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EBRĀHĪM B. ADHAM

(260 words)

Author(s): EIr
b. Manṣūr b. Yazīd b. Jāber ʿEjlī (d. 777-78), prominent Sufi and ascetic of 8th century. This article is available in print. Volume VIII, Fascicle 1, pp. 62-63 EBRĀHĪM B. ADHAM b. Manṣūr b. Yazīd b. Jāber ʿEjlī (d. 166/777-78), prominent Sufi and ascetic of 2nd/8th century. Ebrāhīm was born to a notable Kufan family in Balḵ, migrated with his tribe from Khorasan to Syria before 137/754, and was killed in a military expedition against Byzantium in about 160-66/777-83. In Sufi legends various glamorous tales are attributed to…
Date: 2015-08-06

SHIRVANLU, FIRUZ

(1,457 words)

Author(s): EIr
(1938-1989), art critic, scholar, and artist, who played an instrumental role in the creation and management of several museums and cultural centers in the 1960s and 1970s. SHIRVANLU, FIRUZ (Firuz Širvānlu, b. Mashad, September 1938; d. Tehran, January 1989), art critic, scholar, and artist, who played an instrumental role in the creation and management of several museums and cultural centers in the 1960s and 1970s. He was the son of Reżā Shirvanlu, a high-ranking military officer, and Šariʿa Moqaddam Ebrāhimlu, a well-educated and cultured woman. His materna…
Date: 2014-01-31

GOLŠAHRI, SOLAYMĀN

(755 words)

Author(s): EIr
or GÜLŞEHRî; 13th century Ottoman Sufi and poet who wrote in Persian and Turkish. This article is available in print. Volume XI, Fascicle 1, pp. 101-102 GOLŠAHRI (GÜLŞEHRÎ), SOLAYMĀN, Ottoman Sufi and poet who wrote in Persian and Turkish. He was from the city of Golšahri, the name of which appears on his works in Persian, and which is known today as Kırşehir. Next to nothing is known about his life; it, however, can be deduced from the dates of his works that he flourished during the second half of the 13th century and was alive until 717/1317, the year when he completed his Mantık’t-tayr ( Manṭeq …
Date: 2013-06-04

BAGLEY, FRANK RONALD CHARLES

(1,246 words)

Author(s): EIr.
(1915-1997), British diplomat, translator, and professor of Persian and Arabic at Durham University and McGill University. BAGLEY , FRANK RONALD CHARLES (b. 15 October 1915, Cheshire, England/d. 7 August 1997, Kent, England; Figure 1), British diplomat, translator, and professor of Persian and Arabic at Durham University and McGill University. Bagley was born into an affluent and highly educated family in Cheshire, England. Late in the 1910s, he attended St. Peter’s Court Preparatory School in Broadstairs, Kent. Later he attended the famous En…
Date: 2016-08-10

KHAZARVĀN

(407 words)

Author(s): EIr.
A version of this article is available in print Volume XVI, Fascicle 5, pp. 528-529 KHAZARVĀN (ḴAZARVĀN/ ḴAZVARĀN/ ḴAZRAVĀN), a proper name, attested in the Šāh-nāma for men and a demon. (a) Khazarvān, a Turanian commander killed by Zāl, the legendary prince of Sistān ( Šāh-nāma, ed. Khaleghi, I, l. 124, p. 294; ll. 385-403, pp. 310-12; “Ḵazwazān” in Ṯaʿālebi, pp. 119-22). When Afrāsiāb (q.v.), the Turanian king, fights at Dahestān, he assigns a supplementary force to attack Zābol. Khazarvān, one of his commanders, goes with thirty thousan…

ĀSRŌN

(97 words)

Author(s): EIr
Middle Persian form of Avestan āΘravan. This article is available in print. Volume II, Fascicle 8, pp. 802-803 ĀSRŌN, Middle Persian form of Avestan āΘravan. The form āsrōn continues Av. āΘrauuanəm (acc. sing.) whereas the also attested form āsrō (Pahlavi Videvdād and Vispred, Pazand āsrū) is most likely to continue āΘrauua (nom. sing.), cf. Pazand āšo for Av. ašauua (Pahl. ahlaw). In Middle Persian texts āsrōn designates a member of the priestly class and is almost invariably mentioned together with artēštār and wāstaryōš, members of the warrior and farmer classes. See also Class Sy…
Date: 2016-10-03

FAḴR-E MODABBER

(758 words)

Author(s): EIr
pen-name of Moḥammad b. Manṣūr b. Saʿīd, entitled Mobārakšāh, author of two prose works in Persian written in India in the late 12th and early 13th century, a book on genealogy with no formal title and the famous Ādāb al-ḥarb wa’l-šajāʿa. This article is available in print. Volume IX, Fascicle 2, pp. 164 FAḴR-E MODABBER, pen-name of Moḥammad b. Manṣūr b. Saʿīd, entitled Mobārakšāh, author of two prose works in Persian written in India in the late 6th/12th and early 7th/13th century, a book on genealogy with no formal title and the famous Ādāb al-ḥarb wa’l-šajāʿa (q.v.). Most of the availa…
Date: 2013-05-22

DĀMḠĀNĪ (1)

(125 words)

Author(s): EIr
nesba of a leading family of jurists of Persian origin, descendants of Abū ʿAbd-Allāh Moḥammad Kabīr (b. Dāmḡān 1007, d. Baghdad 1085), a well-known exponent of Hanafite law, who served as the chief magistrate ( qāżī al-qożāt) of Baghdad. This article is available in print. Volume VI, Fascicle 6, pp. 638 DĀMḠĀNĪ, nesba of a leading family of jurists of Persian origin, descendants of Abū ʿAbd-Allāh Moḥammad Kabīr (b. Dāmḡān 398/1007, d. Baghdad 478/1085), a well-known exponent of Hanafite law, who served as the chief magistrate ( qāżī al-qożāt) of Baghdad. Members of the family were…
Date: 2013-04-10

YEKI BUD, YEKI NABUD

(2,516 words)

Author(s): EIr
the first collection of modern Persian short stories, and, arguably the foremost work by the eminent fiction writer Mohammad Ali Jamalzadeh (1892-1997). YEKI BUD, YEKI NABUD (Berlin, 1921, tr. by Mansur Heshmat Moyyad and Paul Sprachman as Once Upon a Time, New York, 1985), the first collection of modern Persian short stories, and, arguably the foremost work by the eminent fiction writer Mohammad Ali Jamalzadeh (Moḥammad ʿAli Jamālzāda, also Djamalzadeh, 1892-1997) The title of the collection, generally regarded as representing a departure from the classic genre of…
Date: 2013-01-22

IRĀNŠAHR (2)

(855 words)

Author(s): EIr
city, formerly Fahraj, and sub-province ( šahrestān) in the province of Sistān and Baluchistan. This article is available in print. Volume XIII, Fascicle 5, pp. 533-534 IRĀNŠAHR, a city, formerly Fahraj (q.v. at iranica.com), and a sub-province ( šahrestān) in the province of Sistān and Baluchistan (q.v.). In 1935, the district ( baḵš) of Bampur (q.v.) was officially renamed Irānšahr, and a year later it became part of the Ḵāš sub-province. In 1947 it was officially recognized as a city in the administrative division of Baluchistan. The sub-province. The sub-province Irānšahr cove…
Date: 2012-03-30

OZAI-DURRANI, ATAULLAH K.

(483 words)

Author(s): EIr
ATAULLAH K., the Afghan inventor and developer of fast-cooking rice, marketed under the name “Minute Rice,” who left more than half of his one million dollar estate for the translation and study of the works of the19th-century poets, Ḡāleb (d. 1869) and Mir Taqi Mir (d. 1810). OZAI-DURRANI, ATAULLAH K., the Afghan inventor and developer of fast-cooking rice, marketed under the name “Minute Rice,” who left more than half of his one million dollar estate for the translation and study of the works of the19th-century poets, Ḡāleb (d. 1869) and M…
Date: 2012-12-11

BONYĀD-E ŠAHĪD

(1,199 words)

Author(s): EIr
The Bonyād officially started work on 9 April 1980. A decision taken by the Revolutionary Council on 13 June 1980 attached the Martyrs’ Foundation to the National Health Organization (Sāzmān-e Behzīstī-e Kešꏂvar), itself administered under the supervision of the prime minister. This article is available in print. Volume IV, Fascicle 4, pp. 360-361 BONYĀD-E ŠAHĪD (Martyrs’ Foundation), a non-profit organization established on 22 Esfand 1358 Š./12 March 1980 on the orders of Imam Ḵomeynī, in order to care for the veterans of the revolution and the de…
Date: 2013-11-18

FATḤ B. ḴĀQĀN

(168 words)

Author(s): EIr
b. ḴĀQĀN (d. 861), famous bibliophile, author, courtier, and official in ʿAbbasid times. This article is available in print. Volume IX, Fascicle 4, pp. 422 FATḤ,b. ḴĀQĀN, famous bibliophile, author, courtier, and official in ʿAbbasid times ( d. 4 Šawwāl 247/11 December 861). Some modern authorities have referred to him as “al-Fāresī” or claim he was of Persian ancestry (Zereklī, Aʿlam2 V, p. 133; Dehḵodā, s.v. “Fatḥ b. Ḵāqān”; Yıldız, p. 452), but this appears to be erroneous. Masʿūdī ( Morūj VII, p. 191) gives Fatḥ the nesba al-Torkī, and his father, a military officer named Ḵāqā…
Date: 2013-05-28

