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(493 words)

Author(s): Houman Sarshar
Jewish master of Persian classical music, teacher, and innovative kamānča player also known for his mellow singing voice. This article is available in print. Volume XVI, Fascicle 1, pp. 67-68 KĀŠI, MUSĀ KHAN (also known as “Kāšāni”; b. Kashan, 1856; d. Kashan, 1939), Jewish master of Persian classical music, teacher, and innovative kamānča player also known for his mellow singing voice. He received the honorific title of khan from Masʿud Mirzā Žell-al-Solṭān (1850-1919), son of Nāṣer-al-Din Shah Qājār (r. 1848-96) and governor of Isfahan, in whos…
Date: 2012-11-09


(9,492 words)

Author(s): Houman Sarshar
(1928-1980), notable Iranian poet and painter. SEPEHRI, SOHRĀB (b. Qom, 14 Mehr 1307 Š/6 October 1928; d. Tehran, 1 Ordibehešt 1359 Š./21 April 1980), notable poet and painter (FIGURE 1). Life. The third of five children, Sohrab was born to Māhjabin (Foruḡ Irān, d. 1994) and Asad-Allāh (d. 1962) Sepehri (Paridoḵt Sepehri, 2001, p. 13). About three months after Sohrāb’s birth, his family went to Golpāyegān and then to Ḵᵛānsār, before settling in the Darvāza ʿAṭṭār quarter of Kāšān. A painter, skilled calligrapher, tār maker and player, Sepehri’s father worked for the telegraph …
Date: 2013-04-15


(372 words)

Author(s): Houman Sarshar
Hekmat, as the honorary treasurer of the High Council of Women’s Organization of Iran, she represented Iran in various international conferences on the status of women and was instrumental in organizing ten daycare centers and orphanages throughout the country. This article is available in print. Volume XII, Fascicle 2, pp. 152 HEKMAT (Ḥekmat), ŠAMSI MORĀDPUR, educator and philanthropist (b. Tehran, 1917; d. Los Angeles 2 July, 1997; Figure 1). She graduated from American School and Sage College in Tehran. Founder, owner and principal of Hekmat Int…
Date: 2016-08-22


(1,031 words)

Author(s): Houman Sarshar
(1900-1995), master of Persian classical music. He belongs to the first generation of Persian classical musicians who learned musical notation and the second generation to record his music. RUḤAFZĀ, Solaymān (also known as Simon Imorā; b. Tehran 1900, d. Israel, 1995), master of Persian classical music, who adopted his last name from a guša in the Rāst Panjgāh mode ( dastgāh) of Persian music. His father, Mordeḵāy, and grandfather, Ebrāhim ʿAzariā, were both master żarb ( tombak “chalice drum”) players, and Solaymān, besides being a master tār player, was a skillful violin, viola, and ka…
Date: 2012-11-08


(353 words)

Author(s): Houman Sarshar
(1900-1987), master performer of the Persian modal system ( dastgāh) and expert in Daštestāni music (folk music from Fārs province). QĀNUN, JALĀL (b. Shiraz, 1900; d. Shiraz, 22 Mehr 1366/14 October 1987), master of Persian classical music, and expert in Daštestāni music (folk music from the Fārs province). His father, Raḥim Qānuni, was a master qānun (trapezoidal zither) player who re-introduced this instrument into Persia. After his death Jalāl replaced him as the most renowned qānun player in the country (Ḵāleqi, I, pp. 191-93). Jalāl was a master performer of the P…
Date: 2012-11-08


(355 words)

Author(s): Houman Sarshar
Širāzi (1871-1944), innovator, master of Persian classical music, and teacher. QĀNUNI, RAḤIM ŠiIRĀZI (b. Shiraz, 1234/1871; d. Shiraz, 5 Farvardin 1323/26 March 1944; these dates are according to official family documents), innovator, master of Persian classical music, and teacher. He was the son of an itinerant Jewish merchant named Āvrām. At the age of fifteen, he joined his father on an eight-year journey through Beirut, Damascus, and Egypt. In Damascus, he saw a qānun (trapezoidal zither) for the first time and, with the encouragement of his father who himself played the tār (a ki…
Date: 2012-11-08

Naydāvūd, Murtażā Khān

(674 words)

Author(s): Houman Sarshar
Murtażā Khān Naydāvūd (Morteza Neydavood), born in 1900, was a composer and master tār player. The son of master tombak (chalice drum) player Bālā Khān, Murtażā Khān was one of twentieth-century Iran’s most renowned masters of Persian classical music. A pupil of two of the most towering figures in Persian classical music, Āqā Ḥusaynqulī (1853–1916) and Ghulām-Ḥusayn Darvīsh (Darvīsh Khān, 1872–1926), Naydāvūd began studying the tār at the age of six and, remarkably, reached the status of ustād (master) before the age of twenty. Other than his technical and compositional contrib…

Dardashtī, Yonah

(233 words)

Author(s): Houman Sarshar
Yonah Dardashtī (1910–1993) was the only Jew to attain broad national acclaim in Iran as a master vocalist of Persian classical music. Dardashtī’s father, Ḥājī Yeshuā (a.k.a. Farajullāh), and grandfather were both famous ḥazzans. Yonah obtained his general education at Tehran’s Alliance Israélite school, and learned the basics of Persian classical vocals from his father before studying with the master vocalist Mīrzā Ḥusayn Sā'atsāz (1874–1944). Dardashtī was known for his powerful voice, broad range, and smooth modulations ( taḥrīr). One of his earlier concerts was held …


(25,162 words)

Author(s): Parviz Aḏkāʾi | EIr | Habibollah Zanjani | Xavier de Planhol | Abdolhamid Eshragh | Et al.
province, governorship, and city located in the Zagros region of western Persia. This article is available in print. Volume XI, Fascicle 6, pp. 595-627 HAMADĀN , province, governorship, and city located in the Zagros region of western Persia. HAMADĀN i. GEOGRAPHY Hamadān is one of the western provinces of Persia, situated to the southwest of Tehran between latitudes 33°59’ and 35°48’ north and longitudes 47°34’ and 49°36’ east. The city of Hamadān (the capital of the province) is located at 37°47’ N and 48°30’ E, at an altitude of 1,64…
Date: 2016-02-22


(79,893 words)

Author(s): Houman Sarshar | Mayer I. Gruber | Jacob Neusner | Vera Basch Moreen | Daniel Tsadik | Et al.
OF IRAN, one of the oldest Jewish populations in the Diaspora. This article is available in print. Volume XV, Fascicle 1, pp. 89-112 This entry will be divided into the following sub-entries: JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES i. INTRODUCTION Jewish communities have been living upon the Persian plateau since ca. 721 BCE, when King Sargon II (r. 721-705 BCE) relocated large communities of conquered Israelites “in the cities of the Medes” (western and northern regions of present-day Persia; 2 Kings 17:6; 18:10-11). The most significant mass …
Date: 2012-04-18