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Kudummul

(167 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a small volcanic island in the Red Sea in 17° 52’ N lat., called Kotumble on the English Admiralty charts and Qotanbul in Admiralty handbook, Western Arabia and the Red Sea, London 1946, 133. The island has a rich flora, which has been studied by the botanist Ehrenberg, and is noteworthy for its iron deposits, which are mentioned as early as the geographer Ibn al-Mud̲j̲āwir (d. 630/1233). Kudummul, which lies near Ḥamiḍa on the Arabian coast off ʿAsīr [ q.v.], once marked the boundary between the land of the Kināna and Yemen. (A. Grohmann) Bibliography al-Hamdānī, Ṣifat d̲j̲azīrat al-ʿArab,…

Ibb

(310 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, formerly the capital of the ḳaḍāʾ of the same name in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʿizz in the Yemen; now, since 1946, a separate liwāʾ , comprising the ḳadāʾ s Ibb, ʿUdeyn, D̲h̲ī Sufāl, Ḳuʿtaba and Yerīm. Besides the pronunciation with i peculiar to the Yemen, we find also Abb (in Niebuhr: Aebb). At an earlier period the walled town, with a population estimated at 4,000, belonged to the territory of D̲h̲ū D̲j̲ibla. It is situated on the ‘upper road’ leading from ʿAdan to Ṣanʿāʾ. According to the proposals of the A. Beneyton mission of 1911 fo…

al-Sarī

(313 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
b. al-Ḥakam b. Yūsuf al-Balk̲h̲ī , governor and financial controller of Egypt from 1 Ramaḍān 200/3 April 816. On 1 Rabīʿ I 201/27 Sept. 816, the troops openly mutinied against him, and al-Maʾmūn was forced to remove al-Sarī from his post and replace him by Sulaymān b. G̲h̲ālib; al-Sarī was put in prison and Sulaymān entered upon his office on Tuesday, 4 Rabīʿ I 201/30 Sept. 816. He was removed from office as early as 1 S̲h̲aʿbān 201/22 Feb. 817, as the result of a repeated revol…

Ibb

(179 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the capital of the ḳaḍā of the same name in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʾizz in the Yemen. Besides the pronunciation with i peculiar to the Yemen we also find Abb (in Niebuhr: Aebb). At an earlier period the walled town with a population estimated at 4,000 belonged to the territory of Ḏh̲ū Ḏj̲ibla. It stands on a hill on the pilgrims’ road which runs from Ḥaḍramawt to the Yemen Tihāma or from ʿAden to Ṣanʿāʾ, in a fertile region where cereals and fruit are grown, also coffee, ḳāt, indigo and wars. In the vicinity there was at one time a silver mine (photographs in the Islām-Stiftung in Leiden). (A. Grohmann) Bi…

al-Muḳawḳas

(3,049 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, al-Muḳawḳis, the individual who in Arab tradition plays the leading part on the side of the Copts and Greeks at the conquest of Egypt. The Prophet is said to have sent a letter to him in the year 6 a. h. In the address on this letter, the text of which is given in Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam (ed. Torrey, p. 46), al-Maḳrīzī ( Ḵh̲iṭaṭ, i. 29), al-Suyūṭī ( Ḥusn al-Muḥāḍara, i. 58) and al-Manūfī (p. 29), as well as in an entirely different version in Pseudo-Wāḳidī (p. 10), and also in the accounts of the incident in the Arab historians, the position of Muḳawḳis is described in the following phrases: 1. Ṣāḥib al-Iskan…

Muḳrā

(111 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a district and village in the Yaman, a day’s journey south of Ṣanʿāʾ The Arab geographers mention a cornelian mine here. The name is also given to a mountain in the Yaman Sarāt. According to Sprenger, we cannot connect the Ḥimyar tribe of this name with the Μoχρῖται of Ptolemy. (A. Grohmann) Bibliography al-Hamdānī, Ṣifal Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab, ed. D. H. Müller (Leyden 1884-1891), p. 68, 104 sq. al-Muḳaddasī, B. G. A., iii. 91 al-Hamad̲h̲ānī, B. G. A., v. 36 Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih, vi. 141 al-Yaʿḳūbī, B. G. A., vii. 319 Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. F. Wüstenfeld, iii. 130 iv. 437, 603 A. Sprenger, Die alte …

Ṣaʿda

(530 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a town in South Arabia, the capital of the district of the same name in Yemen. It lies on the pilgrim road from Mekka to Ṣanʿāʾ, 60 parasangs (180 miles) or five days’ journey from the latter town. In the days of paganism the town is said to have been called Ḏj̲umāʿ and to have been built on the site later occupied by Ḥiṣn Talammuṣ built by the Imām al-Mutawakkil ʿala ’llāh Aḥmad b. Sulaimān b. al-Muṭahhir. According to al-Hamdānī, the name Ṣaʿda owes its origin to the following circumstance: …

