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Kay Kāʾūs

(471 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, mythical second king of the line of Kayānids [ q.v.] whose name contains twice over the royal title kay (Kay Ūs> Kāʾūs). His history has been delineated by A. Christensen from the Iranian religious tradition and from the national tradition echoed by the later Muslim historians ( Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, 73-90, 108-14). This Islamic historical tradition makes him the son of Kay Abīwēh > Abīh (except for Balʿamī, Firdawsī and al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, who make him the son of Kay Kubād [ q.v.]). He was a warrior-king who, according to Firdawsī, led a campaign into Māzandarān, whi…

Ḳizil-Üzen

(244 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Āzerī Turkish “Red River”), the ancient Amardus, a river which flows through Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲an and enters the Caspian Sea forty miles east of Sefīd-Rūd, “White River”, at its junction with the river S̲h̲āh-Rūd at Mend̲j̲il. Its source lies in the province of Ārdilān, and it begins by crossing ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī to the north; its right-bank tributary is the Zand̲j̲ān, on the left it receives the Ḳara-göl at Miyāne, then it runs along the southern slopes of Elburz, describing a great arc 125 miles…

Afsūn

(112 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.), charm, incantation; for etymology and usage in old Persian, see Salemann, in Gr.I.Ph . i/1, 304, and especially H. W. Bailey, in BSOAS, 1933-5, 283 ff. This word is now used in Persia to designate especially a charm against the biting of poisonous animals; certain darwīs̲h̲es who pretend to have the power to charm serpents, scorpions etc., will, for some gratuity, communicate their invulnerability to other persons. Often it is one part of the body which is so protected, as for instance the right or the left hand, and it is with this that the animals of this kind must be seized (Polak, Persie…

ʿAmīd al-Dīn al-Abzārī

(194 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
al-anṣāri , asʿad b. naṣr , minister and poet, hailing from Abzār, south of S̲h̲īrāz. He was in the service of Saʿd b. Zangī, atabeg of Fārs; was sent by his master as an ambassador to Muḥammad Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh, refused the offers which were made to him, succeeded Rukn al-Dīn Salāḥ Kirmānī as minister and held his position until the death of Saʿd. Saʿd’s son and successor, Abū Bakr, had him arrested on the charge of having held a correspondence with the ruler of Ḵh̲wārizm and of having acted as a spy for him. He was imprisoned in the fortress of Us̲h̲kunwān, near Iṣṭak̲h̲r and …

Ki̊zi̊l-Irmāḳ

(378 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t. “Red River”), the ancient Halys (῞Αλυς) or Alys(῎Αλυς), the largest river in Asia Minor. It rises in the mountains which separate the wilāyet of Sīwās from that of Erzerūm, waters the towns of Zarra (4,530 feet high) and Sīwās (4,160 feet high), then enters the province of Anḳara where it meets the mountain of Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲ and the Ḳod̲j̲a Dāg̲h̲ range which force it to make an immense detour of over 160 miles. Its course is at first southeast, then it turns northwards, and finally it reaches t…

Kas̲h̲kūl

(270 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian word denoting an oval bowl of metal, wood or coconut (calabash), worn suspended by a chain from the shoulder, in which the dervishes put the alms they receive and the food which is given them. The etymology of this word is obscure; a popular one is given by the Persians: kas̲h̲ “draw” (imperative) and kūl “shoulder”, “what one draws over the shoulder”; but as we find a form k̲h̲ačkūl attested in the older poets (Anwārī, Sayf Isfarangī), this explanation can hardly be accepted. The dictionaries give as the first sense “beggar” and t…

Köprü Ḥiṣāri̊

(120 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
“fortress of the bridge”, a village in the Ottoman province of K̲h̲udāwendigār [ q.v.] in northwestern Anatolia, and situated on the Čürük Ṣū river near Yeñis̲h̲ehir. It owes its historical fame to its being the site of a Byzantine fortress taken in 688/1289 by ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Ertog̲h̲rul, chief of the ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ group of Türkmens based on Eskis̲h̲ehir, after the previous capture of Biled̲j̲ik and during the course of the extension of Ottoman influence within the province towards Bursa [ q.v.]; cf. H. A. Gibbons, The foundation of the Ottoman empire, Oxford 1916, 32-3. (Cl. Huart) Bibliogr…