AMIR KABIR PUBLISHERS

(680 words)

Author(s): EIr
a major Persian publishing house active from 1949 to 1979, founded by ʿAbd-al-Raḥim Jaʿfari (b. 1298 Š. /1919) in a small office on Nāṣer Ḵosrow Avenue in Tehran, the location for most major publishers at the time. It opened its first bookstore nearby and later established thirteen branches throughout the city. AMIR KABIR PUBLISHERS, a major Persian publishing house active from 1949 to 1979. It was founded by ʿAbd-al-Raḥim Jaʿfari (b. 1298 Š. /1919) in a small office on Nāṣer Ḵosrow Avenue in Tehran, the location for most major publishers at the t…
Date: 2013-02-25

BONGĀH-E ḤEMĀYAT-E MĀDARĀN O KŪDAKĀN

(344 words)

Author(s): EIr
(Institute for the protection of mothers and infants), founded 16 December 1940 on the order of Reżā Shah, originally funded by charitable contributions. This article is available in print. Volume IV, Fascicle 4, pp. 350-351 BONGĀH-E ḤEMĀYAT-E MĀDARĀN O KŪDAKĀN (Institute for the protection of mothers and infants), founded 25 Āḏar 1319 Š./16 December 1940 on the order of Reżā Shah, originally funded by charitable contributions. During World War II the institute distributed clothing and hot meals among the poor. In 1320 Š./1941 it com…
Date: 2013-03-11

JĀRČI-E MELLAT

(993 words)

Author(s): EIr.
a weekly satirical newspaper published in Tehran, 1910-28 (with long interruptions). This article is available in print. Volume XIV, Fascicle 6, pp. 581-582 JĀRČI-E MELLAT, a weekly satirical paper published in Tehran with long interruptions between 12 Šawwāl 1328/16 October 1910 and 8 Ḵordād 1307 Š./29 May 1928. It was suspended on numerous occasions, and the two papers, Jārči-e asrār (2 Ḏu’l-ḥejja 1329/23 Nov. 1911) and Jāsus (22 Rabiʿ I 1332/18 Feb. 1914; Ṣadr Hāšemi, II, p. 161), that were published as replacements were immediately banned. In the fourth ye…
Date: 2012-04-13

BARBERRY

(774 words)

Author(s): EIr
( zerešk; Berberis spp., family Berberidaceae). Species of this genus are found in the northern, eastern, and southeastern highlands of Iran. This article is available in print. Volume III, Fascicle 7, pp. 759-760 BARBERRY ( zerešk; Berberis spp., family Berberidaceae). Species of this genus are found in the northern, eastern, and southeastern highlands of Iran (Alborz, Qaradāḡ in Azerbaijan, ranges of Khorasan, Bārez mountain in Kermān). They reach heights of 1 to 3 m, seldom reaching 4 m, and have long branches, copious thorns, …
Date: 2016-10-28

KHADIV-JAM, HOSSEIN

(1,253 words)

Author(s): EIr
(1927-1986), Iranian translator and scholar of Persian and Arabic. His major publications range from translation of contemporary Arabic scholarship on Islamic philosophy to the critical edition of a number of major works in the fields of medieval philosophy and pre-modern history of Iran. A version of this article is available in print Volume XVI, Fascicle 4, pp. 381-383 KHADIV JAM, HOSSEIN (Sayyed Ḥosayn Ḵadiv Jam, b. Mashhad, 1927; d. Tehran, 17 October 1986), Iranian translator and scholar of Persian and Arabic. His major publications range from tran…
Date: 2015-06-25

BONGĀH-E MOSTAQELL-E ĀBYĀRĪ

(595 words)

Author(s): EIr
(Indeꏂpendent irrigation agency), established by the Majles on 19 May 1943 to improve irrigation in Iran. This article is available in print. Volume IV, Fascicle 4, pp. 351 BONGĀH-E MOSTAQELL-E ĀBYĀRĪ (Independent irrigation agency), established by the Majles on 29 Ordībehešt 1322 Š./19 May 1943, during the administration of ʿAlī Sohaylī, to improve irrigation in Iran by building dams, managing distribution of river resources, digging deep wells, resolving water distribution disputes, assisting agricultural projects, and cleaning the qanāts (underground aqueducts). It pr…
Date: 2016-12-06

ABU'L-QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN

(245 words)

Author(s): EIr
The only son of Kāmrān Mīrza, brother and rival of the Mughal emperor Homāyūn (r. 937-47, 962-63/1530-40, 1555-56). This article is available in print. Volume I, Fascicle 4, pp. 357-358 ABU’L- QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN, MĪRZĀ, only son of Kāmrān Mīrzā, the brother and rival of the Mughal emperor Homāyūn (r. 937-47, 962-63/1530-40, 1555-56). An incident of symbolic significance, placed in the year 952/1545 (or 951/1544), is related in the Akbar-nāma (tr. I, pp. 455-56): The boys Abu’l-Qāsem and Akbar, sons of two rival princes, wrestle for possession of a kettle-drum, …
Date: 2016-08-02

AŠŌQAR

(95 words)

Author(s): EIr
in Syriac sources the name of a deity. This article is available in print. Volume II, Fascicle 8, pp. 785 AŠŌQAR, in Syriac sources the name of a deity who together with the two deities Frašōqar and Zarōqar is coexistent and co-eternal with Zurvan (see R. C. Zaehner, Zurvan, a Zoroastrian Dilemma, Oxford, 1955, pp. 219-31; Syriac sources, ibid., pp. 219 n. 3, 439-40). The name is identical with Av. aršō. kara- ( Yt. 14.28, AirWb., col. 204), and presumably means “he who makes virile” (Avesta, tr. Darmesteter, II, p. 568). See Zurvan. EIr
Date: 2016-09-30

FARZĀN, Sayyed Moḥammad

(776 words)

Author(s): EIr
(b. near Birjand, 1894; d. Bābolsar, 1970), an eminent scholar of classical literature. This article is available in print. Volume IX, Fascicle 4, pp. 386 FARZĀN, Sayyed MOḤAMMAD (b. near Brijand, 1273 Š./1894; d. Bābolsar, 23 Farvardin 1349 Š./11 April 1970), an eminent scholar of classical literature. Farzān received his elementary education from his father, who died while Sayyed Mohammad was eleven years old. Farzān and his mother and brother left their village for Brijand, where Sayyed Moḥammad went to the Šowkatiya…
Date: 2013-05-27

KAYHAN

(3,445 words)

Author(s): EIr.
a leading daily newspaper published in Tehran from 1942 until the 1979 Revolution. Since then, it has been published under the patronage of the Islamic Republic’s supreme leader. Kayhan of London was foundedin 1984 as a weekly newspaper; it has continued to be published as a monarchist newspaper for Iranians in Diaspora. This article is available in print. Volume XVI, Fascicle 2, pp. 176-180 KAYHAN ( Kayhān, lit., “the universe”), a leading daily newspaper published in Tehran under the aegis of Moṣṭafā Meṣbāḥzādeh (1908-2006) from 1942 until the 1979 Revolutio…
Date: 2015-04-21

ʿEBRAT

(573 words)

Author(s): EIr
a monthly magazine first published on 4 February 1956 as the organ of Tūda party prisoners under the auspices and with the facilities of the Office of Tehran’s Military Governor, General Teymūr Baḵtīār. This article is available in print. Volume VIII, Fascicle 1, pp. 79 ʿEBRAT, a monthly magazine first published on 15 Bahman 1334 Š./4 February 1956 as the organ of Tūda party prisoners under the auspices and with the facilities of the Office of Tehran’s Military Governor, General Teymūr Baḵtīār. Its format was thirty-eight, and later sixty-six, 16.5 x 23 cm pages, priced at 10 rials. Ebrat’s …
Date: 2014-01-08

GOL-ĀQĀ

(491 words)

Author(s): EIr
a weekly satirical magazine founded by Kayumarṯ Ṣāberi which first began publication on 23 October 1990. This article is available in print. Volume XI, Fascicle 1, pp. 62 GOL-ĀQĀ, a weekly satirical magazine founded by Kayumarṯ Ṣāberi which first began publication on 23 October 1990. The circulation of Gol-āqā soon reached over “100,000 copies a week; a remarkable success” (Geraldine Brooks, “Hot New Satirical Magazine Reflects a New Glasnost: Judge Blood Not Amused,” The Wall Street Journal October 1, 1991, p. A1). The name “Gol-āqā” was first used as a pen name by Ṣāb…
Date: 2013-06-03

ANJOMAN-E FALSAFA WA ʿOLŪM-E ENSĀNĪ

(231 words)