Maṭraḥ

(199 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a town on the Gulf of ʿOmān, two miles west of Masḳaṭ on the east coast of Arabia. The town, which has about 14,000 inhabitants, is the starting-point for caravan traffic into the interior of Arabia and, next to Masḳaṭ, the most important commercial centre in ʿOmān. The town is beautifully situated in fertile surroundings, has a good harbour, easily entered but little sheltered, from which Masḳaṭ can be reached in an hour by boat. The sulṭāns of ʿOmān used to have wharves for shipbuilding here…

Taʿizz

(2,887 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, an important town in South Arabia, formerly the capital of the Turkish sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʿizzīya, which according to the provincial law regarding the general administration of wilāyets Taḳwīm-i Weḳāʾiʿ (March 15, 1913) included the ḳaḍās of ʿUdain, Ibb, Muk̲h̲ā. Ḳamāʿira, Ḳaʿṭaba, Ḥud̲j̲arīya, and, according to R. Manzoni, also Mak̲h̲ādir, Ḏh̲ī Sufāl, Māwiya, i. e. the whole country between al-Ḥudaida and the independent lands northeast of ʿAden. The town, which lies in 44° 6’ 45” East. Long (Greenw.) and 13° 36’ 55” North L…

Wāḥidī

(630 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the nameof a dynasty in South Arabia, which rules over three sultanates, those of Bīr ʿAlī ʿAmaḳīn, Bāl Ḥāf ʿIzzān and Ḥabbān. H. v. Maltzan (p. 222) after investigation divided the whole territory belonging to this ruling house into two groups: Lower Wāḥidī on the coast from 48° to 48° 30′ East Long. (Greenwich) in the 14° N. Lat. reaching barely two hours journey into the interior, and Upper Wāḥidī from 47° to 47° 40′ East Long. (Greenwich) and from 14° 20′ to 14° 58′ N. Lat. C. v. Landberg …

Salama b. Rad̲j̲āʾ

(50 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, governor of Egypt from Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 161 (August 30 to September 27, 778) until Muḥarram 162 (October 778). ¶ (A. Grohmann) Bibliography al-Ṭabarī, ed. de Goeje, iii. 492, 493 Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Kāmil, vi. 38, 39 Corpus Papyrorum Raineri, iii. Series Arabica, ed. A. Grohmann, 1/ii. 119, 120.

Mok̲h̲ā

(822 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
a small seaport on the Arabian coast of the Red Sea in 13° 19′50″ N. Lat. and 43° 12′ 10″ East Long. (Greenwich). The once imposing town lies on a small bay between two promontories with forts on each about one and a half miles apart. The wall which surrounds the town in a semicircle is pierced by four gates. In the north the Bāb al-Ḥamūdīya leads to the citadel of the town and to a tongue of land which runs out into the sea; in the east roughly in the centre of the wall is the Bāb al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī through which the fo…

Tihāma

(2,100 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the narrow strip of low land along the coast which runs from the Sinai Peninsula along the west and south side of Arabia. Al-Idrīsī gives us the fullest account of Tihāma. According to him, it is traversed by a chain of hills which begin at the Gulf of Ḳulzum ¶ and send out a ridge to the east. The frontier of Tihāma is in the west the Gulf of Ḳulzum and in the east a range of hills running north and south (the Sarāt). The province called Tihāma stretches, according to Idrīsī, from Sard̲j̲a to ʿAden, 12 days’ journey along the sea-coast and 4…

Ṭawīla

(210 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a town in South Arabia, formerly the headquarters of the Ḳāʾimmaḳām of the Ḳaḍā of Kawkabān, to which the town already belonged in Niebuhr’s time. It lies on a tongueshaped spur of the Ḏj̲ebel Ḍulāʿ on the left bank of the Wādī Lāʿa which forms a continuous chain of four rocky hills, the second (from the east) of which is called al-Ḥuṣn. In the SSW. of the town a little lower but not 500 yards away stands the Masd̲j̲id al-Ẓāhir, a mosque now in ruins with a fine cistern, from which a well-made paved road ( marḥal) leads eastwards towards the town. Barely 200 yards east of this ruin or rat…

Ṭirāz

(9,208 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
The word is borrowed from the Persian and originally means “embroidery”; it then comes to mean a robe adorned with elaborate embroidery, especially one ornamented with embroidered bands with writing upon them, worn by a ruler or person of high rank; finally it means the workshop in which such materials or robes are made. A secondary development from the meaning “embroidered strip of writing” is that of “strip of writing”, border or braid in general, applied not only to inscriptions woven, embro…

al-Ḳaṣāb

(168 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a town in South Arabia in the Wādī Baiḥān. The town comprises 12 strong castle-like buildings and 400 houses — the Jewish quarter 50 houses — and is surrounded by palmgroves. It has four main streets with shops in which a busy trade is carried on. The goods come mainly from ʿAden and are brought via Bāl-Ḥāf. Cotton, which is much grown here, is used for the manufacture of excellent cloths which are much sought after in South Arabia. Indigo is also much cultivated and a number of dyeworks produ…