ʿĀdila K̲h̲ātūn

(159 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, daughter of Aḥmad Pas̲h̲ā, wife of Sulaymān Pas̲h̲a Mizrāḳli̊ ("Abū Laylā"), Ottoman governor of Bag̲h̲dād. During the lifetime of her husband she took part in the government of the province, holding audiences where the petitions were presented to her through the intermediary of an eunuch. She had also a mosque and a caravanseray built, bearing her name. When on the death of Sulaymān (1175/1761) power was about to slip from her hands, she stirred up against his successor, ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a, first t…

Kay K̲h̲usraw

(455 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the third mythical ruler of the Iranian dynasty of the Kayānids [ q.v.], corresponding to Kavi Haosrovah of the religious tradition (see A. Christensen, Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, 90-2 and index). He is reckoned as the son of Siyāwus̲h̲/Siyāwak̲h̲s̲h̲ [ q.v.] and the grandson, through his mother, of Afrāsiyāb [ q.v.], and according to the national tradition (Christensen, 114-17) was born after his father’s death and was brought up amongst the mountain shepherds of Ḳalū near Bāmiyān, in ignorance of his illustrious origin. This, however, s…

Ṭabūr

(205 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) (a word which has passed into French in the form tabor ), from Eastern Turkī tapḳūr and ṭapḳūr , denoting a pallisade formed of waggons arranged in a circle or square; a body of troops sent out for reconnaissance; a battalion; or a body of about 1,000 men commanded by a biñbas̲h̲i̊ (chief of a thousand). In Morocco, from the mid-19th century, it denoted the first permanent military units. Under the French Protectorate, the term was applied to a group made up of several goums ( gūm , an armed group of ca. 150 men commanded by officers of the Indigenous Affairs Department), hence par…

D̲j̲ilwa

(99 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
the ceremony of raising the bride’s veil, and the present made by the husband to the wife on This occasion. According to al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī who bases himself on Muḥyi ’l-Dīn al-ʿArabī ( Definitiones , ed. Flugel, 80, 294), d̲j̲ilwa is the name of the state in which the mystic is on coming out of the k̲h̲alwa: filled with the emanations of divine attributes, his own personality has disappeared and mingles with the being of God (cf. Guys, Un derviche Algérien , 203). One of the two sacred books of the Yazīdīs is called Kitāb al-Ḏj̲ilwa [ q.v.]. (Cl. Huart)

Ābāza

(922 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Turkish name for the Abazes (see abk̲h̲āz ), given as a surname to many persons in Ottoman history who descended from those people. 1) Ābāza pas̲h̲a , taken prisoner at the defeat of the rebel Ḏj̲anbulād, whose treasurer he was, was brought before Murād Pas̲h̲a and had his life spared only through the intercession of Ḵh̲alīl, ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries, who, having become ḳapūdān-pas̲h̲a , gave him the command of a galley, and conferred upon him the government of Marʿas̲h̲ when he was promoted to the dignity of grand vizier. Later he be…

ʿAmīd al-Dīn al-Abzārī

(192 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
al-Anṣārī, Asʿad b. Naṣr, ministre et poète, originaire d’Abzār, au Sud de S̲h̲īrāz. Il était au service de Saʿd b. Zangī, atabeg du Fārs; envoyé par son maître comme ambassadeur auprès de Muḥammad Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh, il refusa les offres qui lui furent faites, succéda à Rukn al-dīn Ṣalāḥ Kirmānī en qualité de ministre et resta en fonction jusqu’à la mort de Saʿd. Le fils et successeur de ce dernier, Abū Bakr, le fit arrêter en l’accusant d’avoir entretenu une correspondance avec le souverain du Ḵh̲wārizm et d’avoir agi comme espion à son profit. Il fut emprisonné dans la fortere…

Ḳi̊zi̊l I̊rmāk

(373 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(turc: «fleuve rouge»), ancien ["AλυΣ) Halys ou ("AλυΣ), Alys, le fleuve le plus considérable de l’Asie Mineure. Il prend sa source dans les montagnes qui séparent le wilāyet de Sīwās de celui d’Erzerūm, arrose les villes de Zarra (ait. 1360 m.) et de Sīwās (1250 m.); puis il entre dans la province d’Anḳara où il rencontre le mont Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲ et la chaîne du Ḳod̲j̲a-Dāg̲h̲ qui l’obligent à décrire une immense courbe de plus de 250 kilomètres; son cours, dirigé d’abord vers le Sud-ouest, se redresse et prend la direction du Nord, où il finit par se jeter dans la mer Noire, en aval de ¶ Bāfrā, au mi…

