto di Lepanto, 1407, in: Nuovo Archivio Veneto , XV (Venice 1898), 267-833; in 1483 it was unsuccessf…

ʿAbdī Pas̲h̲a

(293 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman historian. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ʿAbdī Pas̲h̲a came from Anadolu Hisarī on the Bosporus, was educated in the Serāy, and finally attained the post of imperial privy secretary ( sirr kʿātibi ). In Muḥarram 1080/June 1669 he was promoted to the office of nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i with the rank of a vizier, and later was appointed ḳāʾim-maḳām of the capital. In April 1679 he became governor of Bosnia, next year again nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i, in March a so-called vizier of the cupola, in August 1684 governor of Baṣra (cf. Hammer-Purgstall, vi, 379). Deposed in 1686, he was in the next y…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a Rāmī

(730 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman Grand Vizier and poet, was born in 1065/1655 or 1066/1656 in Eyyūb, a suburb of Istanbul, the son of a certain Ḥasan Ag̲h̲a. He entered the chancellery of the Reʾīs Efendi as a probationer ( s̲h̲āgird ), and through the poet Yūsuf Nābī [ q.v.] received an appointment as maṣraf kātibi , i.e. secretary for the expenditure of the palace. In 1095/1684, through the influence of his patron, the newly appointed Ḳapudān pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a, he became dīwān efendi, i.e. chancellor of the Admiralty. He took part in his chief’s journeys and campaigns (against Chios…

Delvina

(783 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, former residence of an Ottoman sand̲j̲aḳ-bey in Albania. In Ottoman times Delvina (so in Turkish and Albanian; Gk. Δέλβινον, Délvinon) formed a sand̲j̲aḳ of the Rumelian governorship. It stands 770 ft. above sea level, about 10½ miles from the shores of the Ionian sea, and consists of one single bazar street set in the midst of olive, lemon and pomegranate trees, surmounted by the ruins of an old, perhaps Byzantine, stronghold. The inhabitants numbered about 3000 before 1940, of whom two-thirds…

Niyāzī

(843 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Ottoman poet and mystic. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Meḥmed known as Miṣrī Efendi, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Miṣrī, whose mak̲h̲laṣ was Niyāzī, came from Aspūzī, the former summer capital of Malaṭya (cf. Ewliyā Čelebi, iv, 15; von Moltke, Reisebriefe , 349), where his father was a Naḳs̲h̲bandī dervish. Niyāzī was born in 1027/1617-18. The statement occasionally found that Sog̲h̲anli̊ was his birthplace is not correct. His father instructed him in the teaching of the order, then he went in 1048/1638 to Diyārbakr, later to Mārdīn where he studied for three years and finally to Cai…

Piyāle Pas̲h̲a

(966 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman Grand Admiral, came according to St. Gerlach, Tage-Buch (Frankfurt a/M. 1674, 448), from Tolna in Hungary and is said to have been the son of a shoemaker, probably of Croat origin. Almost all contemporary records mention his Croat blood (cf. the third series of the Relazioni degli ambasciatori Veneti al Senato , ed. E. Albèri, Florence 1844-5, and esp. iii/2, 243: di nazione croato, vicino ai confini d’Ungheria; 357: di nazione croato; iii/3, 294: di nazione unghero; 418). Following the custom of the time, his father was later given the name of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān an…

Baliabadra

(1,658 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Turkish name for Pátrai, Patras (fourth largest town on the Greek mainland and the largest on the Morean peninsula), situated on the gulf of the same west of the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth (Turkish Kordos , [ q.v.]), capital of the Nomos Achaia, seat of a bishop. It had about 85,000 inhabitants in 1951. The name Baliabadra comes from Παλαιαὶ Πάτραι, or rather Παλαιά Πάτ ρα ( Pâtra is even today the colloquial name for the town), i.e., Old Pátra(i), apparently because from the 14th century onwards New Pátra(i) denoted the fortress under whose protection the old settle…

Mersīna

(154 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Anatolian sea-port on the south coast of Asia Minor. Mersīna, the port and capital of the former sand̲j̲aḳ of the same name (with an area of 1,780 sq. m.) in the wilāyet of Adana [q. v.] on the south coast of Anatolia, is 40 miles from Adana, to which a railway runs. The name Mersīna comes from the Greek myrsíni (μυρσίνη), myrtle, because this tree grows in large numbers in this region. The regularly built town, founded only in 1832, with about 21,171 inhabitants (1927) is only of importance as a port for the export of silk, corn and cotton. The clim…

Midḥat Pas̲h̲a

(1,581 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman statesman, twice grand vizier. Midḥat Pas̲h̲a was born in Stambul in Ṣafar 1238 (beg. Oct. 18, 1822), the son of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī ʿAlī Efendi-Zāde Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḥāfiẓ Meḥemmed Es̲h̲ref Efendi, a native of Rus̲h̲čuk The family seem to have been professed Bektas̲h̲īs and Midḥat Pas̲h̲a also had a leaning towards them. His earliest youth was spent in his parents’ home at Widdin, Lofča (Bulgaria) and later in Stambul, where his father held judicial offices. In 1836 he was working in the secretariat of …

Ḳalpaḳ

(726 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(t.), A Central Asian headdress, which was introduced by the Turks into Europe and became widely distributed there. The word ḳalpaḳ is found in the most diverse Turkish dialects in meanings which are detailed by W. Radloff in his Versuch eines Wörterbuches der Türkdialekte, ii. 268 sq. (cf. also ḳalabaḳ, ii. 234). The Eastern Turkish tilpäk, Djag. East. Turk, tälpäk, Kirg. and Karakirg. telpäk, meaning cap, felt cap (cf. also the French talpack) is certainly related. Cf. thereon Pavet de Courteille, Dict. turk-oriental, p. 408). In its original form the ḳalpaḳ is a cone-shape…

Mentes̲h̲e-Og̲h̲lulari̊

(712 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, a petty dynasty in Anatolia. The princes of Mentes̲h̲e first appear in history after the break up of the Seld̲j̲ūk empire. The founder of the family is said to have been a certain Mentes̲h̲e Beg b. Behāʾ al-Dīn Kurdī. He had his court at Mīlās (Mylasa) in the ancient Caria, and not far from it his stronghold Paičīn (Petsona). His descendants also lived in Mīlās until they moved their court to Miletus. The son of Mentes̲h̲e was Urk̲h̲ān Beg, who is known from an inscription on a building in Mīlās and from Ibn Baṭṭūṭa who visited him in 1334 in Mīlās (cf. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, Voyages, ed. Defrémery, Paris …