Yaʿrub

(324 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, 1. Yaʿrub b. Ḳaḥṭān b. Hūd, the grandson of the prophet Hūd, who is also regarded as the ancestor of the Ḥimyar kings, is one of the mythical rulers of the Yaman. He is said to have conquered the ʿĀdites who occupied Maʾrib and thus to have become the founder of the Sabaean kingdom. His name is derived by the genealogists from aʿraba “to speak correct Arabic (i. e. with the iʿrāb)” as he is also said to have been the first to speak Arabic, for his father Ḳaḥṭān still spoke the original language of Sām b. Nūḥ. 2. Yaʿrub b. Mālik, the ancestor of the Yaʿrubid dynasty of ʿUmān whose capitals w…

Perīm

(638 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, an island at the entrance to the Red Sea in 12° 40′ 30″ N. Lat., 41° 3′ E. Long, called Māyūn by the Arabs, an English possession. The island, which belongs to ʿAden, is 96 miles west of ʿAden and two miles from the Arabian coast. The narrow strait which separates it from the mainland of Arabia is called Bāb el-Manhalī. Perīm therefore commands the exit from the Red Sea, but is in turn commanded by the Ḏj̲ebel Manhalī at the port of S̲h̲ēk̲h̲ Saʿīd, if this — as was done by the Turks in the Wo…

Zawīla

(362 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the name of two towns in North Africa. 1. Zawīlat al-Mahdīya (according to al-Bakrī: Zuwaila) built by the Fāṭimid ʿUbaid Allāh al-Mahdī (d. Rabīʿ I 14, 322) situated a bowshot distant from al-Mahdīya, of which it was a suburb. According to Idrīsī the two towns formed one. It had fine bazaars and buildings and many merchants resided there who went to their businesses in Mahdīya in the day. The town was surrounded by a wall even on the side facing the sea; the land side was further protected by a great …

ʿOmān

(1,776 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a nominally independent state on the Persian Gulf under the protectorate of England. Its extent has varied considerably in the course of its history. While Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, for example, who gives ʿOmān an extent of 300 parasangs, includes the district of Mahra in it, Idrīsī describes the latter as an independent country. In the northwest ʿOmān was bounded by the province of al-Baḥrain or al-Had̲j̲ar, in the south by Yaman and Ḥaḍramōt. The sultanate reached its greatest extent under Sulṭān Ibn Māli…

Masḳaṭ

(2,640 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, 1. a seaport on the Gulf of ʿOmān, on the east coast of Arabia in 23° 37′ 26″ N. Lat. and 56° 15′ 26″ East Long. Masḳaṭ is the only harbour between ʿAden and the Persian Gulf, which ships of any size can enter and next to ʿAden and Ḏj̲idda, the best harbour in the Peninsula. The port is of considerable importance from its position commanding the entrance to the Persian Gulf. It lies at the end of a horse-shoeshaped bay 900 fathoms long and 400 broad which is enclosed and sheltered from the win…

Raḍwa

(147 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a range of hills in South West Arabia, a day’s journey from Yanbuʿ and seven stages from Medīna, between Yanbuʿ and al-Ḥawrāʾ. It lies on the right side of the road to Medīna, and on the left of the road in the direction of Mecca, two nights distant from the sea. The hills, which are mentioned in a tradition of the Prophet, have passes and valleys, are very well watered and covered with all kinds of trees so that they look green from Yanbuʿ. The rocks produce whetstones which were exported to all countries. (A. Grohmann) Bibliography al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, in B. G. A.,i. 21 Ibn Ḥawḳal, in B. G. A., ii. 28 al-Ba…

Zailaʿ

(648 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a port on the African coast o the Gulf of ʿAden. It lies on a narrow tongue of land, which is cut off from the mainland at high water and is the only harbour of importance in British Somaliland. Formerly an important trading centre and one of the largest ports of export for the slave trade with Arabia, the town now only possesses modest remnants of buildings of the middle of the xivth century like the tomb of S̲h̲ēk̲h̲ Ibrāhīm, and also the fort erected to the west of it by the Indian government, the palace of S̲h̲armakai ʿAlī of which only the groundfloor and the …

Ṭirāz

(2,194 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, Addendum. The above article had already been completely set up when, while I was in Cairo, Prof. G. Wiet most kindly gave me access to his rich collection of ṭirāz inscriptions, which contains a wealth of new material, some of which is in the possession of dealers or private collectors and some in various museums. Pride of place must be given to the Arab Museum in Cairo which has in the course of the past few years added to its valuable collection of textiles a whole series of fine pieces with ṭirāz inscriptions; next in i…