Author(s): EIr
(Iranian Society for Philosophy and Humanistic Sciences), formed in 1949 as a regional branch of the International Council of Philosophy and Humanistic Sciences, a UNESCO affiliate. This article is available in print. Volume II, Fascicle 1, pp. 84 ANJOMAN-E FALSAFA WA ʿOLŪM-E ENSĀNĪ (Iranian Society for Philosophy and Humanistic Sciences) was formed in 1328 Š./1949 as a regional branch of the International Council of Philosophy and Humanistic Sciences, a UNESCO affiliate, as proposed by Ḡ. ʿA. Raʿdī Aḏaraḵšī, then the Iranian representa…
Date: 2013-02-13

ʿONṢORI

(1,961 words)

Author(s): EIr
(ca. 961-1039), celebrated Persian poet of the early Ghaznavid period. ʿONṢORI, Abu’l-Qāsem Ḥasan b. Aḥmad (b. Balkh, ca. 961; d. Ḡazna, 1039), celebrated Persian poet of the early Ghaznavid period. He was the poet laureate ( malek-al-šoʿarāʾ, amir-al-šoʿarāʾ) at the court of the Ghaznavid Sultan Maḥmud (r. 998-1030) and has been particularly noted and praised for his panegyric odes ( qaṣidas), in which his masterful use of rhetorical embellishments and measured diction have been referred to as models of elegant poetical composition (see, e.g., ʿAwfi, II…
Date: 2015-10-20

ḠAZNAVĪ, ABŪ RAJĀʾ

(465 words)

Author(s): EIr
b. Masʿūd III, a poet at the court of the Ghaznavid sultan Bahrāmšāh (r. ca. 1117-1157). This article is available in print. Volume X, Fascicle 4, pp. 388-389 ḠAZNAVĪ, ABŪ RAJĀʾ, a poet at the court of the Ghaznavid sultan Bahrāmšāh b. Masʿūd III (r. 511-?522/1117-?1157). His dīvān, mentioned by Sadīd-al-Dīn ʿAwfī, has not survived, but a few of his poems are quoted by later anthologists and historians who refer to him under a variety of appellations and sobriquets. In Neẓāmī ʿArūżī Samarqandī’s Čahār maqāla, written in 550-52/1155-57, his name appears in the list of the Ghazna…
Date: 2013-07-03

DĪN MOḤAMMAD KHAN

(130 words)

Author(s): EIr
b. Olūs Khan, the Uzbek prince who, with his brother ʿAlī Solṭān, joined Shah Ṭahmāsb’s camp in 943/1536-37 during the latter’s campaign in Khorasan against ʿObayd-Allāh Khan, the Uzbek ruler of Bukhara. This article is available in print. Volume VII, Fascicle 4, pp. 411-412 DĪNMOḤAMMAD KHAN b. Olūs Khan, the Uzbek prince who, with his brother ʿAlī Solṭān, joined Shah Ṭahmāsb’s camp in 943/1536-37 during the latter’s campaign in Khorasan against ʿObayd-Allāh Khan, the Uzbek ruler of Bukhara. He was given the governorship of Nesā and Abīvar…
Date: 2013-04-17

MOMAYYEZ, Morteżā

(3,032 words)

Author(s): EIr
(1936-2005), illustrator, painter, teacher and writer who played a pivotal role in the development of graphic design in contemporary Iran. MOMAYYEZ, MORTEŻĀ (b. Tehran, August 1936; d. Tehran, November 2005), illustrator, painter, teacher and writer who played a pivotal role in the development of graphic design in contemporary Iran (FIGURE 1; see GRAPHIC ARTS). Mommayez was the eldest son of Moḥammad-ʿAli and Ḵānom Kučak. His paternal grand uncle, Musā, was a noted painter of the late Qajar era (1794-1925). Momayyez worked in a variety of professio…
Date: 2012-11-15

FARĪD BHAKKARI

(310 words)

Author(s): EIr
b. Shaikh Maʿrūf BHAKKARĪ, 16-17th century author of an important biographical dictionary in Persian of Mughal notables, the Ḏaḵīrat al-ḵawanīn. This article is available in print. Volume IX, Fascicle 3, pp. 280 FARĪD b. Shaikh Maʿrūf BHAKKARĪ, author of an important biographical dictionary in Persian of Mughal notables, the Ḏaḵīrat al-ḵawanīn. Nothing is known of the life of Shaikh Farīd Bhakkarī beyond the few autobiographical details mentioned in his book. From these, it appears that he was in the bureaucratic service of several Mughal digni…
Date: 2013-05-26

BRITISH COUNCIL

(707 words)

Author(s): EIr
The first British Council representative was appointed to Iran in 1942. The priority was English language teaching, and by 1944 the Council was teaching over 4,000 students. This article is available in print. Volume IV, Fascicle 5, pp. 455-456 BRITISH COUNCIL: activities in Iran 1942-79. The first British Council representative was appointed to Iran in 1942. The priority was English language teaching, and by 1944 the Council was teaching over 4,000 students. By 1948 the Council had opened six provincial institutes with libraries in w…
Date: 2017-02-15

FOŻŪLĪ, MOḤAMMAD

(1,808 words)

Author(s): Eir
b. Solaymān (ca. 1480-1556), widely regarded as the greatest lyric poet in Azerbayjani Turkish, who also wrote extensively in Arabic and Persian. This article is available in print. Volume X, Fascicle 2, pp. 121-122 FOŻŪLĪ, MOḤAMMAD, b. Solaymān (ca. 885-936/1480-1556), widely regarded as the greatest lyric poet in Azerbayjani Turkish, who also wrote extensively in Arabic and Persian. He adopted the pen name ( taḵalloṣ) of Fożūlī (presumptuous) in order to be “unique,” as he reveals in the preface to his Persian dīvān (Karahan, in EI2 II, p. 937; Bombaci, 1970, p. 13). Fożūlī had his ro…
Date: 2015-12-22

HEKMAT, ʿALI-AṢḠAR

(4,316 words)

Author(s): EIr | Abbas Milani
man of letters, university professor, cabinet minister, and the chief architect of the modernization of the educational system under Reza Shah (1893-1980). Once Reza Shah decided to unveil Persian women, he placed Hekmat in charge of mapping out a plan of action, which included co-education in the first four years of elementary school. This article is available in print. Volume XII, Fascicle 2, pp. 145-149 HEKMAT (Ḥekmat), ʿALI-AṢḠAR, man of letters, university professor, cabinet minister, and the chief architect of the modernization of the educational system u…
Date: 2013-06-07

KĀSEMI, NOṢRAT-ALLĀH

(1,802 words)

Author(s): Mostafa Alamouti | EIr.
(1908-1996), physician, poet, writer, orator, and politician. This article is available in print. Volume XV, Fascicle 6, pp. 661-663 KĀSEMI, NOṢRAT-ALLĀH (b. Tehran, 1908; d. Tehran 1996; Figure 1), physician, poet, writer, orator, and politician. The first of three children born to Mirzā Asad-Allāh Khan Kāsemi, a court official and head of a landowning family in Mazandaran, he earned a diploma from Dār al-Fonun (q.v.) in 1929, and graduated from Tehran medical school in 1935 with a first order national science medallion (ʿĀqeli, III, p. 1252; Movaḥḥedi, p. 56). Academic and medical…
Date: 2012-11-07

HĀTEF, SAYYED AḤMAD EṢFAHĀNI

(1,156 words)

Author(s): Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā | EIr
(d. 1783), an influential poet of the 18th century. This article is available in print. Volume XII, Fascicle 54-55 HĀTEF, SAYYED AḤMAD EṢFAHĀNI (d. Qom 1198/1783), an influential poet of the 18th century. He belonged to the first generation of poets who rejected what they saw as the excesses of the so-called Indian style ( sabk-e Hendi), and adopted a poetical idiom closer to the stylistic principles of early Persian poetry. Later this movement became known as the “literary return” ( bāzgašt-e adabi, q.v.). Hātef’s family, originally from Ordubād in Azerbaijan, had moved in S…
Date: 2014-12-23

FARHANG-E MOʿĪN

(1,518 words)

Author(s): Kamran Talattof | EIr
an important Persian encyclopaedic dictionary published in six volumes in Tehran between 1963 and 1973. This article is available in print. Volume IX, Fascicle 3, pp. 268-270 FARHANG-E MOʿĪN, an important Persian encyclopaedic dictionary published in six volumes in Tehran between 1963 and 1973. Most of the work was compiled by the eminent Persian scholar and lexicographer Moḥammad Moʿīn (1918-71). His work on lexicography began in 1946 with his collaboration with ʿAlī-Akbar Dehḵodā (q.v.) on the monumental Persian encyclopedic dictionary Loḡat-nāma. Later, he prepared a cri…
Date: 2013-05-26

KĀK

(920 words)

Author(s): Etrat Elahi | Eir.
a general term applied to several kinds of flat bread or small, often thin, dry cakes variously shaped and made. This article is available in print. Volume XV, Fascicle 4, pp. 352-353 KĀK, a general term applied to several kinds of flat bread or small, often thin, dry cakes variously shaped and made, and therefore differently defined in dictionaries and cookbooks. The earliest source which mentions kāk is perhaps Asrār al-tawḥid, where one reads of Shaikh Abu Saʿid (d. 1048, q.v.) sending his servant to “a kāk-pazi,” similar to a bakery, to buy a large quantity of kāk, and praisi…
Date: 2012-10-16