Mīk̲h̲āl-og̲h̲lu

(1,080 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an old Ottoman noble family. This family traces its descent to the feudal lord Köse Mīk̲h̲āl ʿAbd Allāh, originally a Greek (cf. F.-A. Geuffroy in Ch. Schefer, Petit traicte de l’origine des Tureqz par Th. Spandouyn Cantacasin, Paris 1696, p. 267: L’ung desdictz Grecz estoit nommé Michali…. Dudict Michali sont descendus les Michalogli), who appears in the reign of ʿOt̲h̲mān I as lord of Chirmenkia (Ḵh̲irmend̲j̲ik) at the foot of Olympus near Edrenos, and later as an ally of the first Ottoman ruler earned great merit for his share in aiding the latter’s expansion (cf. J. v. Hammer, in G.O.R.,…

Mihr-i Māh Sulṭān

(443 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent. Mihr-i Māh (sometimes also written Mihr-u-māh: cf. Ḳaračelebizāde, Rawḍat ul-Ebrār, p. 458) was the only daughter of Suleimān the Magnificent [q. v., as well as F. Babinger, in Meister der Politik, ii.2, Berlin 1923, p. 39—63]. While still quite young she was married to the grand vizier Rustem Pas̲h̲a (cf. F. Babinger, G. O. W., p. 81 sq.) in the beginning of December 1539 (cf. J. H. Mordtmann, in M. S. O. S., Year xxxii., Part 2, p. 37), but the marriage does not seem to have been a happy one. She used her enormous wealth — St. Ger…

Mezzomorto

(564 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Ottoman Grand Admiral whose real name was Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḥusein Pas̲h̲a. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḥusein Pas̲h̲a, known as Mezzomorto, i. e. “half-dead” because he was severely wounded in a naval battle, came from the Balearic Islands, if A. de la Motraye’s statement ( Voyages, The Hague 1727, i. 206) that he was born in Mallorca is right. He probably spent his youth sailing with corsairs on the seas off the North African coast. He first appears as a desperate pirate in the summer of 1682 in the Barbary States. When France was preparing to deal a …

Merkez

(320 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mūsā, an Ottoman S̲h̲aik̲h̲ of an Order and Saint. Merkez Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mūsā b. Muṣṭafā b. Ḳilid̲j̲ b. Ḥad̲j̲dar belonged to the village of Ṣari̊ Maḥmūdlu in the Anatolian district of Lād̲h̲ikīya. He was at first a pupil of the Mollā Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, son of Ḵh̲iḍr Beg [q. v.], and later of the famous Ḵh̲alwetī S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Sünbül Sinān Efendi, founder of the Sünbülīya, a branch of the Ḵh̲alwetīya, head of the monastery of Ḳod̲j̲a Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a in Stambul (cf. on him: Brūsali̊ Meḥemmed Ṭāhir, Ot̲h̲mānli̊ Müʾellifleri̊, i. 78 sq.). When the latter died in 936 (1529), Merke…

Mentes̲h̲e-eli

(218 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, a little principality in Anatolia. The boundaries of the territory of the Mentes̲h̲e-og̲h̲lu’s [q. v.] are given by Müned̲j̲d̲j̲im-bas̲h̲i̊ (cf. Fr. Babinger, G.O.W., p. 234 sq.) in his Ṣaḥāʾif al-Ak̲h̲bār (Stambul 1285) as marked by Mug̲h̲la, Balāṭ, Boz-Üyük, Mīlās, Bard̲j̲īn, Marīn, Čīne, Ṭawās, Bornāz, Makrī, Göd̲j̲iñiz, Foča and Mermere. They thus correspond approximately to those of the ancient Caria. The origin of the name is uncertain, but it can confidently be asserted that the opinion, presumably first put forward by F. Meninski ( Lexicon, iv. 737) and till quite rec…

Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a

(567 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, K̲h̲od̲j̲a Meḥmed (1111-76/1699-1763), Ottoman Grand Vizier and littérateur. He was born in Istanbul, the son of the kātib Meḥmed S̲h̲ewḳī. and was soon on account of his unusual ability employed in the dīwān . He then acted as secretary and deputy-chamberlain to the governors of Van, ʿArifī Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a, and Köprülü-zāde ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], and, lastly, to Ḥekīm-zāde ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a. In 1141/1728 he returned to ¶ the capital and in the following year went back to Bag̲h̲dād as deputy to the reʾīs efendi . Soon after the conquest of Bag̲h̲dād in 1146/1733 he was appointed def…

Aḥmad Rasmī

(480 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman statesman and historian. Aḥmad b. Ibrāhīm, known as Resmi came from Rethymno (Turk. Resmo; hence his epithet?) in Crete and was of Greek descent (cf. Hammer-Purgstall, viii, 202). He was born in 1112/1700 and came in 1146/1733 to Istanbul, where he was educated, married a daughter of the Reʾīs Efendi Taʾūḳd̲j̲i Muṣṭafā and entered the service of the Porte. He held a number of offices in various towns (cf. Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī , ii, 380 f.). In Ṣafar 1171/Oct. 1757 he went as Ottoman envoy to Vienna and on his return made a written re…

Kirmāstī

(416 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, chef-lieu of a ḳadaʾ in Anatolia, 15 miles south-east of Mik̲h̲alid̲j̲ (cf. J. H. Mordtmann, in ZDMG, lxv [1911], 101) and 40 miles S.W. of Bursa with about 16,900 inhabitants (1960). The town lies on both banks of the Edrenos Čay (Rhyndacus), now called the Mustafa Kemal Paşa Çay. The origin of the name, often wrongly written Kirmāsli̊, which points to a Greek *Κερμαστὴ or *Κρεμαστὴ, is uncertain, nor is it known what ancient town was here. Perhaps the Kremastis in the Troas (cf. Pauly-Wissowa, ii, 743) mentioned in Xenophon, Hist , iv, 8, is to be connected wi…