ʿĀdila Kā̲h̲ātūn

(139 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, fille d’Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, épouse de Sulaymān Pas̲h̲a, gouverneur ottoman de Bag̲h̲dād, prenait part, du vivant de son mari, au gouvernement de la province; elle avait ses jours d’audience, où les requêtes des particuliers lui étaient soumises par l’intermédiaire d’un de ses eunuques; elle fit bâtir une mosquée et un caravansérail qui portent son nom. A la mort de Sulaymān (1175/1761), voyant le pouvoir lui échapper, elle souleva contre son successeur, ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a, le corps des janissaires, puis …

Ābāza

(848 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, nom turc des Abazes (v. Abk̲h̲āz), donné comme surnom à plusieurs personnages de l’histoire ottomane, originaires de ce peuple: 1. Ābāza-Pas̲h̲a, fait prisonnier lors de la défaite du rebelle Ḏj̲ānbulād, dont il était trésorier, avait été conduit devant Murād-pas̲h̲a et n’avait obtenu la vie sauve que par l’intercession de Ḵh̲alīl, ag̲h̲a des janissaires, qui, devenu ḳapūdān-pas̲h̲a, lui donna le commandement d’une galère, et lui conféra le gouvernement de Marʿas̲h̲ quand il fut promu grand-vizir. Plus tard, il devint gouverneur d’Erzerūm et forma …

Ḳi̊zi̊l-üzen

(247 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(en turc ād̲h̲arī, «rivière rouge») l’ancien Amardus, fleuve qui traverse l’Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān et se jette dans la mer Caspienne, à 63 km. à l’Est d’Enzeli, après avoir pris le nom persan de Sefīd Rūd «rivière blanche» à son confluent avec le S̲h̲āh-Rūd, à Mend̲j̲il. Sa source est située dans la province d’Ārdilān, puis il traverse le ʿIrāḳ-i ʿad̲j̲amī vers le Nord; il a pour affluent de droite la rivière de Zand̲j̲ān et reçoit à gauche, le Kara-göl à Miyāne, puis longe le versant Sud de l’Elburz en…

Farruk̲h̲ān

(224 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Gīlān-s̲h̲āh , ispahbad of Ṭabaristān, known as the Great ( buzurg ) and the Virtuous ( d̲h̲u ’l-manāḳib ), son of Dābūya, conquered Māzandarān and restored peace to the frontiers. When defeated by the Daylamīs in their revolt, he fled to Āmul and entrenched himself in the castle of Fīrūzābād; he saved himself by the ruse of making his besiegers believe that he had enormous stocks of bread. He gave asylum to the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs when they were being pursued by al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, but fought aga…

Bairam

(88 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Osmanli-Turkish word which denotes the two great Musulman festivals: Küčük-bairam “the little festival”, also called S̲h̲ekerbairam “feast of sweets” on account of the custom of making presents of sweetmeats then, is the festival on the breaking of the fast ( ʿīd al-fiṭr) which lasts three days. The böyük-bairam, “the great festival”, usually called ḳurbān-bairam, “feast of the sacrifice”, is the ʿīd al-aḍḥā which lasts four days. A rikiāb-i humāyūn, “official reception”, is held at the Imperial Palace on each of these two festivals. (Cl. Huart)

Harkarn

(148 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian stylist, son of Mathurādās Kanbū of Multān; was for many years muns̲h̲ī (secretary) to Nawwāb lʿtibār-Ḵh̲ān, a eunuch in the service of the Mog̲h̲ul - emperor Ḏj̲ahāngīr and was then appointed ṣubadār (governor of Akbarābād (Agra) (1031 = 1622). He is the author of a collection of letters ( ins̲h̲āʾ), divided into seven sections, which bears his name and contains model letters as well as official documents (ed. with English transl. by Francis Balfour, Calcutta 1781, 21804, reprinted 1831; lith. Lahore 1869). The work was used by the English authorities as a mod…