AMIDA

(824 words)

Author(s): D. Sellwood | EIr
Pers. Āmed (modern Dīārbakr), town situated on a plateau dominating the west bank of the upper Tigris. This article is available in print. Volume I, Fascicle 9, pp. 938 AMIDA, Pers. Āmed (modern Dīārbakr), town situated at 37° 54’ north latitude and 39° 56’ east longitude on a plateau dominating the west bank of the upper Tigris. It lies at an ancient crossroads where the route from Ḵarpūt (Arm. Xarberd) in the north to Mārdīn in the south intersects the main east-west highway running from the Caspian coast to Edessa and on…
Date: 2017-07-28

SHAHRYAR, MOHAMMAD HOSAYN

(3,459 words)

Author(s): Kamyār ʿĀbedi | EIr
(1906-1988), prolific poet and the most noted representative of the short-lived Persian romanticism, who also composed poems in Azeri Turkish. Shahryar’s poetry has influenced many contemporary poets. SHAHRYAR, MOHAMMAD HOSAYN (Moḥammad Ḥosayn Behjat Tabrizi; b. Tabriz, Šahrivar 1285 Š./August 1906; d. Tehran, 27 Šahrivar 1367 Š./18 September 1988), outstanding, prolific contemporary poet (Figure 1, Figure 2). LIFE Shahryar was the son of Sayyed Esmāʾil, known as Mir Āqā (d. 1934), a calligrapher and erudite man (Zāhedi, p. 37). His childhood years co…
Date: 2015-12-21

AʿLAM, HUŠANG

(1,926 words)

Author(s): Mehran Afshari | EIr
(1928-2007), scholar of the history of science. AʿLAM, HUŠANG (b. Tehran, 1928; d. Tehran, 2007), eminent scholar of the history of science. Hušang began his primary education at home, where he was taught by his father, Naṣr-Allāh Aʿlam-al-Saltạna, who disapproved of the way children were taught at schools. He himself had studied medicine at the Dār al-fonun during the reign of Moẓaffar-al-Din Shah (1896-1906) and had a good command of French. By the age of 11, Hušang had already acquired some knowledge of Persian an…
Date: 2013-09-11

ADIB ḴᵛĀNSARI

(976 words)

Author(s): Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi | EIr
a major vocalist of Persia in the first half of 20th century (1901-1982). ADIB ḴᵛĀNSARI, Esmāʿil, a major vocalist of Persia in the first half of 20th century (b. Ḵᵛānsār, 1280 Š./1901; d. Tehran, 1361 Š./1982). His father, Mirzā Maḥmud Ḵᵛānsāri was a cleric but earned his living through copying manuscripts as well as from his inherited farmland. He was interested in the arts, especially calligraphy, and was particularly skilled in the nastaʿliq script (Behruzi, p. 456). Adib lived in his birthplace of Ḵᵛānsār until the age of eighteen. His early education was at a traditional school ( makta…
Date: 2016-08-03

HAJIABAD

(1,520 words)

Author(s): Philippe Gignoux | EIr
(Ḥājiābād), site of bilingual inscription of Šāpur I on the wall of a cave near Persepolis. OVERVIEW of the entry: i. The Inscriptions. ii. The Texts. This article is available in print. Volume XI, Fascicle 5, pp. 554-556 HAJIABAD (Ḥājiābād) INSCRIPTIONS, bilingual inscription of Šāpur I on the wall of Ḥājiābād cave near Persepolis. HAJIABAD i. INSCRIPTIONS The Hajiabad inscriptions were discovered by Robert Ker Porter at Ḥājiābād in 1818 in a grotto a few kilometers north of Persepolis, at a place called Šayḵ ʿAli or Tang-e Šāh Sarvān, opposite the v…
Date: 2013-06-05

YOHANNAN, ABRAHAM

(3,863 words)

Author(s): Eden Naby | EIr
(1853-1925), Assyrian scholar, philologist, historian, and humanitarian. YOHANNAN, ABRAHAM (1853-1925; Figure 1), Assyrian scholar, philologist, historian, and humanitarian advocate. He was the first “Oriental” to teach Oriental languages at Columbia University. Education and early career. Abraham Yohannan (b. 25 April 1853; d. 9 November 1925) was born in Ābājāluy near Urmia (Āḏarbāyjān-e Ḡarbi province, Iran; Razmārā, p. 1). His father, grandfather, and other ancestors as far back as can be traced were priests of the Nestorian…
Date: 2017-08-29

HOSTAGE CRISIS

(10,742 words)

Author(s): Mohsen M. Milani | EIr
the events following the seizure of the American embassy in Tehran by leftist Islamist students in 1979 with subsequent wide-ranging repercussions on Iran’s domestic politics as well as on U.S.-Iran relations. This article is available in print. Volume XII, Fascicle 5, pp. 522-535 HOSTAGE CRISIS, the events following the seizure of the American embassy in Tehran by leftist Islamist students in 1979 with subsequent wide-ranging repercussions on Iran’s domestic politics as well as on U.S.-Iran relations. The crisis began on 4 November 1979,…
Date: 2013-06-11

ḤAKIMI, EBRĀHIM

(4,055 words)

Author(s): Abbas Milani | EIr
Ḥakimi was born into an old and prominent family of court physicians. The family had been court physicians since the 17th century, starting with the eponym of the family, Moḥammad-Dāwud Khan Ḥakim, a physician at the courts of the Safavid Shah Ṣafi and Shah ʿAbbās II and the founder of the Ḥakim Mosque in Isfahan. This article is available in print. Volume XI, Fascicle 6, pp. 575-580 ḤAKIMI (Ḥakim-al-Molk), EBRĀHIM (b. Tabriz, 1288/1871 [1286 in ʿĀqeli, p. 589, is incorrect]; d. Tehran, 27 Mehr 1338 Š./19 October 1959, Ṣadiq, II, p. 210 [28 Oct. acc. to Hakimi, 2…
Date: 2014-01-03

MAHDAVI, Yaḥyā

(755 words)

Author(s): Moḥammad Ḵᵛānsāri | EIr
Mahdavi continued his education at Tehran Teachers College from 1928 until 1931, from which he was among the first to graduate with a bachelor's degree. In 1931, he received a scholarship from the state to continue his education in France until his graduation in 1938, writing his doctoral thesis under André Lanlande and Emile Bréhier. MAHDAVI, YAḤYĀ (b. Tehran, spring 1287 Š./1908; d. Tehran, 1379 Š./2000; Figure 1), professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran and a leading translator of Western philosophical works. Mahdavi was the son of Ḥā…
Date: 2014-01-03

MAḤJUBI, Reżā

(503 words)

Author(s): Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi | EIr
(1898-1954) composer and violinist, brother of Morteżā. MAḤJUBI, Reżā (b. Tehran, 1277 Š./1898, d. Tehran, 1333 Š./ 1954) composer and well-known player of the violin. Reżā’s parents were both familiar with music and Reżā, like his brother, Morteżā Maḥjubi, became interested in music from early childhood. His first teacher in music was Ḥosayn Hangāfarin (q.v.), a noted music master of the time. He then continued his music education with Ebrāhim Āžang, but since he did not have much interest in learning musical notation …
Date: 2012-11-20

IRĀNŠAHRI

(898 words)

Author(s): Dariush Kargar | EIr
ABU’L-ʿABBĀS MOḤAMMAD b. Moḥammad (fl. 2nd half 9th cent.), mathematician, natural scientist, historian of religion, astronomer, philosopher, and author. This article is available in print. Volume XIII, Fascicle 5, pp. 539-540 IRĀNŠAHRI, ABU’L-ʿABBĀS MOḤAMMAD b. Moḥammad (fl. 2nd half 3rd/9th cent.), mathematician, natural scientist, historian of religion, astronomer, philosopher, and author. He was from Nišāpur, the city known also as Irānšahr (Moqaddasi, pp. 299-300; Ebn Faqih, p. 321), hence his title Irānšahri. Nāṣer-e Ḵo…
Date: 2017-04-19

KADḴODĀ

(3,296 words)

Author(s): Willem Floor | EIr.
principal meaning “headman,” from Middle Persian kadag-xwadāy, lit. “head of a household." This article is available in print. Volume XV, Fascicle 3, pp. 328-331 KADḴODĀ, principal meaning “headman,” from Middle Persian kadag-xwadāy, lit. “head of a household, master of the house” (MacKenzie, p. 48; see also Vullers, II, p. 805a-b). During the medieval period, at least in post-Saljuq times, the term mainly referred to the headman of primary communal groups that were characterized by face to face relations in several social contexts—villages ( dehāt), guilds of craftsmen ( aṣnāf), a…
Date: 2012-10-16

ORMURI

(1,736 words)