Pertew Pas̲h̲a

(689 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, the name of two Ottoman statesmen. I. Pertew Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a , Ottoman admiral and wezīr , started his career on the staff of the imperial harem, became ḳapud̲j̲i̊ bas̲h̲i̊ [see Ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ ], later Ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries, and in 962/1555 he was advanced to the rank of wezīr; in 968/1561 he was appointed third wezīr, in 982/1574 second wezīr and finally commander ( serdār ) of the imperial fleet under the ḳapudan pas̲h̲a Muʾed̲h̲d̲h̲in-zāde ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a. He had fought at the Battle of Lepanto [see aynabak̲h̲ti̊ ]. He later fell into disgrace and died in I…

ʿOt̲h̲mānd̲j̲i̊ḳ

(739 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, modern Turkish Osmancık, the administrative centre of an ilçe or district of the same name in the il or province of Çorum [see čorum ] in northern Anatolia, in the southern part of classical Paphlagonia. It lies on the Halys or Ḳi̊zi̊l I̊rmaḳ [ q.v.] at an important crossing-point of that river by the Tosya-Merzifun road (lat. 40°58′ N., long. 34°50′ E., altitude 430 m/1,310 ft.). ¶ The town is situated in a picturesque position at the foot of a volcanic hill which rises straight out of the plain and is crowned by a castle which formerly commanded the celebrat…

Ḳasṭallānī

(282 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(Kesteli, Kestelli), Muṣliḥ al-dīn Muṣṭafā, théologien et juriste ḥanafite ottoman (m. 901/1495-6). Il naquit dans un village proche de Bursa, Kestel (latin Castellum), où il construisit une mosquée au cours de sa carrière, et c’est de ce village que vient sa nisba de Kestel(l)ī, ou, plus pompeusement, Ḳasṭallānī. Il fit ses études à Bursa sous la direction du célèbre savant Ḵh̲iḍr Beg [ q.v.], müdarris à la madrasa du sultan; après avoir achevé sa formation juridique et théologique, il devint lui-même professeur à Mudurnu, à la madrasa Urud̲j̲ Pas̲h̲a de Dimetoka (Demotica) puis…

Baliabadra

(1,668 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, (nom turc de Pátrai, Patras), quatrième grande ville de la Grèce continentale, et la plus grande de la péninsule de Morée, située sur le golfe du même nom, à l’Ouest de l’entrée du golfe de Corinthe (turc: Kordos [ q.v.]), capitale du nome d’Achaïe, siège d’un évêché. Elle avait environ 85 000 habitants en 1951. Le nom Baliabadra vient de παλαιαὶ Πάτραι ou plutôt παλαιἀ Πάτρα (Patra est même de nos jours le nom de la ville dans la conversation), c’est-à-dire le Vieux Pátra(i), apparemment parce que depuis le XIVe siècle, le Nouveau Pátra(i) désignait la forteresse sous la protectio…

Niyāzī

(871 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, poète et mystique ottoman. S̲h̲ams al-dīn Meḥmed, connu sous les noms de Miṣrī Efendi, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Miṣrī, et le mak̲h̲laṣ Niyāzī, est originaire d’Aspūzī, l’ancienne résidence d’été de Malaṭya (cf. Ewliyā Čelebi, IV, 15; voir Moltke, Reisebriefe, 349), où son père était un derviche naḳs̲h̲bandī. Il naquit en 1027/1617-18. L’indication qu’on trouve çà et là, d’après laquelle il serait né à Sog̲h̲anli̊, n’est pas exacte. Son père lui enseigna la doctrine de sa confrérie; il se rendit ensuite à Diyārbekr en 1048/1638, plus tard, à Mārdīn, où il étudia trois ans…

Ramaḍān Og̲h̲ullari̊

(709 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, famille de petits princes anatoliens. L’histoire la plus ancienne des Ramaḍān-Og̲h̲ullari̊ est, comme celle de la plupart des petits begs ( mülūk-i tewāʾif) environnée d’obscurité. D’après la tradition, cette famille de Türkmènes vint à l’époque d’Ertog̲h̲rul de l’Asie Centrale en Anatolie et elle s’y fixa dans la région d’Adana où elle fonda son pouvoir. Son domaine comprenait les districts d’Adana, Sīs, Ayās, une partie du domaine des ¶ Türkmènes de Warsaḳ, Tarsūs, etc. On place dans les années 780-819/1379-1416 le règne du plus ancien prince connu de cette d…

Naṣūḥ Pas̲h̲a

(872 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(m. 1023/1614), grand-vizir ottoman d’origine chrétienne, né d’après les uns à Gümüld̲j̲ine [ q.v. au Suppl.] (aujourd’hui Komotim, en Thrace, Grèce), d’après les autres à Drama. Selon certaines sources (p. ex. Baudier et Grimestone, dans Knolles), il était le fils d’un prêtre grec; d’après d’autres (Naʿīmā, Taʾrīk̲h̲, 283) il était arnaʾud d̲j̲insi̊, c’est-à-dire d’origine albanaise. Il vint assez tôt à Istanbul, passa deux ans dans le Vieux Serāy comme teberdār (hallebardier) et le quitta comme čaws̲h̲. Grâce à la faveur de son ami intime, Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a, il parvint r…

Piyāle Pas̲h̲a

(916 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, grand-amiral ottoman, originaire, d’après St. Gerlach ( Tage-Buch Francfort-surle-Main 1674, 448), de Tolna (Hongrie); il aurait été le fils d’un cordonnier d’origine vraisemblablement croate. Presque tous les récits contemporains confirment cette origine (cf. la troisième série des Relazioni degli ambasciatori Veneti al Senato, publ. par E. Albèri, Florence 1844-5 et en particulier III/2, 243, 357, III/3, 294, 418). Conformément aux habitudes de l’époque, on fit après coup, de son père, un Musulman en lui donnant le nom de ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (cf. F. Babinger, dans Litteraturdenkm…