Ṣārī ʿAbd Allāh Efendi

(267 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Othman poet and man of letters, was the son of Saiyid Muḥammad, a prince of the Mag̲h̲rib who had fled to Constantinople in the reign of Sulṭān Aḥmad I, and had married the daughter of Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, brother of the Grand Vizier Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a. He was brought up by the latter, who had entrusted his education to S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Mahmūd of Scutari, accompanied him as tad̲h̲kirèd̲j̲i (“editor”) when during his second vizierate he was given the command of the troops in the Persian campaign, was appointed raʾīs al-kuttāb in 1037 (1627/28) in place of Muḥammad Efendi who had just died an…

Gulistān

(291 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.), “land of roses, rose-garden, the name of a celebrated didactic work, a mixture of prose and verse, by the Persian poet Saʿdī of S̲h̲īrāz, consisting of a preface, eight chapters (the lives and doings of kings, manners and customs of the derwīs̲h̲es, frugality, advantages of silence,, love and youth, infirmity and old age, importance of education and rules of conduct) and an epilogue. A number of anecdotes interwoven give us information on the personal experiences of the poet. The Gulistān was completed in 656 (1258), one year after the Bostān; it bears a dedication to the Atābe…

Abū Kālīd̲j̲ār

(1,035 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
al-Marzbān b. Sulṭān al-Dawla, a Būyide, had been appointed by his father as governor of al-Ahwāz in 412 (1021). On the death of the latter (415 = 1024) he was called to S̲h̲īrāz to succeed him, but he was forestalled by his paternal uncle Abu ’l-Fawāris b. Bahāʾ al-Dawla, governor of Kirmān, with the help of the Turkish guard, which preferred him. Abū Kālīd̲j̲ār gathered some troops, who defeated his uncle’s army and he entered S̲h̲īrāz, but he could not hold his own there because of the hostility…

Bostān

(117 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p. bō-stān, “place of perfumes”), properly a “garden of sweet-smelling flowers”, also means “orchard”. As a loanword it appears in Turkish with the meaning of “vegetable-garden”, in which melons, water-melons and vegetables are grown; in Arabic (plur. basātīn) its meaning varies in different districts; in Bairūt, for example, bostān means a piece of ground (Cuche) planted with mulberry trees and surrounded by a hedge, in Algeria it means also “cypress” (Beaussier). — Bostān is also the title of a Persian didactic poem by Saʿdī, English translation by Forbes Falconer ( Selections, Lo…

Albistān

(270 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Abulustain) is the capital of a ḳaza in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Marʿas̲h̲ (wilāyet of Aleppo), on the river Ḏj̲aiḥān (Pyramus) at the foot of the Kurd Dāg̲h̲, at an elevation of 3600 ft. It numbers 6500 inhabitants, of whom 3546 are Moslems and 2954 Christians. The town is surrounded by woods and gardens, and a great many ruins of castles from the time of the little-Armenian kings are scattered about the environs. There are 10 mosques and 1085 houses. The people earn a livelihood mainly by agriculture…

Waṣṣāf

(198 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian historian, properly Waṣṣāf al-Ḥaḍrat “panegyrist of the court”, the name by which S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAbd Allāh b. Faḍl Allāh of S̲h̲īrāz is known. Employed as a taxcollector under the Mongols, he became the protégé of the minister and historian Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, who presented him to Ūld̲j̲āitū (712 = 1312), when the Īlk̲h̲ān was in Sulṭānīya. His history Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Waṣṣāf is the continuation of the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ḏj̲ahān-gus̲h̲ā of ʿAṭā Malik Ḏj̲uwainī; it is called Tad̲j̲ziyat al-Amṣār wa-Tazd̲j̲iyat al-Aʿṣār “division of the towns and propulsion of the centuries” …

S̲h̲īt̲h̲

(587 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Hebr. S̲h̲ēt̲h̲), Seth, the third son of Adam and Eve ( Gen., iv. 25, 26 and v. 3—8) was born when his father was 130 years of age, five years after the murder of Abel. When Adam died, he made him his heir and executor of his will. He taught him the hours of the day and of the night, told him of the Flood to come and taught him to worship the divinity in retirement at each hour of the day. It is to him that we trace the genealogy of mankind, since Abel did not leave any heirs and Cain’s heirs were lost in the Flood. It is said that he lived at Mecca performing the rites of p…