Raida

(238 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the name of several places in South Arabia (ʿAsīr, el-Yaman, Ḥaḍramūt). The best known is Raida on the Ḏj̲abal Talfum with the fort of the same name in the district of Baun (Hamdān), a day’s journey from Ṣanʿāʾ. There are a number of places of this name in Ḥaḍramūt (Raidat al-Ṣaiʿar, Raidat al-ʿIbād, Raidat al-Ḥarmīya, Raida Arḍain, as well as Raidat el-Kebīra, Raidat el-Daiyin, Raidat el-Ḏj̲ōhīn). The wide use of this place-name is explained by its meaning: depression in a rocky plateau, then the chief place of a Beduin district. (A. Grohmann) Bibliography Ibu al-Faḳīh al-Hamad̲h̲ānī, B.…

al-Riyāḍ

(1,404 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, capital of the kingdom of Nad̲j̲d, in the oasis of the same name which lies on the left bank of the Wādī Ḥanīfa stretching towards the north, forming a shallow valley which forms part of the S̲h̲amsīya basin. The lozengeshaped oasis is three miles long and barely one broad. The town is surrounded on all sides except the northeast by dense palm-groves. In the north-east, a few scattered groves interrupt the view to the highlands of Abū Mak̲h̲rūḳ, from which the main source of water for the oasi…

Kawkabān

(1,467 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the name of several places in south Arabia. 1. The name of a sanctuary mentioned in the inscription Halévy No. 686, 3—4, copied from a building in ʿAden by J. Halévy ( miḥrābān Kaw-kabān ). ¶ Cf. also F. Hommel, Grundriss der Geographie und Geschichte des alten Orients , ii, Leipzig 1925, 707. 2. The name of a castle near Ẓafār north of Nāʿaṭ. It was called Kawkabān, “the two stars,” i.e. star-castle, because it was adorned with silver stripes outside, the roof was covered with white slabs of stone, the interior panelled with cypress wood and pav…

al-K̲h̲aṭṭ

(359 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a strip of coast on the Persian Gulf. The Arab geographers are not agreed as to its exact extent. While Yāḳūt limits the name to the coast of al-Baḥrayn and ʿUmān, which is also apparent from the mention of al-Ḳaṭīf, al-ʿUḳayr and Ḳaṭar, al-Bakrī says definitely that al-K̲h̲aṭṭ is the whole coast between ʿUmān and al-Baṣra on the one side and Kāẓima and al-S̲h̲iḥr on the other. This difference of opinion is probably the result of the variation in extent of ʿUmān and al-Baḥrayn in the wider sense of these terms in course of time. There are in any case authors who allot al-K̲h̲aṭṭ to eithe…

D̲j̲ild

(1,000 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
The use of leather ( d̲j̲ild , adīm ) as a writing material is well known in the Near East. In Egypt it was used already in the Middle Kingdom; leather manuscripts are known from the empire of Meroe and Nubia to the south of Egypt, from Palestine and Persia. In the latter country the βασιλκαί διφθέραι—the Royal archives consisting of leather documents—were known to Ctesias ( apud Diodorus Siculus, ii, 32, cf. daftar), and when the Persians conquered Egypt for a short time at the beginning of the 7th century A.D., they continued to write on leather here. The leather p…

Muḳrā

(170 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, name of a district and a village south of Ṣanʿāʾ in the Yemen, known to the Arab geographers for its mine of carnelian. It is also the name of a mountain chain in al-Sarāt [see d̲j̲azīrat al-ʿarab , ʿasīr , al-ḥid̲j̲āz ]. According to Sprenger, there is no reason to identify the Himyaritic tribe of this name with the Μοκρι̃ται of Ptolemy, since the latter must be localised in the neighbourhood of Nad̲j̲rān. (A. Grohmann) Bibliography Ḥamdānī, Ṣifa, ed. D.H. Müller, 68, 104 ff. Muḳaddasī, 91 Ibn al-Faḳīh, 36 Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 141 Yaʿḳūbī, Buldān, 319, tr. Wiet, 158 Yāḳūt, iii, 130, iv, …