Newʿī

(580 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, YaḥYā b. Pīr ʿAlī b. Naṣūḥ, théologien et poète ottoman qui écrivait sous le pseudonyme ( mak̲h̲laṣ) de Newʿī, naquit à Malghara [voir Malḳara] (Roumélie) en 940/1533. Il était le fils du s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Pīr ʿAlī. Jusqu’à l’âge de 10 ans il reçut l’enseignement que lui donna son père, un homme très lettré, puis il fut l’élève de Ḳaramānī-zāde Meḥmed Efendi, avec le poète Bāḳi [ q.v.] et Saʿd al-dīn, le célèbre historien [ q.v.]. Une étroite amitié le lia au premier de ces deux hommes. Il entra dans le corps des ʿulemāʾ, fut nommé en 973/1565 müderris à Gallipoli, puis investi de différentes fo…

ʿÖmer Efendi

(371 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, historien ottoman qui ¶ d’après la tradition populaire se serait d’abord appelé Elkazović ou Čaušević, et était originaire de Bosna-Novi (Bosanski Novi). De sa vie, on sait seulement qu’il exerçait les fonctions de ḳāḍī dans son pays natal lorsque se déroulèrent sur le sol bosniaque de violents combats entre les Impériaux et les troupes de Ḥekīm-Og̲h̲lu ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a (1150/1737). ʿÖmer Efendi écrivit alors, dans une langue simple et aisée, un récit vivant, extrêmement intéressant au point de vue de l’histoire sociale, des événe…

Dimetoḳa

(970 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(également Dimotiḳa), ville de l’ancienne Roumélie ottomane, en Thrace occidentale, dans une vallée latérale de la Maritsa; elle joua parfois un rôle important dans l’histoire ottomane. Son territoire, qui a repris son nom pré-ottoman de Didymóteik̲h̲on, appartient à la Grèce depuis le traité de Neuilly (27 nov. 1919) et fait partie du district administratif d’Ebros (Nomos); la ville compte une population d’environ 10 000 âmes et est le siège d’un évêché de l’Église grecque ainsi que d’un éparqu…

ʿOt̲h̲mānd̲j̲i̊ḳ

(744 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, turc moderne Osmancik, centre administratifd’un ilçe ou district du même nom dans l’ il ou province de Çorum [voir Çorum] dans le Nord de l’Anatolie, correspondant à la partie méridionale de la Paphlagonie classique. La ville est située sur le Halys ou Ḳi̊zi̊l İrmaḳ [ q.v.] à un important croisement du fleuve et de la route Tosya-Merzifun (lat. 40°58΄ N, long. 34° 50΄ E.; ait. 430 m). Elle occupe une situation pittoresque au pied d’une hauteur volcanique couronnée d’un château qui commandait autrefois le célèbre pont que Bāyazīd Ier passe pour avoir construit. La localité est prob…

Nīksār

(605 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, classique Néo-Caesarea, en Bythinie, ville située sur la bordure méridionale de la chaîne Pontique d’Asie Mineure (en turc moderne Kuzey Anadolu Dağlan), sur la rive droite du Kelkit. Elle est à une altitude de 350 m, à 40°35′ de lat. N., et 36°59′ de long. E. Le noyau de la ville est pittoresquement situé au pied d’une colline couronnée par les ruines d’un château fort du Moyen-Âge qui fut édifié avec les débris de nombreuses constructions de l’Antiquité, Il y avait là dans l’Antiquité la plus reculée Cabira et, après sa destruction, Dios…

Aḥmad Rasmī

(480 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, homme d’état et historien ottoman. Aḥmed b. Ibrāhīm, connu sous le nom de Resmī, était originaire de Rethymno (en turc Resmo; d’où son appellatif?) en Crète, et était d’ascendance grecque (cf. Hammer-Purgstall, VIII, 202). Né en 1112/1700, il vint, en 1146/1733, à Istanbul, où il reçut son éducation, se maria avec une fille du Reʾīs Efendi Taʾuḳd̲j̲i Muṣṭafā et entra au service de la Porte. Il remplit plusieurs charges dans différentes villes (cf. Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿ Ot̲h̲mānī, II, 380 sq.). En şafar 1171/oct. 1757, il alla à Vienne comme délégué ottoman et, à son retour, rédigea ¶ un rapport …

ʿAbdī Pas̲h̲a

(273 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, historien ottoman. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ʿAbdī Pas̲h̲a était originaire d’Anadolu Hiṣâri sur le Bosphore; il fut élevé au Sérāy, et parvint finalement au poste de secrétaire particulier ( sirr kʿâtibi). En muḥarram 1080/juin 1669, il fut appelé à l’office de nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i avec le rang de vizir, et plus tard fut nommé ḳâʾim-maḳâm de la capitale (1089/1678). En avril 1679, il devint gouverneur de Bosnie, et de nouveau nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i l’année suivante; en mars 1681, il est «vizir de la coupole» et en août 1684 gouverneur de Baṣra (cf. Hammer-Purgstall, VI, 379). Destitué…

Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊

(396 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, secrétaire d’État chargé de la ṭug̲h̲ra [ q.v.] du sultan ottoman chancelier. Déjà les Sald̲j̲ūḳides et les Mamlūks avaient des fonctionnaires spéciaux pour l’apposition de ce qu’on appelait la ṭug̲h̲ra, c’est-à-dire du seing du sultan. Comme l’organisation de leur chancellerie passa aux Ottomans presque dans tous ses détails, il en résulte qu’ils conservèrent également cet emploi. On en nommait ¶ le détenteur nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊; il avait un rang égal à celui des dejterdārs [ q.v.], il avait même le pas sur eux, car des dejterdārs furent bien nommés aux fonctions de nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊, mais…

Ḳoyun Baba

(224 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, «père du mouton», saint ottoman considéré comme contemporain de Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bektas̲h̲ [ q.v.]. Il tiendrait son surnom du fait qu’il ne parlait pas, mais cinq fois par jour, à l’heure des prières, bêlait comme un mouton. Le sultan Bāyezīd II fit élever, sur ce qu’on dit être sa tombe à ʿOt̲h̲mānd̲j̲i̊ḳ (non loin d’Amasia, en Anatolie), un splendide tombeau en même temps qu’un couvent de derviches qui était un des plus beaux et des plus riches de l’empire ottoman. Ewliyā Čelebi, dans son récit de voyage ( Siyāḥetnāme, II, 180 sqq.), décrit en détail cette grandiose colonie de Bekt…