Göksün

(117 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(the ancient Cucusus), a village in Turkey in Asia, the capital of a nāḥiya of the ḳaẓā of Andrln in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Marʿas̲h̲ in the province of Aleppo. It lies in a low, swampy plain, surrounded by argilaceous hills and consists only of huts built of tree-trurks. On the heights there still stand the ruins of several Armenian castles; the land around is almost entirely desert St. Chrysostom spent some time here in ¶ 404 a. d. during his exile. During the first Crusade the Franks spent three days in Göksün (Cocson, Cosor), as they found ample supplies here. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Ch. Texier, Asi…

Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(204 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Ottoman general of Sultan Sulaimān’s time, took part in the wars against Hungary as Beilerbei of Rumelia. He took the town of Sabacz by storm (2 S̲h̲aʿbān 927 = 8 July 1521), ¶ commanded a division of the army which was charged with the siege of Rhodos, was afterwards appointed commander-in-chief, reduced the besieged to ultimate extremity and obliged them to capitulate (2 Ṣafar 929 = 21 Dec. 1522). Being of a violent and ambitious character he had hoped to be appointed Grand Vizier; but when he did not get this post he asked…

Göl

(64 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, “a large assemblage of stagnant water, lake or pond”, also the name of two nāḥiyas in Asiatic Turkey of which the first is in the Ḳaẓā of Köprü (sand̲j̲aḳ of Amāsiya, wilāyet of Sīwās) and contains 43 villages, and the second attached to the capital of the wilāyet of Ḳastamūnī and including 61 villages. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Sālnāme 1325, p. 820, 833.

Ābāza

(958 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Turkish name for the Abazes [see abk̲h̲āz], given as a surname to many persons in Ottoman history who descended from those people. 1. Ābāza Pas̲h̲a, taken prisoner at the defeat of the rebel Ḏj̲anbulād, whose treasurer he was, was brought before Murād-Pas̲h̲a and only had his life spared through the intercession of Ḵh̲alīl, agha of the Janizaries, who, having become ḳapūdān-pas̲h̲a, gave him the command of a galley, and conferred upon him the government of Marʿas̲h̲ when he was promoted to the dignity of grand vizier. Later he became governor of Erzerūm…

Firārī

(38 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(from the Arabic firār “flight”) (T.) “deserter”. This word has been recently applied by the partisans of the government to Young ¶ Turks who have taken refuge abroad to escape the vigilance of the police. (Cl. Huart)

Ḳawwās

(258 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Arabic word meaning originally archer, then arquebusier, finally, like the French archer, came to mean military police. The form ḳawwāṣ (with ṣād) is found in the 1001 Nights (Dozy, Suppl.). The word is applied in the Levant specially to the military police, called in French cawas or sometimes janissaires (because before the abolition of the latter, they were chosen from their ranks), detached to act as guards to embassies and consulates. They go in front of the head of the embassy or consulate when he goes into the town, whether officiall…

Humā

(185 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.), the bearded griffon, the largest of the birds of prey of the old world, which lives by preference in the neighbourhood of eternal snows; it is the Lämmergeier of the Alps. It carries off the bones of dead animals, smashes them on the rocks and eats the fragments; so that the poet Saʿdī is able to say that the humā is superior to other birds, because instead of feeding on living flesh it only requires bones ( Gulistān, i. story 15). According to a popular belief, which is very ancient, the shadow of a humā falling on a person’s head is a sign that he will be raised to a throne, whence the epithet humāyū…

Ḳorḳūd

(637 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, eldest son of the Ottoman Sulṭān Bāyazīd II, was appointed to the governorship of the province of Teke in Asia Minor; incurring the enmity of the grand vizier ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a, who preferred his brother Aḥmad Sulṭān to him, he decided to quit his father’s territory after the grand vizier had seized certain estates in his province; obtaining sanction to set out on the pilgrimage to Mecca, he embarked in Muḥarram 915 (April 1509) with 87 persons in his train on five ships commanded by Raʾīs Aḳbas̲h̲…

Dimotika

(149 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(türk. Dīmetoḳa), the ancient ΔιδυμοτεῖχοΣ, a town in Rūmilī, in the province and sand̲j̲aḳ of Adrianople, 26 miles south of the latter town, near the confluence of the Ḳizil-Deli-Cāi and the Maritza; it is the capital of a ḳaẓā and a station on the Dede-Ag̲h̲ač railway. The population is 8707, mainly Muḥammadans. It has an ancient fortress now in ruins, seven large mosques and a reservoir which has now been converted into a prison. It was taken in 763 (1362) by Murād I. who built a palace there.…