Ḏj̲ild

(1,085 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
(ou adīm), «peau, cuir», dont l’usage pour écrire est bien connu au Proche Orient. Le cuir était déjà employé sous le Moyen Empire, et l’on connaît des mss sur peau de l’empire de Méroe et de Nubie au Sud de l’Egypte, de Palestine et de Perse. Dans ce dernier pays, les βασɩλɩxά δɩфθέραɩ —les archives royales consistant en documents en cuir — furent connus de Ctesias (Diodore de Sicile, II, 32; cf. Daftar), et lorsque les Persans conquirent l’Égypte pour une brève période au début du VIIe siècle de J.-C, ils continuèrent à y écrire sur ¶ du cuir. Les pièces de peau trouvées en Égypte et con…

al-Sarī

(318 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
b. al-Ḥakam b. Yūsuf al-Balk̲h̲ī, fut nommé le 1er ramaḍān 200/3 avril 816 gouverneur et administrateur des finances d’Égypte. Le 1er rabīʿ I 201/27 septembre 816, les troupes se mirent en révolte ouverte contre lui, et al-Maʾmūn se vit contraint de destituer al-Sarī de ses fonctions et de le remplacer par Sulaymān b. G̲h̲ālib; al-Sarī fut mis en prison, et Sulaymān entra en fonctions le mardi 4 rabīʿ I 201/30 septembre 816, mais fut destitué dès le 1er s̲h̲aʿbān 201/22 février 817 à la suite d’une nouvelle révolte des troupes et al-Sarī réintégré par al-Maʾmūn. La nouve…

Muḳrā

(166 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, nom d’un district et d’un village situé au Sud de Ṣanʿāʾ, au Yémen, et connu des géographes arabes pour sa mine de cornaline. Une chaîne de montagnes dans le Sarāt [voir ʿAsīr; Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab; al-Ḥid̲j̲āz] porte le même nom. D’après Sprenger, il n’y a pas lieu de penser à un rapprochement entre la tribu ḥimyarite du même nom et les Mokritai de Ptolémée; ces derniers sont à localiser aux environs de Nad̲j̲rān. (A. Grohmann) Bibliography Hamdānī, Ṣifa, éd. D. H. Müller, 68, 104 sqq. Muḳaddasi, 91 Ibn al-Faḳīh, 36 Ibn Ḵh̲urradād̲h̲bih, 141 Yaʿḳūbī, 319 Yāḳūt, III, 130, IV, 437, 603 A. Spreng…

Kawkabān

(1,462 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, nom de plusieurs localités de l’Arabie du Sud. I. Nom d’un sanctuaire mentionné dans l’inscription de fondation copiée à ʿAden par J. Halévy: n° 686 ( Mīḥrābān Kawkabān); cf. aussi F. Hommel, Grundriss der Géographie und Geschichte des alten Orients, II, Leipzig 1925, 707. II. Nom d’un château dans le voisinage de Ẓafār, au Nord de Nāʿaṭ. Il portait le nom de Kawkabān «deux étoiles», parce qu’il était orné à l’extérieur de bandes d’argent; le toit était couvert de dalles de pierre blanche, l’intérieur garni de bois de cyprès et recouvert …

Kudummul

(171 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, petite île volcanique de la mer Rouge (17° 52’ de lat. Nord), appelée Kotumble sur les cartes de l’Amirauté britannique et Qotanbul dans Admiralty handbook. Western Arabia and the Red sea, Londres 1946, 133. L’île possède une riche ¶ végétation qui a été étudiée en son temps par le botaniste Ehrenberg et est remarquable par d’anciens gisements de fer que mentionne déjà le géographe Ibn al-Mud̲j̲āwir (m. 630/1233). Kudummul, qui se trouve aux environs de Ḥamiḍa sur la côte d’Arabie, au large du ʿAsīr [ q.v.], formait autrefois la frontière entre le territoire des Kināna et le Yémen. (A. Groh…

Ibb

(318 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, autrefois capitale du ḳaḍāʾ du même nom dans le sand̲j̲ak de Taʿizz au Yémen; depuis 1946, liwāʾ séparé comprenant les ḳaḍāʾs de: Ibb, ʿUdeyn, Ḏh̲ī Sufāl, Ḳaʿtaba et Yerīm. A côté de la prononciation avec le i particulière au Yémen, on trouve aussi Abb (dans Niebuhr: Aebb). A une époque plus ancienne, la ville, entourée d’un mur, avec une population évaluée à 4 000 âmes, faisait partie du territoire des Ḏh̲ū Ḏj̲ibla. Elle est située sur la «route supérieure» reliant ʿAdan à Ṣanʿāʾ. Selon les projets de la mission A. Beneyton de 1…

al-K̲h̲aṭṭ

(344 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, région côtière sur le golfe Persique. Les géographes arabes ne sont pas d’accord sur son étendue. Tandis que Yāḳūt n’applique ce nom qu’à la côte du Baḥrayn et du ʿUmān, ce qui correspond à la mention d’aI-Ḳaṭīf, al-ʿUḳayr et Ḳaṭar, al-Bakrī dit expressément qu’al-Ḵh̲aṭṭ était la côte tout entière entre le ʿUmān et Baṣra, d’une part, et Kāẓima et al-S̲h̲iḥr, d’autre part. Ce désaccord peut correspondre à l’extension que prit dans le cours du temps le sens des mots Baḥrayn et ʿUmān. En tout cas, il y a des auteurs qui rattachent al-Ḵh̲aṭṭ à l’une ou à l’autre région. Ainsi, ¶ d’après Aḥmad b. …