K̲h̲osrew Mollā

(386 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
célèbre juriste ottoman, de son vrai nom Meḥmed b. Farāmurz b. ʿAlī. Selon certaines sources, il était d’origine turcomane (tribu des Warsaḳ) et natif du village de Ḳarg̲h̲in, à michemin entre Sīwās et Toḳat ; selon d’autres, il était d’origine «franque», fils d’un aristocrate «français» converti à l’Islam; Saʿd al-dīn affirme que son père descendait des Rūm. Il suivit les enseignements du célèbre disciple d’al-Taftazānī, Burhān al-dīn de Herāt (cf. Islam, XI, 61; Saʿd al-dīn, Tād̲j̲ al-tawārīk̲h̲, II, 430) et enseigna lui-même à la medrese de S̲h̲āh Malik à Andrinople. En 848/…

Aynabak̲h̲ti̊

(405 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, nom turc de Lépante, ou Naupaktos, en Grèce, sur le golfe de Corinthe, dans un site pittoresque; mais elle n’est plus actuellement qu’une petite ville modeste, appelée Epaktos par le peuple et Lepanto par les Italiens. Elle est entourée de murs croulants qui datent de la domination vénitienne, et coiffée d’une citadelle. Au moyen âge, Aynabak̲h̲ti̊ était maîtresse du golfe de Corinthe; elle tomba aux mains des Vénitiens en 1407 (cf. Vitt. Lazzarini, L’acquisto di Lepanto, 1407, dans Nuovo Archivio Veneto, XV, Venise 1898, 267-83). En 1483, elle fut en vain assiégée par les…

Pīrī Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(456 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(m. 939/1532-3), grand -vizir ottoman originaire d’Amasya. Il descendait du célèbre Ḏj̲amāl al-dīn d’Aḳsarāy, et faisait par conséquant remonter son origine à Abū Bakr. Il s’engagea dans la carrière judiciaire, devint successivement kāḍī de Sofia, Siliwri et Galata, administrateur de la cuisine des pauvres (ʿ imārei) de Meḥemmed II, à Istanbul et, au début du règne de Bāyezīd II, il fut appelé au poste de premier dejterdār ( bas̲h̲ defterdār). Sous Selīm Ier, il se distingua pendant la campagne de Perse par ses sages conseils (cf. J. von Hammer, GOR, II, 412, 417 sqq.), fut envoyé e…

ʿAbdī Efendī

(147 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, historien ottoman. La seule information que nous ayons sur sa vie est que son activité se place sous les sultans Maḥmūd Ier et Muṣṭafā III, c.-à-d. vers 1730-64. Son histoire, appelée soit simplement ʿ Abdī Tārīk̲h̲i ou Tārīk̲h̲-i Sulṭân Maḥmūd Ḵh̲ān, traite principalement des antécédents de la révolte de Patrona Ḵh̲alīl et de la révolte elle-même (1730-1). C’est l’une des sources contemporaines les plus importantes pour cet événement.On trouve des mss. à Istanbul, Esʿad Efendī, 2153 et Millet Kütüpk̲h̲anesi. 409. (Fr. Babinger) Bibliography F.R. Unat, 1730 Patrona Īhtilali hak…

Awlonya

(556 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, alb. Vlora, Valona, ville de l’Albanie méridionale [voir Arnawutluḳ]. Awlonya, appelée habituellement Valona, est aujourd’hui une ville d’environ 10 000 habitants. Elle se trouve sur la baie du même nom, et à environ 4 km. du port. Elle a joué un rôle important dans l’antiquité, sous le nom d’Aulon (de là Avlona). Sur son histoire au moyen âge, voir Konst. Jireček, Valona im Mittelalter, dans Ludwig v. Thallóczy, Illyrisch-albanische Forschungen, I, Munich et Leipzig 1916, 168-87. En juin 1417, les armées ottomanes pénétrèrent sur le territoire de Valona et occu…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a Rāmī

(715 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, grand-vizir et poète ottoman né en 1065 ou 66/1655-6 à Istanbul, dans le faubourg d’Eyyūb. Fils d’un nommé Ḥasan Ag̲h̲a, il entra comme stagiaire ( s̲h̲āgird) à la chancellerie du Reʾīs Efendi et, grâce à ses relations avec le poète Yūsuf Nābī [ q.v.], il fut nommé maṣraf kātibi (secrétaire aux dépenses du palais). En 1095/1684, grâce à l’influence de son protecteur, Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a, qui venait d’être nommé ḳapudān pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], il fut promu dīwān efendi, c’est-à-dire chancelier de l’Amirauté. Il participa aux voyages et aux campagnes (contre Chios) de son chef, fit…

Nefʿī

(835 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, (980-1044/1572-1635), le plus grand satirique ottoman, ʿOmer Efendi, dont le pseudonyme ( mak̲h̲laṣ) est Nefʿī, originaire du village de Ḥasan ḳalʿa non loin d’Erzerūm (Anatolie orientale). On ne sait pas grand-chose de ses premières années. Il passa sa jeunesse à Erzerùm où il connut l’historien ʿAlī [ q.v.] qui y exerçait les fonctions de defterdār. Pendant le règne d’Aḥmed Ier le destin le dirigea vers la capitale, Istanbul, où, pendant un certain temps, il exerça le métier de comptable. Ses tentatives en vue de gagner la faveur du sultan ou celle d…

Nāḥiye

(137 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(t., de l’arabe nāḥiya «région; voisinage»), vocable employé dès le IXe/XVe siècle dans l’administration de l’empire ottoman pour désigner les subdivisions d’une wilāyet ou province, mais c’est plus tard qu’il est devenu un terme spécifiquement réservé à la subdivision d’un ḳaḍāʾ [ q.v.] ou ḳażā qu’on peut comparer approximativement à l’arrondissement français et qui est placée sous l’autorité d’un kāʾim-maḳām [ q.v.], tandis qu’elle est administrée par un mudīr. Ce fonctionnaire anciennement nommé par le wālī, gouverneur de la province, recevait ses directives du ḳāʾim-maḳām, …