Ḥammām

(352 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(lit. “heater”, Ar. ḥamma “to heat”, Hebr. ḥāmam “to be warm”), a hot steam-bath. These are isolated buildings communicating with the street or market place by more or less imposing door; they consist of a number of large rooms surrounded by little chambers and crowned by domes pierced with holes to admit the light, which filters through little glass bells like bottle-bottoms. The first room to be entered is the maslak̲h̲ (apodyterium, spoliatorium), where the clothes are taken off and put up into a bundle which is entrusted to the owner of the bath; in the centre is a basin with a jet of water ( fi…

Bāisong̲h̲or

(277 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn, son of S̲h̲āh Ruk̲h̲ and grandson of Tīmūr was appointed by his father in 820 (1417) to the office of chief judge at the court; in 823 (1420) on the death of Ḳara-Yūsuf, he took possession ot Tabrīz and was appointed governor of Astarābād in Ṣafar 835 (October 1431), but he never ascended the throne; the astrologers having predicted to him that he would not live more than forty years, he gave himself up to dissipation and died at Herāt on Saturday, 7th Ḏj̲umāda I 837 (19th December ¶ 1433) at the age of thirty six. He was buried in the Mausoleum of Princess Gawha…

Esʿad Efendi

(66 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Muḥammed, nicknamed Hindī-Mollā, a Turkish official, son of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām ʿAbd Allāh Waṣṣāf, born in 1119 (1707), was imprisoned in Brusa with his father in 1168 (1754-1755), became Ḳāḍī-ʿasker of Anatolia in 1182 (1768-1769), of Rūmili in 1186 (1772) and 1190 (1776) S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām, but was deposed eight months later and died in 1192 (1778). (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Sāmī-Bey, Ḳāmūs al-Aʿlām, ii. 908.

Ḏj̲azzār-Pas̲h̲a

(461 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Aḥmed, Pas̲h̲a of ʿAkkā, a Bosnian by birth, although he is said to have belonged to Widdin or Nis̲h̲, born about 1132 = 1720, was first of all in the service of the Grand Vizier Ḥakīm-Og̲h̲lū ʿAlī-Pas̲h̲a, whom he accompanied to Egypt, when the latter was entrusted with its administration for the second time; he then made the pilgrimage to Mecca. When on his return he found ʿAlī-Pas̲h̲a, who had in the meanwhile been dismissed, no longer there, he enlisted in the Mamlūks by selling himself to “Abd Allāh-Beg, one of ʿAlī-Beg’s Mamlūks (1168= 1755). When Kās̲h̲if of the province of Buhaira…

Kākōyids

(1,105 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a dynasty, which reigned from 398 (1007) to 443 (1051) over the provinces of Iṣfahān and Hamad̲h̲ān. It descends from Dus̲h̲manziyār Rustam b. al-Marzubān, a native of Dailam, who held the fief of S̲h̲ahriyār and received the title of ispahbad̲h̲ from the Būyid Mad̲j̲d al-Dawla (cf. Ibn Isfandiyār, Hist. of Ṭabaristān, transl. Browne, p. 228, 230, 231, 239; Ẓahīr al-Dīn, Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ṭabaristān, ed. Dorn, p. 195, 209; Mīrkhond, Rawḍat al-Ṣafāʾ, iv. 26). Kākōye in the dialect of Dailam is the hypocoristic ¶ diminutive of Kākū “maternal uncle” (cf. J. de Morgan, Mission scientifique en …

ʿAdī

(314 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
b. Musāfir (S̲h̲aik̲h̲ ʿAdī), a Mussulman ascet, said to have been born in the village of Bait Fār, near Baʿlabakk (Baalbek), where the house of his birth was in Ibn Ḵh̲allikān’s time still the place of pious pilgrimage. ʿAdī, who was celebrated on account of his saintly life, founded a religious order called after himself, al-ʿAdawīya. He had fixed his residence in the mountains of the Hakkārī Kurds in the region north of Mosul, and died at the age of 90, in 557 (1162), or according to others in 5…