Author(s): Ch. M. Kieffer | EIr.
language spoken in Afghanistan and Pakistan by the Ormur or Baraki. ORMURI is spoken by the Ormur (Ōrmuṛ), as the Pashtuns call them. The term Ōrmuṛ is traditionally interpreted as “extinguishers of fire,” from Pashto ôr “fire,” and mər, “dead, extinct”; perhaps the term is a malevolent allusion to a pretended past of “extinguishers of fire” (for other interpretations, see Morgenstierne, n.d., p. 16). Ormuri is also known as Baraki, the endonym of its speakers. The native designation Bargistā seems no longer used for the language (c…
Date: 2017-08-21

MINBĀŠIĀN, Ḡolām-Ḥosayn

(681 words)

Author(s): Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi | EIr
violinist, pianist, and conductor (1907-1978). MINBĀŠIĀN, ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN, violinist, pianist, and conductor of orchestra (b. Tehran, 5 Ābān 1286 Š/25 Nov. 1907; d. Tehran, Ābān 1357 Š /Nov. 1978). He was the son of Ḡolām-Reżā Minbāšiān Sālār Moʿazzaz and is known for his contemptuous disregard for traditional Persian music and his attempts to restructure and, to some extent, replace it with Western music. Minbāšiān left Persia for Europe after finishing the music school of Dār al-Fonun to study music at the Geneva Conservatory. There he studied the violin an…
Date: 2015-12-22

TAQIZADEH, SAYYED ḤASAN

(8,884 words)

Author(s): Iraj Afshar | EIr
(1878-1970), distinguished statesman, constitutionalist, and scholar. TAQIZADEH, SAYYED HASAN (Sayyed Ḥasan Taqizāda; b. Tabriz, 30 Ramażān 1295/27 September 1878; d. Tehran, 8 Bahman 1348/28 January 1970), distinguished statesman, constitutionalist, and scholar. TAQIZADEH, SAYYED ḤASAN i. To the end of the Constitutional Revolution TAQIZADEH, SAYYED HASAN (Sayyed Ḥasan Taqizāda), (b. Tabriz, 30 Ramażān 1295/27 September 1878; d. Tehran, 8 Bahman 1348/28 January 1970), distinguished statesman, constitutionalist, and scholar. i. To the end of the Constitutional …
Date: 2016-02-05

MAʿRUFI, Jawād

(513 words)

Author(s): Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi | EIr
Persian composer and pianist (1915-1993). MAʿRUFI, Jawād, a renowned Persian music composer and pianist (b. Tehran, 1294 Š/1915; d. Tehran, 1372 Š/1993). Maʿrufi’s father, Musā Maʿrufi, was a master musician and an imposing player of the tār (a plucked long-necked lute), who wrote down the repertoires ( radifs) of Persian music in Western notation and thus helped make it recorded and lasting. Jawād, after finishing primary school, entered the music school (Masdrasa-ye ʿāli-e musiqi) founded by ʿAli-Naqi Vaziri. There he first studied the tār for several years before joining th…
Date: 2012-11-28

SOMĀʿI, ḤABIB

(849 words)

Author(s): Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi | EIr
(1905-1946), an outstanding player of the santur (a kind of dulcimer). SOMĀʿI (Samāʿi), ḤABIB (b. Tehran 1905; d. Tehran 1946), an outstanding player of the santur (a kind of dulcimer), perhaps the greatest santur player of his time (Mašḥun, II, p. 517). Somāʿi’s first teacher of music was his father, Ḥabib-Allāh Samāʿ Ḥożur, an accomplished performer of the santur, who started teaching his son how to play the tombak (the chalice drum) when the child was four years old (on Samāʿ Ḥożur, see Ḵāleqi, I, pp. 163-68). Before long Ḥabib began to accompany his father’s santur playing with his to…
Date: 2016-09-09

MARATHI LANGUAGE, PERSIAN ELEMENTS IN

(1,045 words)

Author(s): S. H. Qasemi | EIr
the southernmost Indo-Aryan language, is spoken by more than 40 million speakers, including inhabitants of Bombay and the state of Maharashtra (Mahāraštrā) in west-central India. Marathi (Marāti, earlier form: Marhāti), the southernmost Indo-Aryan language, is spoken by more than 40 million speakers, including inhabitants of Bombay and the state of Maharashtra (Mahāraštrā) in west-central India. The name of both the region and the language is derived from Maharathas or Maharatta, a tribe of immigrant Aryans (Velankar, p…
Date: 2013-05-16

MAJD, Loṭf-Allāh

(662 words)

Author(s): Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi | EIr
r player known for his brilliant virtuosity and distinctive style (1917-1978). MAJD, Loṭf-Allāh, the celebrated tār (a plucked long-necked lute) performer known for his brilliant virtuosity and distinctive style (b. Sāri, Māzandarān, 1296/1917; d. Tehran, 1357 Š./1978). Majd was fascinated with music from his early childhood, spending most of his time fiddling around with a battered old tār that he had found in the storage room of their house at the expense of attending to his school assignments. This caused his father to take the instrument away fr…
Date: 2012-11-21

OUSELEY, Gore

(1,089 words)

Author(s): Peter Avery | EIr
(1770-1844), entrepreneur, diplomat, and orientalist. OUSELEY, Sir Gore, entrepreneur, diplomat, and orientalist (b. 24 June 1770, Monmouthshire, Wales; d. 18 November 1844, Hall Barn Park, Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, England). He was the younger brother of the officer and orientalist William Ouseley (1767-1842). The Ouseleys were an Anglo-Irish family who, although impoverished, afforded their two sons a sound private education. In 1787, Gore Ouseley moved to India, became a successful trader, and established in 1792 a textile fact…
Date: 2015-08-13

KALLAJUŠ

(652 words)

Author(s): Etrat Elahi & EIr.
an old Iranian dish, also pronounced kālajuš, kālājuš, kaljuš in different parts of Iran. The compound term kāljuš is composed of kālmeaning unripe, connoting cooked rare, and juš (boiling). This article is available in print. Volume XV, Fascicle 4, pp. 408-409 KALLAJUŠ (KĀLJUŠ), an old Iranian dish, also pronounced kālajuš, kālājuš, kaljuš in different parts of Iran. It consists of fried onions, dried herbs, and boiled kašk (dried condensed whey), eaten with bread (crumbled or in pieces). The compound term kāljuš is composed of kāl meaning unripe, connoting cooked rare, and juš (boil…
Date: 2012-10-18

MAḤJUBI, Morteżā

(1,076 words)

Author(s): Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi | EIr
(1900-1965), composer and pianist, noted for his use of the piano to perform traditional Iranian music. MAḤJUBI, MORTEŻĀ (b. Tehran, 1279 Š./1900; d. Tehran, 1 Farvardin 1344 Š./21 March 1965), celebrated composer and performer of the piano. He was a self-educated and innovative piano player who was renowned for his masterful utilization of the piano in performing traditional Iranian music. Maḥjubi’s father, ʿAbbās-ʿAli Nāẓer, had artistic talent and played the Ney (an end-blown flute); and his mother, Faḵr-al-Sādāt, knew how to play the piano. This very…
Date: 2015-12-21

ʿAṢṢĀR, Sayyed MOḤAMMAD-KĀẒEM

(988 words)

Author(s): Ahmad Kazemi Mousavi | EIr
(b. 1302/1884-85; d. Tehran, 19 Dey 1353 Š./9 January 1975), outstanding Shiʿite scholar and professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran. ʿAṢṢĀR, SAYYED MOḤAMMAD-KĀẒEM (b. 1302/1884-85; d. Tehran, 19 Dey 1353 Š./9 January 1975), outstanding Shiʿite scholar and professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran, who reviewed the new civil jurisprudence drafted under ʿAli-Akbar Dāvar to ensure its accommodation in the framework of Shiʿite law (for the discrepancy in dates, see Sāl-nāma, p. 312, Āštiāni, 1997, p. 154). His father, Sayyed Moḥammad b. Maḥmud of L…
Date: 2016-12-22

JAVĀNRUD

(1,087 words)

Author(s): ʿAbd-Allāh Marduḵ | EIr.
a city and a sub-province ( šahrestān) in the northwest of Kermānšāhān Province near the border with Iraq at about 110 km southwest of Sanandaj sub-province. This article is available in print. Volume XIV, Fascicle 6, pp. 601-602 JAVĀNRUD, a city and a sub-province ( šahrestān) in the northwest of Kermānšāhān Province near the border with Iraq at about 110 km southwest of Sanandaj sub-province. Apparently it is so called after the name of the Kurdish tribe Javānrud, a dominant tribe of the area in the past, which is now almost entirely urb…
Date: 2012-04-13

FARMĀNFARMĀ, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN MĪRZĀ

(2,970 words)

Author(s): Cyrus Mir | EIr
(1858-1939), Qajar prince-governor, military commander, skillful politician, head of various ministries, and prime minister. He managed to sail successfully the stormy sea of Persian politics for several decades while the entire social and political landscape was undergoing dramatic change. This article is available in print. Volume IX, Fascicle 3, pp. 296-299 FARMĀNFARMĀ, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN MĪRZĀ (b. Tehran, 1274/1858; d. Tehran, 1318 Š./1939; Plate I), Qajar prince-governor, military commander, skillful politician, head of various ministries, and pr…
Date: 2013-05-26