Merkez

(318 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Muṣlih al-dīn Mūsā b. Mūṣṭafā b. Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ b. .Ḥad̲j̲dar, chef d’une confrérie sūfie ottomane et saint. Originaire du village de Ṣari̊ Maḥmūdlu, dans la conscription de Lād̲h̲ikiyya, en Anatolie, il fut d’abord l’élève du Mollā Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, fils de Ḵh̲iḍr Beg [ q.v.], puis du s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ k̲h̲alwatī bien connu, Sūnbūl Sinān Efendi, fondateur de la Sünbüliyya, qui est une branche de la Ḵh̲alwatiyya, et supérieur du monastère ¶ de Ḳod̲j̲a Muṣṭafa Pas̲h̲a à Istanbul (voir Bursali̊ Meḥmed Ṭāhir, ʿOt̲h̲mānli müʾellifleri̊, I, 78-9). Quand celui-ci mourut en 936/1520…

Mīk̲h̲āl Og̲h̲lu

(972 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, vieille famille ottomane noble, qui fait remonter son origine à ce seigneur d’origine grecque Köse Mīk̲h̲āl ʿAbd Allāh (cf. F.-A. Geuffroy, dans Ch. Schefer, Petit traicté de l’origine des Turcqz par Th. Spandouyn Cantacasin, Paris 1696, 267: L’ung desdictz Créez estoit nommé MichaliDudict Michali sont descenduz les Michalogli) qui apparaît sous ʿOt̲h̲mān Ier comme maître de Chîrmenkia (Ḵh̲irmend̲j̲ik). au pied de l’Olympe près d’Edrenos; par la suite, comme allié du premier prince ottoman, il contribua largement à l’accroissement de sa puissance (cf. J. von Hammer, GOR, I, 48…

Nassades

(244 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, forme européenne courante du nom donné aux navires de guerre légers construits en Nassau ou Hohenau (Basse Autriche), les «Nassauer» ou «Hohenauer» (hongrois: naszád, pi. naszádok, slave: nasad), dont on se servait sur le Danube. Leur équipage était composé de marins, serbes pour la plupart, qu’on appelait martaloses (du hongrois martaloć, martalóz, proprement «brigands»). D’après une relation florentine, cette flottille du Danube se composait, en 1475, de 330 navires, avec 10 000 «nassadistes», armés de lances, de boucliers, d’arbalètes ou d’a…

ʿAzmī-zāde

(563 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
Muṣṭafā, poète et styliste ottoman; comme poète, il est connu sous le nom de Ḥāletī. Né au cours de la laylat al-barāt, à Istanbul, le 15 s̲h̲aʿbān 977/23 janvier 1570, il était le fils de ʿAzmī Efendi, qui est devenu célèbre comme précepteur de Murād IV, et aussi comme poète, écrivain et traducteur (m. 990/1582). Disciple de Saʿd al-dīn [ q.v.] qui devint célèbre comme historien, il étudia le droit; il doit à son maître un penchant particulier pour la recherche historique. Il devint müderris à la madrasa de Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲a-Ḵh̲ātūn à Istanbul, mais en 1011/1602-3, il fut envoyé à Dama…

Atīna

(986 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Athènes, actuelle capitale de la Grèce. L’histoire d’Athènes à l’époque préislamique est connue dans ses moindres détails, et il n’en sera pas question ici. Le premier contact immédiat — et hostile — que la ville eut avec les Musulmans se place en 283/896, lorsque des pirates sarrasins occupèrent temporairement la ville (cf. D. G. Kambourouglos, ‘H ἅλωσιΣ’ Aθηνων, ύπò των Σαρακηνων, Athènes 1934). On fait remonter à cet événement certains vestiges arabes et une certaine influence esthétique qu’on trouve en terre athénienne (cf. G. Soteriou, Arabie remains in Athens in Byzantine…

Ramaḍān-zāde

(317 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
Meḥmed Čelebi Pas̲h̲a Yes̲h̲ild̲j̲e, historien ottoman, originaire de Merzifūn [ q.v.] et fils d’un certain Ramaḍān Čelebi. Investi des fonctions de secrétaire du dīwān, il fut nommé en 960/1553 defterdār en chef, en 961/1554, reʾīs ül-küttāb (secrétaire d’Etat) et en 965/1558, secrétaire chargé du chiffre ( ṭug̲h̲ra [ q.v.]) du sultan. Il fut ensuite promu defterdār d’Alep, puis gouverneur d’Egypte et finalement envoyé en Morée pour établir le cadastre ( taḥrīr) du pays. En 970/1562, il prit sa retraite et il mourut en d̲j̲umādā I 979/septembre-octobre 1571. Pour…

Mihr-i Māh Sulṭān

(475 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(parfois écrit Mihr-ü-māh; cf. Ḳaračelebi-zāde, Rawḍat ul-ebrār, 458), fille unique du sultan ottoman Sulaymān (Soliman le Magnifique) [ q.v.; voir aussi F. Babinger, dans Meister der Politik, II2, Berlin 1923, 39-63]. Encore enfant, elle fut, au début de rad̲j̲ab 946/décembre 1539 (cf. J. H. Mordtmann, dans MSOS, XXXII/2, 37), mariée au grand-vizir Rüstem-Pas̲h̲a (cf. F. Babinger, GOW, 81-2); mais ce mariage ne semble pas avoir été très heureux. Elle consacra son énorme fortune — St. Gerlach évalue en 984/1576 son revenu quotidien à 2000 ducats au moins (cf. Tagebuch, Francfort 16…

Nedīm

(555 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Aḥmad, poète ottoman. Né à Istanbul, il était le fils dʾun certain juge nommé Meḥmed Bey originaire de Merzifūn. Son grand-père était (dʾaprès Gibb, HOP, IV, 30) un ḳāḍī-ʿaske du nom de Muṣtafā. Aḥmed RefīḲ, cite comme étant son arrière grand-père le Ḳara-Čelebi-zāde [ q.v.] Maḥmūd Efendi, qui avait été lui aussi ḳāḍī-ʿasker. Le tableau généalogique dressé par Aḥmed RefīḲ est toutefois erroné, parce qu’il confond Ḳaramānī Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] avec Rūm Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a. Il y a ainsi une véritable confusion dans le fait de tirer de d̲j̲alāl al-dīn l’origine d’Aḥmed…