Daryā

(184 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Old Persian drayah, Pahlavi daryāk) in Persian, sea or large river. Daryā-i Ḵh̲azar is the Caspian Sea; Āmū-Daryā [q. v., p. 339] and Sīr-Daryā are the Oxus and Jaxartes of the ancients, the Ḏj̲aiḥūn and Saiḥūn of the Arabs. The south coast of Lāristān and Kirmān bears the name daryā-bār (Quatremère, Not. et Extraits, xiv. 281, note 1). The naval commander at Bandar-ʿAbbās bears the tittle daryā-begi; among the Ottomans, this name has been sometimes given to the Ḳapūdān-Pas̲h̲a or Admiral-in-Chief; the daryā-ḳalami were, before the reforms, the administrative offices of the …

Ḥiṣār

(275 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(a.), castle, fortress, citadel (from the Arabic ḥaṣara, “to compress, to surround in order to capture”; ḥāṣara “to enclose, to besiege”). Anadolu Ḥiṣār is the name of the fortress, now in ruins, built by the Ottoman Sulṭān Bāyazīd I Yildirim on the Bosphorus between Ḳandīl-lī and Gök-Ṣū (“the sweet waters of Asia”) to facilitate the siege of Constantinople; in conjunction with Rumili-Ḥiṣār, which Muḥammad II Fātiḥ built in 1452 opposite it, it completely commanded the passage and the latter actually earned its name Bog̲h̲āz-Kasan (throat-cutter), [see bog̲h̲āz, i. p. 737b]. Ḥiṣār is…

Kās̲h̲ān

(474 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Arab authors often Ḳās̲h̲ān), a town in ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī (al-Ḏj̲ibāl, Media) three days’ journey from Iṣfahān and twelve farsak̲h̲’s from Ḳumm. It is an ancient town which is said to have been rebuilt by Zubaida, wife of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd. The heat there is excessive in summer, but the winter is very mild. Water, which is scarce, is brought by an aqueduct from the spring at the castle of Fīn outside the town, to which ¶ the inhabitants go on pilgrimage once a year. The melons and figs of this locality are esteemed. Large numbers of big, black and very dangerous scor…

Čes̲h̲me

(286 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persi an word meaning “source, fountain” which has passed into Turkish with the same sense. It is the name of a market-town in Asia Minor with a wide and safe natural harbour on the Mediterranean coast, at the entrance to the Gulf of the same name, at the north-western extremity of a peninsula opposite the island of Chios. It is the chief town of a ḳaẓā in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Smyrna, Wilāyet Aidin. The town has 5550 inhabitants of whom 4000 are Muḥammadans and 1000 Orthodox Greeks; there are 5 …

Ḥanafīya

(116 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a portable waterholder, with a cock, placed upon a stand and used for ritual ablutions; the name comes from the Ḥanafīs, who must use running water for washing or at least water which runs from a receptacle at least 10 ells in height and breadth. These vessels are usually of copper gilt; after use the water runs into a copper basin. The Turks have similar water-vessels but of marble; they are called musluḳ. They are also found in baths. As the most important part of them is the water-cock, the word ḥanafīya has also received this meaning. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography E. W. Lane, Modern Egyptians 3, i.…

Bābī

(524 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the designation of the followers of the Bāb who however prefer to call themselves Ahl-i bayān. The preaching of the doctrine began with the sending of missionaries into various Persian provinces [see bāb]; their teaching, which aroused the protestations of the S̲h̲īʿa population brought about persecutions which the Bābīs resisted; in consequence the sect, at first of a purely religious character, became a political party. After a counsel held at Bedes̲h̲t, Mollā Ḥusain of Bus̲h̲rūye set out for Bārfurus̲h̲ at the head of a li…

ʿĀlī Pas̲h̲a

(388 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Muḥammed Emīn, Turkish diplomatist and statesman, was born at Constantinople in Rabīʿ I 1230 (Feb. 1815). He was a pupil of Ras̲h̲īd Pas̲h̲a, chargé d’affaires at London (1838), ambassador (1841), president of the Tanẓīmāt (reform) Wezīr Council, Grand (1855), plenipotentiary at the Congress of Paris (1856) while the Ḵh̲aṭṭ-i humāyūn was being proclaimed (Feb. 18), the result of his efforts and those of Fuʾād Pas̲h̲a; Grand Wezīr 1857 and 1861, and also in 1867; went to Crete in person to treat with the insurgents (Oct. 4), but without success…