OUSELEY, William

(1,113 words)

Author(s): Peter Avery | EIr
(1767-1842), officer and orientalist. OUSELEY, Sir William, officer and orientalist (b. 1767 in Monmouthshire, Wales; d. September 1842, Boulogne, France). He was the elder brother of the entrepreneur, diplomat, and orientalist Sir Gore Ouseley (1770-1844; q.v.) and a cousin of the Methodist preacher and missionary Gideon Ouseley (1762-1839). The Ouseleys were an Anglo-Irish family, and the brothers William and Gore were educated privately together with their cousin Gideon. In 1787, the brothers left Wales. While Gore became an entrepreneur i…
Date: 2012-11-09

QAṢRĀN

(1,260 words)

Author(s): Giti Deyhim | EIr.
a historical region located north of present-day Tehran. QAṢRĀN, a historical region located north of present-day Tehran, consisting of the upper Jājrud river valley (Inner Qaṣrān) and Šemirānāt as well as Tehran itself (Outer Qaṣrān). Qaṣrān has been populated since pre-historical times. Artifacts dated from three to six thousand years ago have been excavated from its ancient burials and other sites. The invading Muslims conquered Ray (q.v.) and Damāvand in the early Omayyad period. Nevertheless, the habitants of the mountainous…
Date: 2017-05-30

NAḴJAVĀNI, ḤĀJJ MOḤAMMAD

(539 words)

Author(s): Hūšang Etteḥād | EIr
(1880-1962), businessman, scholar, and collector of manuscripts. NAḴJAVĀNI, ḤĀJI MOḤAMMAD (b. Tabriz, 1880; d. Tabriz, 15 Mordād 1341 Š./6 August 1962), businessman, scholar, and collector of manuscripts. His father, Ḥājj ʿAli ʿAbbās was a leading merchant in Tabriz and attended to his son’s education from early years. The young Moḥammad began his elementary education under Āqā Ḥosayn Amin-al-Odabā and at Ṭalebiya school, where he studied Persian and Arabic grammar and literature under an erudite teach…
Date: 2016-01-28

ḤASIBI, KĀẒEM

(625 words)

Author(s): Bāqer ʿĀqeli | EIr
(1906-1990), political figure and university professor. When the oil industry was nationalized in 1951, Ḥasibi, as Deputy Minister of Finance, became a member of the delegation charged with the eviction of the former oil company. He accompanied Dr. Moṣaddeq to the U.N. Security Council. This article is available in print. Volume XII, Fascicle 1, pp. 48-49 ḤASIBI, KĀẒEM, political figure and university professor (b. Tehran, 1324/1906; d. Tehran, 1369 Š./1990; Figure 1). Born to a merchant family, Ḥasibi graduated from the law school at Tehran (Madrasa-…
Date: 2015-06-28

ḠALYĀN

(2,349 words)

Author(s): Shahnaz Razpush | EIr
or QALYĀN (nargileh); a water pipe chiefly used in the Middle East and Central Asia for smoking tobacco. It is composed of several parts: the bādgīr (chimney); sar-e ḡālyān or sarpūš (the top bowl; sar-ḵāna in Afghanistan); tana (the body); mīlāb (the immersion pipe); ney-e pīč (hose); and kūza (the reservoir of water). This article is available in print. Volume X, Fascicle 3, pp. 261-265 ḠALYĀN or QALYĀN (nargileh), a water pipe chiefly used in the Middle East and Central Asia for smoking tobacco (Syr. Ar: nafas; called ḥoqqa in India; čelam/ čelīm in Afghanistan; Pūr-e Dāwūd, pp. 208…
Date: 2013-05-29

LAVĀSĀN

(578 words)

Author(s): Giti Deyhim | EIr.
a town and district northwest of Tehran. LAVĀSĀN, town and district located in the middle course of the river Jājrud in the northwest of Tehran. The district ( baḵš), officially known as Lavāsānāt, constitutes, along with Rudbār-e Qaṣrān, the sub-province of Šemirān in the Tehran province. Lavāsānāt comprises two rural districts ( dehestāns), Greater Lavāsān and Lesser Lavāsān—thus the plural form “Lavāsānāt.” The administrative center of Lavāsānāt is the town of Lavāsān, situated at lat 35.8° N, long 51.6° E, elev. 1,700 m. The district of Lavāsānāt spreads approximately 600 …
Date: 2017-11-06

ALA, HOSAYN

(5,625 words)

Author(s): Mansureh Ettehadieh | EIr.
(1882-1964), statesman, diplomat, minister, and prime minister during the late Qajar and Pahlavi periods. He served as a high-ranking official from the Constitutional Revolution of 1906-07 to the time of the White Revolution of 1963-64. ALA, HOSAYN (Ḥosayn ʿAlāʾ, Moʿin-al-Vezāreh; b. Tbilisi, 1882; d. Tehran, 1964; Figure 1), statesman, gifted diplomat, minister, and prime minister during the late Qajar and Pahlavi periods. He served as a high-ranking official from the Constitutional Revolution of 1906-7 (q.v.) to the time of the White Revolution of 1963-64. Ala was the third s…
Date: 2014-06-19

QAWĀMI, Ḥosyan

(480 words)

Author(s): Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi | EIr
(1909-1989), known also as Fāḵtaʾi, a master vocalist in the second half of the 20th century. QAWĀMI, ḤOSYAN (b. Tehran, 1288 Š./1909; d. Tehran, 1368 Š. /1989), known also as Fāḵtaʾi, a master vocalist in the second half of the 20th century. Qawāmi’s father, a well-known architect, was a music enthusiast with a comprehensive collection of records of performances by Persian vocalists of the time. Ḥosayn was thus acquainted with music from early childhood. He grew interested in singing, especially in performances of two vocalists of the …
Date: 2016-03-04

ENAMEL

(1,570 words)

Author(s): EIr | Layla S. Diba
a heat-fused glass paste colored by metal oxides and used to decorate metal surfaces. Enamel was associated with lapidary, glassworking, and goldmithing crafts and was probably used primarily in place of precious stones before the 17th century. This article is available in print. Volume VIII, Fascicle 4, pp. 424-428 ENAMEL (Pers. mīnā, possibly a dialect form of mīnū < Mid. Pers. mēnōg “uncorporeal, spiritual, the world beyond, heaven” < *"sky" < "blue," meaning "glass, luster, enamel" [Horn, Etymologie, s.v. mīnō; for the ū-/ ā- variation in words derived from OIr. - u stems, cf. Av. bāz…
Date: 2017-12-20

GOLŠIRI, HUŠANG

(3,645 words)

Author(s): Ḥasan Mirʿābedini | EIr
(b. Isfahan, 1938; d. Tehran, 2000), novelist who explored new literary techniques. He received the Lillian Hellman and Dashiell Hammett award (1997) via the Human Rights Watch Organization and was awarded the Osnabrück Peace prize (1999) from the Erich Maria Remarque Foundation for his defense of freedom of speech. This article is available in print. Volume XI, Fascicle 2, pp. 114-118 GOLŠIRI, HUŠANG (b. Isfahan, March 16, 1938; d. Tehran, June 5, 2000; Figure 1), one of the most significant Persian writers of the second half of 20th century. He came fro…
Date: 2016-07-02

KATA

(615 words)

Author(s): Etrat Elahi | EIr
a simple, everyday rice dish characteristic for the Caspian provinces, Gilan and Mazanderan. This article is available in print. Volume XVI, Fascicle 2, pp. 122-123 (as KATEH) KATA ( kateh), a simple, everyday rice dish characteristic for the Caspian provinces, Gilan and Mazanderan. It is prepared by combining all the ingredients (rice, two cups of water for every cup of rice, butter, and salt) and boiling over medium heat; the rice is not soaked previously. When the water is absorbed, the heat is reduced and the pot covere…
Date: 2013-03-22

EUTYCHIUS of Alexandria

(1,012 words)

Author(s): Sidney H. Griffith | EIr
(877-940), Christian physician and historian whose Annales (written in Arabic and called Ketāb al-tārīḵ al-majmūʿ ʿalā’l-taḥqīq wa’l-taṣdīq or Naẓm al-jawhar) is a rich repository of much otherwise unobtainable information about the history of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, especially in the periods of Persian occupation in the seventh century and in Islamic times up to the early tenth century. This article is available in print. Volume IX, Fascicle 1, pp. 77-78 EUTYCHIUS of Alexandria (Saʿīd b. Beṭrīq), Christian physician and historian whose Annales (written in Arabic and called K…
Date: 2013-05-06

TAFT

(766 words)

Author(s): EIr | Ali Modarres
town and district in Yazd province. TAFT, town and district in Yazd province. The town is located 20 km southwest of Yazd, on the road to Abarquh, at an altitude of 1,560 m. The district, formerly known as Piškuh, is an arid piedmont consisting of the rural districts of Piškuh, Šurkuh, ʿAliābād, Naṣrābād, Dehšir, Bonādkuk, Zardin, Saḵvid, Garizāt, and Kahduʾiya (Razmārā, Farhang X, p. 48; Moṣāḥab, p. 650; Jaʿfari, p. 293). An early mention of Taft is found in the 15th century; it was known for its pleasant climate, water, and produce, especially pomegranates and gr…
Date: 2013-01-17