Pertew Pas̲h̲a

(662 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, nom de deux hommes d’Etat ottomans. I. Pertew Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, amiral et vizir. Provenant du service du harem impérial, il fut promu ḳapud̲j̲i bas̲h̲i [voir Ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊], puis ag̲h̲a des Janissaires en 962/1555. En 968/1561, il devint troisième vizir, en 982/1574 second vizir et finalement, sous le ḳapudan pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] Muʾed̲h̲d̲h̲in-zāde ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a, commandant ( serdār) de la flotte impériale. Il avait participé à la bataille de Lépante [voir Aynabak̲h̲ti̊]. Il tomba plus tard en disgrâce et mourut en 982/1574 à Istanbul, où il repose dans une türbe personnelle au cimetière …

Nūḥ b. Muṣṭafā

(249 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, théologien et traducteur ottoman. Originaire d’Anatolie, il vint se fixer très jeune au Caire, où il s’instruisit dans toutes les branches de la théologie et acquit une très grande réputation. Il y mourut en 1070/1659. Il a écrit toute une série de traités de théologie, dont Brockelmann, GAL, II2, 407-8, S II, 432, cite une partie. Son ouvrage le plus important est toutefois sa traduction libre et son adaptation, entreprise à l’instigation d’un notable Cairote nommé Yūsuf Efendi, du célèbre ouvrage d’al-S̲h̲ahrastānī sur les sectes, Terd̲j̲eme-iMilel we-Niḥal (cf. Brockelmann, I2,…

Newres

(462 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, nom de deux poètes ottomans: — I. ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ, surnommé Newres, plus exactement Newres-i Ḳadīm, Newres l’Ancien, pour le distinguer de ʿOt̲h̲mān Newres [voir ci-dessous], est originaire de Kirkūk, et probablement d’origine kurde. Il semble toutefois être venu tôt à Istanbul, et s’y être consacré à l’étude. Il y fut d’abord müderris, mais entra en 1159/1746 dans la carrière judiciaire. D’après le Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, il aurait été investi des fonctions de juge à Sarajevo et à Kütahya. A cause de sa causticité, qui se manifesta surtout dans des chronogrammes rimes ( tawārīk̲h̲) m…

Nīlūfer K̲h̲ātūn

(374 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, épouse du sultan ottoman Ork̲h̲an et mère de Murād Ier [ q.vv.]. Son nom, en grec, était vraisemblablement (cf. J. von Hammer, GOR, I, 59) Nénuphar, c’est-à-dire fleur de lotus. Fille du seigneur de Yārḥiṣār (Anatolie, non loin de Bursa; cf. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Ḏj̲ihān-numā, 659) elle fut fiancée, d’après la légende, au seigneur de Belokoma (Biled̲j̲ik). ʿOt̲h̲mān [ q.v.], le fondateur de la dynastie à laquelle il donna son nom, aurait enlevé, en 699/1299, la jeune fille pour faire d’elle l’épouse de son fils Ork̲h̲an [ q.v.], alors âgé de douze ans. Idrīs Bitlīsī et, d’après …

Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a

(584 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ḵh̲od̲j̲a Meḥmed (1111-76/1699-1763), grand-vizir et homme de lettres ottoman qui naquit à Istanbul. Fils du kātib Meḥmed S̲h̲ewḳī. il fut très tôt employé dans la chancellerie en raison de ses talents remarquables, puis il entra au service des gouverneurs de Van, ʿĀrifī Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a et finalement Ḥekīm-zāde ʿAlī-Pas̲h̲a comme secrétaire et intendant suppléant. En 1141/1728, il revint à Istanbul, mais pour retourner l’année suivante à Bag̲h̲dād avec les fonctions de suppléant du reʾīs efendi. Aussitôt après la conquête de Bag̲h̲dād (1146/1733), il y obtint le poste de defterdār,…

Delvina

(760 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, ancienne résidence d’un sand̲j̲aḳ-bey ottoman en Albanie; à l’époque ottomane, Delvina (turc et albanais; grec Δέλβινον) formait un sand̲j̲aḳ du gouvernorat de Roumélie. Elle est située à une altitude de 230 m., à environ 17 km. du rivage de la mer Ionienne; elle consiste en une seule rue marchande au milieu de plantations d’oliviers, de citronniers et de grenadiers et est dominée par les ruines d’une ancienne forteresse, peut-être byzantine. Les habitants, avant 1940, étaient au nombre de 3000 environ, dont les…

Nesīmī

(611 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Seyyid ʿImād al-dīn, nommé Nesīmī, ancien poète et mystique ottoman vraisemblablement originaire de Nesīm non loin de Bag̲h̲dād. Comme il n’existe plus à l’heure actuelle de localité de ce nom, on ne peut pas établir d’une manière certaine si le laḳab ne doit pas purement et simplement être dérivé de nasīm «zéphyr, souffle de vent». Il semble à peu près démontré que Nesīmī est d’origine Turkmène, bien que le «Seyyid» qui précède son nom indique également une ascendance arabe. Le turc lui était aussi familier que le persan, car il a écrit des v…

Kirmāstī

(439 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, chef-lieu d’un ḳaḍāʾ d’Anatolie, à 22 km. au Sud-est de Mik̲h̲alid̲j̲ (cf. J. H. Mordtmann, dans ZDMG, LXV (1911), 101) et à 66 km. au Sud-ouest de Bursa, qui comptait, en 1960, 16 900 habitants. La ville est située sur les deux rives de l’Edrenos Čay (Rhyndacus), aujourd’hui appelé Mustafa Kemal Paṣa Çay. L’origine du nom de Kirmāstī, écrit souvent encore inexactement Kirmāsli̊, et qui laisse supposer un mot grec *Kερµαστὴ ou *Kρεµαστὴ, est incertaine; on ne sait pas non plus quelle cité antique se trouvait à…

Rusčuk

(1,940 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Lory, B.
, an administrative district and a port on the Danube in Bulgaria (often wrongly called and written as Rus̲h̲čuk), officially in Bulgarian Ruse (Pyce). It is situated at the confluence of the Rusenski Lom (Tk. Ḳara Lom) and the Danube, which then reaches a width of 1,300 m/4,264 feet. It faces the Rumanian port of Giurgiu (Tk. Yer Köki) and spreads out along terraces of loess, above the level of flooding. It is the main port on the Danube and the fourth largest town of Bulgaria, being a rail and…