Zanzibar

(2,712 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Werner, Alice
(al-Zand̲j̲abār), capital of the island of the same name, which lies off the east coast of Africa in 6° South Lat. The town is on the west side of the island 26 miles N. E. of the harbour of Bagamoyo in 6° 9′ S. Lat. and 39° 15′ East Long, and forms a triangular peninsula 1½ miles in length, which runs from east to west and affords a roomy anchorage, one of the best in Africa. The peninsula is connected with the mainland of the island by a narrow isthmus on which there is a cemetery; on the bay …

Kāg̲h̲ad

(1,021 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Grohmann, A.
, Kāg̲h̲id (from the Persian kāg̲h̲ad̲h̲ perhaps of Chinese origin), paper. In the early period of development of Muslim culture the east was acquainted only with papyrus ( ḳirṭās ) as writing-material. It was Chinese prisoners of war brought to Samarḳand after the battle of Aṭlak̲h̲ near Tālās who first introduced in 134/751 the industry of papermaking from linen, flax or hemp rags after the method used in China. “The various kinds of paper then made were the following: firʿawnī (“Pharaonic”), a kind which was to compete with papyrus even in the land…

Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAlī

(300 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Kennedy, H.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās , member of the ʿAbbāsid family (92-152/711-69) who played an important part in the success of the ʿAbbāsid revolution in Syria, assisting his brother ʿAbd Allāh in the assault on Damascus and, with Abū ʿAwn ʿAbd al-Malik b. Yazīd al-ʿAtakī leading the pursuit of the last Umayyad caliph, Marwān b. Muḥammad to Egypt. He was appointed governor of Egypt on 1 Muḥarram, 133/9 August 750 and remained there for a year, establishing ʿAbbāsid power. On 1 S̲h̲aʿbān 1, 133/4 March 751 he was moved to Palestine and in the same year sent Saʿīd b. ʿAbd Allāh to lead the first ṣāʾifa [ q.…

Ḳalam

(926 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Grohmann, A.
(κάλαμος, reed), the reed-pen used for writing in Arabic script. It is a tube of reed cut between two knots, sliced obliquely (or concave) at the thicker end and with the point slit, in similar fashion to the European quill and later the steel pen. The reed has to be very firm so that it does not wear away too quickly; the best kind comes from Wāsiṭ and grows in the marshes ( baṭāʾiḥ ) of ʿIrāḳ, but those from the swamps of Egypt (al-Muḳaddasī, BGA, iii, 203, 1. 13) or from Fāris were also recommended. Those from a rocky ground were called ṣuk̲h̲rī , those from the seashore baḥrī (Ibn ʿAbd Rabbihi, al-ʿIḳd…

Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAlī

(298 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Kennedy, H.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās, membre de la famille ʿabbāside (92-152/711-19), joua un rôle important dans le succès de la révolution ʿabbāside en Syrie, assistant son frère ʿAbd Allāh dans l’assaut de Damas et menant, avec Abū ʿAwn ʿAbd al-Malik b. Yazīd al-ʿAtakī la recherche en Egypte du dernier calife umayyade, Marwān b. Muḥammad. Il fut nommé gouverneur d’Egypte le Ier muḥarram 133/9 août 750 et y resta un an, y établissant le pouvoir ʿabbāside. Le 1er s̲h̲aʿban I 133/4 mars 751, il fut déplacé en Palestine et la même année envoya Saʿīd b. ʿAbd Allāh conduire la première ṣaʾifa [ q.v.] ou exp…

Kāg̲h̲ad

(1,094 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Grohmann, A.
, kāg̲h̲id (du persan kāg̲h̲ad̲j̲, d’origine peut-être chinoise), papier. Dans le période la plus ancienne de l’évolution culturelle de l’Islam, l’Orient ne connaissait que le papyrus [ q.v]. comme matériel d’écriture; se sont des prisonniers de guerre chinois qui, après la bataille d’Aṭlak̲h̲ près de Tālās, en 134/751, introduisirent pour la première fois à Samarḳand l’industrie de la papeterie à partir de la toile, du lin, ou des chiffons de chanvre selon les méthodes employées en Chine. Les principaux genres de papier fabriqués alors étaient les suivants:

Ḳalam

(882 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Grohmann, A.
(χάλαµοΣ, roseau), calame, instrument servant à écrire l’arabe. C’est un tube de roseau ¶ pris entre deux nœuds, taillé en biseau dans la partie légèrement renflée la plus éloignée du nœud, et avec un bec fendu, comme chez nous pour la plume d’oie et plus tard pour la plume de fer. Il doit être très du…

al-Sarāt

(454 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Donzel, E. van
(a. “the back”), the collective name, not particularly widespread, of the chains of mountains which run from the Gulf of ʿAḳaba down to the Gulf of Aden [see al-ʿarab , D̲j̲azīrat, ii]. The word sarāt occurs quite often in the construct state, as in sarāt al-azd, sarāt al-hān , etc. In both Saudi Arabia and in Yemen, al-Sarāt separates the lowlands along the Red Sea [see al-g̲h̲awr ; tihāma ] from the high plateau. The commonest view in the Arab sources is that al-Sarāt is identical with al-Ḥid̲j̲āz [ q.v.] “the barrier”. As a whole, the chains of mountains are cut up into large and…

al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Saʿīd

(412 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Donzel, E. van
, a monsoon harbour on the straits of Bāb al-Mandab [ q.v.], lying just north of the so-called Small Strait on a cape whose high cliffs dominate the island of Mayyūn [ q.v.]. This Strait is also called Bāb Iskandar because Alexander the Great is said to have built a town here. The harbour, named after S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Saʿīd whose tomb is found on the northern side of the cape, has been identified by Sprenger and Glaser with ancient Ocelis or Acila, which is mentioned by Pliny, Ptolemy and in the Periplus Maris Erythraei , and conceals perhaps some ¶ name like ʿUḳayl. The harbour is said to have be…

K̲h̲ūryān-mūryān

(1,102 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Kelly, J. B.
, nom d’un groupe d’…

Maʿāfir

(804 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Smith, G. R.
(ou al-Maʿāfir), nom d’une tribu de l’Arabie du Sud qui fait partie des Ḥimyar et dont la généalogie serait Yaʿfur b. Mālik b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Murra b. Udad b. Hamaysaʿ b. ʿAmr b. Yas̲h̲d̲j̲ub b. ʿArīb b. Zayd b. Kahlān b. Sabaʾ. Ce nom était également donné au territoire occupé par cette tribu et qui correspondait en gros au ḳaḍāʾ turc de Taʿizziyya et, dans l’actuelle République arabe du Yémen, au ḳaḍāʾ (province) d’al-Ḥud̲j̲ariyya (pron. locale: Ḥugariyya) qui fait lui-même partie de la circonscription administrative ( liwāʾ) de Taʿizz; dans les temps anciens et au moyen âge, ce territoire était qualifié de mik̲h̲lāf. Le géographe yéménite al-Hamdānī possède beaucoup de renseignements sur la région et en énumère ainsi les différentes localités:— 1. al-Ḏj̲uwwa (l’actuel Sūḳ al-Ḏj̲uʾa ¶ entre le d̲j̲abal Ṣa…

al-Sarāt

(486 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Donzel, E. van
(a…

Maʿāfir

(811 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Smith, G.R.
(or al-Maʿāfir ), the name of a South Arabian tribe, the genealogy of which is given as Yaʿfur b. Mālik b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Murra b. Udad b. Humaysaʿ b. ʿAmr b. Yas̲h̲d̲j̲ib b. ʿArīb b. Zayd b. Kahlān b. Sabaʾ; they are included among the Ḥimyar. The name was also given to the territory which the tribe inhabited and this corresponded roughly with the Turkish ḳaḍāʾ of Taʿizziyya and the present Yemen Arab Republic province ( ḳaḍāʾ) of al-Ḥud̲j̲ariyya (pronounced locally al-Ḥugariyya), itself part of the administrative area ( liwāʾ ) of Taʿizz. In early and mediaeval times it is described as a mik̲h̲lāf . The Yemeni geographer al-Hamdānī has a great deal of information on the area of al-Maʿāfir and lists the following places in it: (1) al-Ḏj…

al-Ḳunfud̲h̲a

(953 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a port on the Red Sea coast of the Tihāma or lowland of the southern Ḥid̲j̲āz, situated in lat. 19°9′ N. and long. 41°04′ E. and at the mouth of the Wādī Ḳanawnā. It lies 210 miles south of D̲j̲idda or D̲j̲udda [ q.v…

K̲h̲awlān

(1,172 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Irvine, A.K.
1. The name of a South Arabian tribe, of great antiquity and now divided into two branches. The larger section, …

K̲h̲ūryān-Mūryān

(1,160 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Kelly, J.B.
, a group of islands in the bay of the same name on the south coast of Arabia, lying along latitude 17° 30′ N between longitudes 55° 30′ and 56° 30′ E. The islands, principally of granite and limestone formation, are the peaks of a submarine ridge. From west to east they are Ḥāsikiyya, Sawdā, Ḥallāniyya, Ḳarzawt and D̲j̲ubayla. Ḥallāniyya is both the largest (about 8 miles long and 23 in circumference) and the only inhabited island of the group. At its centre it rises ¶ to a peak some 1,500 feet above sea-level. Its vegetation is scanty: only a few marine shrubs, some scattered …