ḠANĪ KAŠMIRI

(430 words)

Author(s): G. L. Tikku | EIr
Pen name of Mollā MOḤAMMAD-ṬĀHER KAŠMĪRĪ (1630-69), one of the most celebrated poets of Kashmir who wrote in the Indian Style ( sabk-e hendī). This article is available in print. Volume X, Fascicle 3, pp. 278 ḠANĪ, pen name of Mollā MOḤAMMAD-ṬĀHER KAŠMĪRĪ (1630-69), one of the most celebrated poets of Kashmir who wrote in the Indian Style ( sabk-e hendī). He was a pupil of another famous poet from Kashmir, Shaikh Moḥammad-Moḥsen Fānī (q.v.; d. 1081/1670-71), through whom he met many other poets including Ṣāʾeb and Kalīm. Although he is frequently mention…
Date: 2013-10-21

ANJOMAN-E OḴOWWAT

(1,283 words)

Author(s): ʿA. Anwār | EIr
(or OḴŪWAT) “The Society of Brotherhood,” a non-political Sufi-type society officially founded on 15 Šabʿān 1317/21 December 1899 by Mīrzā ʿAlī Khan Ẓahīr-al-dawla to promote the ideals of equity and brotherhood in Iran. This article is available in print. Volume II, Fascicle 1, pp. 88-89 ANJOMAN-E OḴOWWAT (or OḴŪWAT) “The Society of Brotherhood,” a non-political Sufi-type society officially founded on 15 Šabʿān 1317/21 December 1899 by Mīrzā ʿAlī Khan Ẓahīr-al-dawla to promote the ideals of equity and brotherhood in Iran. The society, mode…
Date: 2013-02-27

ĀB-GŪŠT

(1,306 words)

Author(s): EIr | N. Ramazani
“meat juice,” a popular Persian meat-based soup or stew, consisting of lamb, some legume, and herb and seasoning. This article is available in print. Volume I, Fascicle 47-48, pp. 47-48 ĀB-GŪŠT, literally “water-meat” signifying “meat juice” (i.e., āb-e gūšt), a popular Persian meat-based soup or stew, consisting of lamb, some legume, and herb and seasoning. Currently the standard variety of āb-gūšt is made of lamb shank ( māhīča), dried chick peas, white beans, and potato, with salt, turmeric, and dried Persian lime ( līmū-ye ʿomānī) for seasoning. The application of the name āb-gūšt
Date: 2016-06-22

MARĀ BEBUS

(568 words)

Author(s): Morteza Hosayni Dehkordi | EIr.
(Kiss me), the title of one of the most popular songs ( taṣnif) of mid-twentieth century Iran. MARĀ BEBUS (Kiss me), the title of one of the most popular songs ( taṣnif) of mid-twentieth century Iran. Its music was composed by Majid Vafādār and its lyrics by Ḥaydar Reqābi (Hāla); it was sung by Ḥasan Golnarāqi. As a student, Reqābi was a member of the National Front and a strong supporter of Moḥammad Moṣaddeq (q.v.). After the coup d’état of August 1953, he went into hiding but was eventually allowed to leave the country and go into exile. When Reqāb…
Date: 2012-11-27

FALLĀḤ, REŻĀ

(878 words)

Author(s): Bāqer ʿĀqelī | EIr
(b. Kāšān, 1910; d. London, 1981), deputy manager of the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC; Šerkat-e mellī-e naft-e Īrān), in charge of international relations and marketing. This article is available in print. Volume IX, Fascicle 2, pp. 171-172 FALLĀḤ, REŻĀ (b. 1328/1910, Kāšān; d. 1360 Š./1981, London), deputy manager of the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC; Šerkat-e mellī-e naft-e Īrān), in charge of international relations and marketing, “a shrewd man of affairs, the Shah used him as a behind-the-scenes negotiator with the oi…
Date: 2013-05-22

ḴALḴĀLI, Sayyed ʿAbd-al-Raḥim

(2,288 words)

Author(s): Hūšang Etteḥād | EIr
Ḵalḵāli remained, to the end of his life, a loyal member of the democratic current and a close confidant of Sayyed Ḥasan Taqizādeh, the leader of the Social Democratic Party (Ferqa-ye ejtemāʿiyun-e ʿāmmiyun) in the First Majles (1906-08), and later of Iran’s Democrat Party (Ferqa-ye demokrāt-e Irān) in the Second Majles. This article is available in print. Volume XV, Fascicle 4, pp. 405-408 ḴALḴĀLI, SAYYED ʿABD-al-RAḤIM (b. Ḵalḵāl, ca. 1872; d. Tehran, 20 June 1942), well-known constitutionalist, journalist, government official, bookseller, and publisher, a…
Date: 2014-01-03

EMAMI, KARIM

(2,289 words)

Author(s): ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Āzarang | EIr
Emami took an early interest in contemporary Persian art and literature. In 1959, before starting his career as a journalist and translator, he worked as a photographer and filmmaker at the film studio of Ebrāhim Golestān (b. 1922), modernist writer and director. EMAMI , KARIM (Karim Emāmi, b. Calcutta, 1930; d. Tehran, 9 July 2005), noted translator, editor, publisher, critic, journalist, and lexicographer (FIGURE 1). Emami was two when his parents, who had a trading business with India, moved back to their hometown of Shiraz, where Emami received his elemen…
Date: 2013-11-20

KHANLARI, PARVIZ

(8,673 words)

Author(s): ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Āḏarang | EIr
scholar of Persian language and literature, poet, essayist, translator, literary critic, university professor, and founding editor of the periodical Soḵan. A version of this article is available in print Volume XVI, Fascicle 4, pp. 407-416 KHANLARI, PARVIZ (Parviz Nātel Ḵānlari; b. Tehran, Esfand 1292 Š./March 1914; d. Tehran, 1 Šahrivar 1369 Š./23 August 1990; PLATE I), prominent scholar of Persian language and literature, poet, essayist, translator, literary critic, university professor, and founding editor of the periodical Soḵan. LIFE Ḵānlari was the son of Mirzā Abu’…
Date: 2017-05-14

HOMOSEXUALITY

(13,724 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø | E. K. Rowson | EIr
OVERVIEW of the entry: i. In Zoroastrianism. ii. In Islamic law. iii. In Persian literature. iv. In modern Persia. See Supplement. This article is available in print. Volume XII, Fascicle 4, 6, pp. 440-448 HOMOSEXUALITY i. IN ZOROASTRIANISM Zoroastrian literature contains discussions of personal relations only in legal contexts and is quite explicit with regard to sins of a sexual nature, including between males. The information about “homosexuality” contained in this literature is restricted to anal intercourse, as defined in the Videvdad (8.32): “When a man releases his se…
Date: 2013-06-10

CONTRACTS

(5,295 words)

Author(s): Muhammad A. Dandamayev | Mansour Shaki | EIr
(usually ʿaqd), legally enforceable undertakings between two or more consenting parties. This article is available in print. Volume VI, Fascicle 2, 3, pp. 221-226 i. In the Achaemenid Period Contracts from the Achaemenid period have not yet come to light in Persia proper, though they are quite common from Achaemenid territories in Mesopotamia and Egypt. These contracts are written in Babylonian, Aramaic, and demotic Egyptian and generally conform to the legal terminology current in those places. The absence of any traces of…
Date: 2013-08-07

CINEMA

(21,498 words)

Author(s): Farrokh Gaffary | Jamsheed Akrami | Hamid Naficy | EIr
This series of articles treats the history of cinema in Persia, Persian feature film, Persian documentary films, film censorship in Persia, and filmography in Persia. This article is available in print. Volume V, Fascicle 6, pp. 567-590 CINEMA i. History of Cinema in Persia The beginnings. On 7 Rabīʿ I 1318/8 June 1900, during his first trip to Europe, Moẓaffar-al-Dīn Shah (1313-24/1896-1907) saw at Contrexeville, France, scenes filmed with the cinématographe, the French motion-picture camera that had been invented only five years earlier (Moẓaffar-al-Dīn Shah, pp…
Date: 2013-06-11

FORŪḠĪ, MOḤSEN

(1,639 words)

Author(s): Mina Marefat | EIr | Richard N. Frye
(1907-1983), pioneer of modern architecture in Persia, an influential professor of architecture at the University of Tehran, and a noted collector of Persian art. He was imprisoned in 1979 after the revolution, and his art collection was placed in the Archaeological Museum, Tehran. This article is available in print. Volume X, Fascicle 2, pp. 113-116 FORŪḠĪ, MOḤSEN (Mohsen Foroughi), pioneer of modern architecture in Persia, an influential professor of architecture at the University of Tehran, and a noted collector of Persian art (b. 14 May 1907; d. 6 October 1983; Figure 1). i. BIOGRA…
Date: 2013-05-29

FERDOWSI, ABU'L-QĀSEM

(15,091 words)