Pečewī

(665 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Woodhead, Christine
, Ibrāhīm (982- ca. 1060/1574-ca. 1649-50), Ottoman historian. Pečewī was born in 982/1574 in Pécs in southwestern Hungary, whence his epithet Pečewī (or, alternatively, Pečuylu, from the Croatian ). His family had a long tradition of Ottoman military service. Both his great-grandfather Ḳara Dāwūd and his grandfather D̲j̲aʿfer Beg served as alay begi in Bosnia; his father (name unknown) took part in campaigns in Bosnia, and in ʿlrāḳ during the 1530s (Pečewī, Taʾrīk̲h̲ , i, 87, 102-6, 436-7, ii, 433). Pečewī’s mother was a member of the Ṣoḳollu [ q.v.] family. At the age of 14, after…

Rūḥī

(336 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Woodhead, Christine
(d. after 917/1511), Ottoman historian. There is little definite information about this historian apart from his mak̲h̲laṣ Rūḥī. From ʿĀlī’s [ q.v.] reference to him in the Künhü ’l-ak̲h̲bār as Edrenewī Mewlānā Rūḥī, it is probable that he was a member of the ʿulamāʾ and had a family or professional association with Edirne (J. Schmidt, Muṣṭafā ʿĀlī’s Künhü ’l-aḫbār and its preface according to the Leiden manuscript, Istanbul 1987, 58). Any identification with Rūḥī Fāḍi̊l Efendi (d. 927/1528), son of the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām Zenbilli ʿAlī Efendi, remains hypothetical (Babinger, GOW, 4…

Aḳ Ḥiṣār

(568 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Babinger, Fr.
(T. "white castle"), name of several towns. 1. The best known is Aḳ Ḥiṣār in Western Anatolia, formerly in the wilāyet of Aydi̊n, since 1921 in that of Manisa, situated in a plain near the left bank of the river Gördük (a sub-tributary of the Gediz), 115 m. above sea level. Known as Thyatira (see Pauly-Wissowa, s.v.) in antiquity and Byzantine times, it owes its Turkish name to the fortress on a neighbouring hill. Annexed by the Ottomans in 784/1382, it was lost again during the disorders which followed Tīmūr’s invasion, and recaptured from the rebel Ḏj̲unavd [ q.v.] by Ḵh̲alīl Yak̲h̲s̲h̲ī B…

Kenʿān Pas̲h̲a

(718 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Göyünç, Nejat
, also nicknamed Ṣari̊ (“pale-faced”) and Ṭopal (“Lame”), High Admiral ( Ḳapudān Pas̲h̲a , [ q.v.]) under the Ottoman Sultan Meḥemmed IV, d. 1069/1659. He originated from the northeastern shores of the Black Sea (Russian or Circassian?) and came as a slave into the service of Baḳi̊rd̲j̲i Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, Ottoman governor of Egypt. On the latter’s execution he was taken by Sulṭān Murād IV into the Palace and educated there. He was promoted to be Ag̲h̲a of the stirrup-holders ( Rikāb-dār ag̲h̲asi̊ ) (Chronicle of Wed̲j̲īhī, f. 91b of the Vienna MS.), became …

Riḍā

(230 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Schmidt, J.
, an Ottoman biographer of poets. Meḥmed Riḍā b. Meḥmed, called Zehir Mār-zāde, was born into a family living in Edirne. Of his life we know only that he was for a time, respectively, müderris with a salary of 40 aḳčes , nāʾib and müfti —he held this latter function at Uzun Köprü near Edirne—and that he died in his native town in 1082/1671-2. Besides a collection of poems ( Dīwān ) and a work with the title Ḳawāʿid-i fārisiyye (no manuscript of these works has yet been found), Riḍā wrote a Tad̲h̲kirat al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ , a biographical collection in which he dealt in al…

Aḳ Ḥiṣār

(536 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Babinger, Fr.
(turc: «château blanc»), nom de plusieurs villes. I. La plus connue est Aḳ Ḥiṣār, en Anatolie occidentale; dépendant autrefois du wilāyet ¶ d’Aydiʾn et, depuis 1921, de celui de Manisa, elle est située dans une plaine, à proximité de la rive gauche du Gördük (un sous-affluent du Gediz), à une altitude de 115 m. Connue dans l’antiquité et à l’époque byzantine sous le nom de Thyatira (voir Pauly-Wissowa, s.v.), elle doit son nom turc à la forteresse bâtie sur une colline voisine. Annexée par les Ottomans en 784/1382, elle fut reperdue durant les désordres qui suiv…

Rusčuk

(1,917 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Lory, B.
, préfecture et port surle Danube en ¶ Bulgarie (appelé et écrit souvent par erreur Ruščuk), officiellement en bulgare Ruse Pyce; Roussé) est situé au confluent du Rusenski Lom (en türk Ḳara Lom) avec le Danube, qui atteint alors une largeur de 1300 m, en face du port roumain de Giurgiu (en türk Yer Köki̊); la ville s’étage sur des terrasses de loess, hors d’atteinte des crues. Premier port danubien et quatrième ville de Bulgarie, c’est un nœud ferroviaire et routier (pont de l’Amitié, construit en 1954), ainsi qu’un centre industriel et culturel de 200 000 habitants. Après le déclin de la …

Pečewi

(702 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Woodhead, Christine
, Ibrāhīm (982-vers 1060/15 74-vers 1649-50), historien ottoman né à Pécs [ q.v.] en Hongrie du Sud-ouest, d’où son nom de Pečewī (ou alternativement de Pečuylu), du croate Sa famille avait une longue tradition de service militaire chez les Ottomans. Son arrière-grand-père Ḳara Dāwūd ainsi que son grand-père Ḏj̲aʿfar Beg servaient comme alay begi en Bosnie; son père (dont le nom est inconnu) prit part à des campagnes en Bosnie et en ʿIrāḳ dans les années 1530 (Pečewī, Taʾrīk̲h̲, I, 87, 102-6, 436-7; II, 433). La mère de Pečewī faisait partie de la famille Ṣoḳollu [ q. v.]. A quatorze ans, a…
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