K̲h̲awlān

(1,194 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Irvine, A.K.
, nom d’une tribu de l’Arabie du Sud, remontant à une haute antiquité et actuellement divisée en deux branches. La fraction la plus importante, qu’al-Hamdānī appelle Ḵh̲awlān al-ʿāliya, porte aujourd’hui le nom de Ḵh̲awlān al-ṭiyāl; elle est fixée au Sud-est de Ṣanʿāʾ, sur le…

al-Ḳunfud̲h̲a

(1,024 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Bosworth, C.E.
, port de la mer Rouge situé dans la Tihāma ou basses terres du Ḥid̲j̲āz méridional (19°8ʹ( N., 41o 04ʹ E) à l’embouchure du wādī Ḳanawnā, à 340 km. au Sud de Ḏj̲udda et à 75 au Nord de Ḥaly. Tout l’ensemble de la ville forme un grand quadrilatère entouré d’un mur fortifié en p…

Nad̲j̲d

(2,933 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | McLachlan, K.S.
(a. “uplands”), conventionally defined as the plateau region of the Arabian peninsula lying to the east of the Red Sea lowlands (al-Tihāma [ q.v.]) and the mountain barrier running down through the western side of th…

al-ʿArab

(10,573 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Caskel, W. | Spuler, B. | Wiet, G. | Marçais, G.
, the Arabs. (See also al-ʿarab , d̲j̲azīrat , as well as ʿarabiyya and the articles on the several Arab countries). (i) the ancient history of the arabs (For the ethnic origins of the Arabs cf. al-ʿarab ( ḏj̲azīrat al- ), section on…

al-ʿArab

(10,607 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Caskel, W. | Spuler, B. | Wiet, G. | Marçais, G.
, les Arabes. I. — Histoire ancienne. II.— L’expansion des Arabes, en général, et dans le Croissant Fertile. III — Les Arabes en Iran au début de l’Islam. Appendice: Les Arabes en Asie entrale à l’époque actuelle. IV.— L’expansion des Arabes en Égypte. V. — L’expansion des Arabes en Afrique du Nord.(Voir aussi al-ʿArab, Ḏj̲azīrat, ainsi que ʿArabiyya et les articles relatifs aux divers pays arabes). I. — Histoire ancienne. Les premiers temps de l’histoire des Arabes sont encore très obscurs; nous ne savons ni d’où ils viennent, ni quelle fut leur existence primitive. Nous saurions probablement beaucoup plus de choses sur eux, si les cinq volumes de l”Aραβιχά d’Uranius qui, sous la forme d’une monographie spéciale, étudiait les Arabes, avaient pu être conservés. Ce que nous savons sur eux nous vient surtout des récits des Assyriens et des écrivains classiques, ainsi que, pour les trois derniers siècles de l’époque …

Nad̲j̲d

(3,162 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | McLachlan, K.S.
(a. «haut plateau»), territoire conventionnellement défini comme étant la région de plateaux de la péninsule Arabique s’étendant à l’Est des basses terres de la mer Rouge (al-Tihāma [

al-Yaman

(12,475 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Brice, W.C. | Smith, G.R. | Burrowes, R.D. | F. Mermier | Et al.
, Yemen, the southwestern part of the Arabian peninsula, now coming substantially within the unified Republic of Yemen (which also includes as its eastern region the former People’s Democratic Republic of South Yemen, the pre-1967 Aden Protectorate, essentially the historic Ḥaḍramawt [ q.v. in Vol. III and also in Suppl.; see also suḳuṭra ]). ¶ 1. Definition and general introduction. The name is variously explained in the Arabic sources; some say it was given because al-Yaman lies to the right of the Kaʿba or to the right of the sun (al-Bakrī, ii, 856), …

al-Yaman

(13,233 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Brice, W.C. | Smith, G.R. | Burrowes,R. D. | Fr. Mermier | Et al.
, Yémen, partie Sud-ouest de la Péninsule Arabique, couvre actuellement en grande partie la République unifiée du Yémen (qui comprend aussi dans sa partie orientale l’ancienne République Démocratique du Peuple du Sud Yémen, Protectorat d’Aden avant 1967, essentiellement le Ḥaḍramawt historique [ q.v. dans Vol. III et aussi dans Suppl.; voir également Suḳuṭra]). 1. Définition et introduction générale 2. Géographie 3. Histoire (a) Depuis l’époque préislamique jusqu’en 1962 (b) De 1962 à nos jours 4. Ethnologie et structure sociale des hautes terres yéménites 5. Les dialectes arabes d’al-Yaman 1. Définition et introduction générale. Le nom est expliqué de plusieurs façons dans les sources arabes; certains disent qu’il lui fut donné parce qu’al-Yaman est situé à droite de la Kaʿba ou à droite du soleil (al-Bakrī, II, 856), d’autres parce que Yuḳtan b. ʿĀbir et ses compagnons tournè…
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