Author(s): Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh | A. Shapur Shahbazi | EIr
(940-1019 or 1025), one of the greatest epic poets and author of the Šāh-nāma, the national epic of Persia. This article is available in print. Volume IX, Fascicle 5, pp. 514-531 FERDOWSI, ABU'L-QĀSEM i. Life Life. Apart from his patronymic ( konya), Abu’l-Qāsem, and his pen name ( taḵalloṣ), Ferdowsī, nothing is known with any certainty about his names or the identity of his family. In various sources, and in the introduction to some manuscripts of the Šāh-nāma, his name is given as Manṣūr, Ḥasan, or Aḥmad, his father’s as Ḥasan, Aḥmad, or ʿAlī, and his grandfather’s as Šarafšāh (Ṣafā, Adabīy…
Date: 2016-06-29

HEDAYAT, SADEQ

(17,905 words)

Author(s): Homa Katouzian | EIr | Michael C. Hillmann | Ulrich Marzolph | Touraj Daryaee
(Hedāyat, Ṣādeq), the eminent fiction writer (1903-1951), who had a vast influence on the next generation of Persian writers. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 2, pp. 121-135 HEDAYAT, SADEQ (Hedāyat, Ṣādeq), the eminent fiction writer (b. Tehran, 28 Bahman 1281 Š./17 February 1903; d. Paris, 19 Farvardin 1330 Š./9 April 1951), had a vast influence on the next generation of Persian writers. HEDAYAT, SADEQ i. LIFE AND WORK Sadeq Hedayat (Figure 1) was the youngest child of Hedā-yatqoli Khan Eʿteżād-al-Molk, the notable literary historia…
Date: 2015-03-13

FEMINIST MOVEMENTS i. INTRODUCTION, ii. IN THE LATE QAJAR PERIOD

(11,834 words)

Author(s): EIr | Janet Afary | Hamideh Sedghi | Ziba Mir-Hosseini
Persia of the 20th century saw a number of popular, often small and short-lived, women’s rights activities which had been mobilized in the 1900s-1920s and again in the 1940s-50s. This article is available in print. Volume IX, Fascicle 5, pp. 489-491 i. INTRODUCTION The principle concerns of the women’s rights movement in Persia have been equal access to modern education; improvements in health and hygiene; removal of the veil and other changes in traditional gender roles and household relations; greater employment opportunities for women…
Date: 2017-04-26

GIFT GIVING

(12,256 words)

Author(s): EIr | Josef Wiesehöfer | Rudi P. Matthee | Willem Floor
various aspects of gift giving in Persia. This article is available in print. Volume X, Fascicle 6, pp. 604-617 blod:GIFT GIVING in Persia. The following articles constitute a preliminary attempt at studying various aspects of gift giving in a chronological and historical framework, from the pre-Islamic era to the early modern period. An anthropological approach, dealing with the practice of gift exchange in local communities, tribal clans, villages, extended families, neighborhoods, and urban quarters needs a sepa…
Date: 2016-09-01

JIROFT

(10,948 words)

Author(s): M. Badanj | EIr. | Eric Fouache | Oscar White Muscarella | Jean Perrot
sub-province ( šahrestān), town, and dam in Kerman Province. i. Geography. ii. Human geography and environment. iii. General survey of excavations. iv. Iconography of chlorite artifacts. This article is available in print. Volume XIV, Fascicle 6, pp. 646-664 JIROFT, name of a sub-provincial unit ( šahrestān), a town, and a dam in Kerman Province. JIROFT i. Geography of Jiroft Sub-Province Jiroft sub-province. Located in the south of Kerman Province, the sub-province of Jiroft is bound by those of Kermān (north), Bam (east), ʿAnbarābād and Kahnuj (south), …
Date: 2012-04-18

KASRAVI, AḤMAD

(18,843 words)

Author(s): Ali Reżā Manafzadeh | Moḥammad Amini | Alireza Manafzadeh | Mohammad Amini | Lloyd Ridgeon | Et al.
influential social thinker, prominent historian, a pioneer of Iran’s linguistic studies, well-known social and religious reformer with a sense of prophetic mission, and prolific author. This article is available in print. Volume XVI, Fascicle 1, pp. 87-105 blod:KASRAVI, AḤMAD (b. Tabriz, 29 September 1890; d. Tehran, 11 March 1946; Figure 1), influential social thinker, prominent historian, a pioneer of Iran’s linguistic studies, well-known social and religious reformer with a sense of prophetic mission, and prolific author. KASRAVI, AḤMAD i. LIFE AND WORK Early life. Kasravi …
Date: 2016-01-28

DARIUS

(12,971 words)

Author(s): Rudiger Schmitt | Richard N. Frye | A. Shapur Shahbazi | Heleen Sanchisi-Weerdenburg | EIr. | Et al.
(NPers. Darīūš, Dārā), name of several Achaemenid and Parthian rulers and princes. This article is available in print. Volume VII, Fascicle 1, pp. 40-55 DARIUS i. The Name Dārīus (or Dārēus) is the common Latin form of Greek Dareîos, itself a shortened rendering of Old Persian five-syllable Dārayavauš (spelled d-a-r-y-v-u-š), the throne name of Darius the Great and two other kings of the Achaemenid dynasty (see iii-v, below), which thus enjoyed considerable popularity among noblemen in later periods (see vi-viii, below). The original Old Persi…
Date: 2013-06-25

GONBAD-E QĀBUS

(2,342 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers | M. Momeni, | EIr | Habib-Allāh Zanjāni | Sheila S. Blair
(now referred to officially as Gonbad-e Kāvus) is the administrative center of the sub-province ( šahrestān) of the same name and the urban center of the Turkman tribal area in northern Persia. It is named after its major monument, a tall tower that marks the grave of the Ziyarid ruler Qābus b. Vošmgir (r. 978-1012). This article is available in print. Volume XI, Fascicle 2, pp. 126-129 GONBAD-E QĀBUS (KĀVUS), city and sub-province in the Golestān Province. i. GEOGRAPHY The city of Gonbad-e Qābus (now referred to officially as Gonbad-e Kāvus) is the administrative center o…
Date: 2013-06-04

KASHAN

(35,266 words)

Author(s): Habibollah Zanjani | EIr. | Xavier de Planhol | Mohammad- Reza Haeri | Habib Borjian | Et al.
historical city and a sub-province of the province of Isfahan on the north-south axial route of central Iran. A version of this article is available in print Volume XVI, Fascicle 1, pp. 1 blod:KASHAN (Kāšān) historical city and a sub-province of the province of Isfahan on the north-south axial route of central Iran (lat 33° 59ʹ 30ʹʹ N, long 51° 27ʹ 00ʹʹ E; elev. 950 m). The city is located 260 km (189 km air) south of Tehran and 220 km (146 km air) north of Isfahan. This entry is divided into the following nine articles: KASHAN i. GEOGRAPHY Physical geography. Covering an area of approximately…
Date: 2017-04-27

FICTION

(36,366 words)

Author(s): J. T. P. de Bruijn | Simin Behbahāni | EIr | Houra Yavari | Jamāl Mīrṣādeqī | Et al.
i. Traditional Forms. ii. Modern Fiction. ii(a). Historical Background. ii(b). The Novel. ii(c). The Short Story. ii(d). The Post-Revolutionary Short Story. ii(e). Post-Revolutionary Fiction Abroad. ii(f). By Persians in Non-Persian Languages. ii(g). In Afghanistan. ii(h). In Tajikistan. This article is available in print. Volume IX, Fascicle 6, pp. 572-610 FICTION, i. TRADITIONAL FORMS This article deals with all kinds of stories written for specifically literary purposes up to the time when narrative prose in the modern style, derived from the W…
Date: 2013-05-28

ARSACIDS

(17,529 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi | K. Schippmann | M. Alram | Mary Boyce | EIr | Et al.
(Persian Aškānīān), Parthian dynasty which ruled Iran from about 250 BCE to about 226 CE. This article is available in print. Volume II, Fascicle 5, pp. 525-546 ARSACIDS (Persian Aškānīān), Parthian dynasty which ruled Iran from about 250 BCE to about 226 CE. i. Origins. ii. The Arsacid dynasty. iii. Arsacid coinage. iv. Arsacid religion. v. The “Arsacid” era. vi. Arsacid chronology in traditional history. vii. The Arsacid dynasty of Armenia. viii. Military Architecture Of Parthia. ARSACIDS i. Origins Our sources on the ancestry of the eponymous founder of the dynasty, Ars…
Date: 2016-07-07

FREEMASONRY

(12,186 words)

Author(s): Hasan Azinfar | M.-T. Eskandari, | Edward Joseph | Hamid Algar | EIr | Et al.
This famous fraternal order, bound by rituals and secret oaths, was introduced to Persia and adopted by Persian notables in the 19th century. It developed in the early 20th century and burgeoned in the period from 1950-78. Its practice still continues among some middle- and upper-class Persians in exile at the turn of the 21st century. The topic will be treated in five entries. This article is available in print. Volume X, Fascicle 2, pp. 205-221 FREEMASONRY This famous fraternal order, bound by rituals and secret oaths, was introduced to Persia and adopted by Persian no…
Date: 2013-05-29
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