al-Ḥillī

(262 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Ṣafī al-Dīn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Sarāyā, an Arab poet, born on the 5th Rabīʿ II 677 (26th Aug. 1278) at Ḥilla on the Euphrates, settled at the court of the Urtuḳids of Mārdīn and sang their praises. In 726 (1326) he went to Cairo to the court of al-Malik al-Nāṣir but soon returned to Mārdīn and died in 750 (1349) or 752 (1351) in Bag̲h̲dād. As a rule he only follows in the footsteps of his predecessors in his very numerous poems. Only in popular poetry did ¶ he introduce an innovation by inventing a kind of muwas̲h̲s̲h̲aḥ, called muḍamman. The collection entitled Durar al-Nuḥūr, in which the fame of …

Beng

(141 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Sanskr. bhaṇgā, Avest. baṇha, Pahl. mang, bang, hemp), strictly the name of various ¶ kinds of hemp ( Hyoscyamus niger), is in Persia however the popular name for the Ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲ (Cannabis Jndicd). It is sold in the form of leaves or pills ( čers). Such pills are also pounded up and placed in fresh milk from which “Beng-butter” ( rawg̲h̲an-i beng) is prepared. A tea-like infusion ( beng-āb) is also prepared from the Beng (1—3 grammes a dose), which is regarded as an excellent remedy for acute urethritis. — The Arabs have borrowed the word in the form bend̲j̲. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography J. E. Pola…

Sar

(210 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.) “head, extremity of anything”, figuratively “idea”. From the meaning “head” comes that of “chief (Lat. caput), especially in derivatives. Sar-i ʿasker (vulg. ser-ʿasker) is among the Ottomans “commander-in-chief, “minister of war”, transformed by the Arabs of Tunis into Sārī-ʿasker. Sar-dār (q.v.; English transcr. Sirdar), “general”; sardārī is the plaited frock coat worn by Persians of the upper classes and by most of the officials ( R. M. M., 1914, xxviii. 225, note 2; Brieteux, Au pays du Lion et du Soleil, p. 360). Sar-bāz, “he who risks his head”, a name given to the …

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd

(401 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
II, the present sovereign ruler in the Ottoman empire, son of Sultan ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd, born the 4th S̲h̲aʿbān 1258 (21th Sept. 1842), was thirty-three when the ministers, having deposed his brother, Murad V, called him to the throne of ʿOt̲h̲mān (10th S̲h̲aʿbān 1293 = 31th Aug. 1876). For particulars about the principal events in his reign, the insurrection in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the war with Servia and Montenegro, then with Russia, etc. see special articles. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II has continued the work of reform ( tanẓīmāt): during his reign legislation has been perfected by the…

Ibn Daiṣān

(450 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Syrian philosopher of Parthian origin, known by his graecised Syriac name Bardesanes. His father was called Nuhama, his mother Nahsiram; both migrated from Persia to Edessa after 139 a. d. Their son was born in 154 and received his name from the river Daisān which waters Edessa. Brought up at the court of king Maʿnū along with the latter’s son Abgar he learned astronomy and astrology; in 179 he was converted to Christianity by Bishop Hystaspes. Although an opponent of Valentine, Marcion and the other gnostics, he created …

Ag̲h̲āč

(157 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Turkish: „tree, wood“, a secondary form in East-Turkish yig̲h̲āč), a land measure designating the triple distance at which a man placed between two others can make himself heard by them, thus something like a parasang or a mile. A verse of Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲ēr Nawāy rates it at 12000 ḳāri (double cubit, the length of the arm from the shoulder to the end of the middle finger); another verse of Mak̲h̲dūm Ḳuli estimates the dimension of the earth at 146000 ag̲h̲āč. Pietro della Valle ( Voyages, iii. 141) thinks the ag̲h̲āč to be equivalent to a Spanish league, or four Italian miles, and acc…

Ilči

(519 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) properly elči, from the Uigur el, peace, alliance, and the suffix of nouns indication profession,- či, = peace-maker, ambassador, plenipotentiary. The word et “peace”, which is found in Mongol and Manchu, also occurs in Rubg̲h̲ūzī, 5, 10 and Ḳutadg̲h̲u Bilig, 154, 10 (Radloff, Wörterbuch, i. 826). In Turkey a distinction was formerly made between büyük ilči, ambassador, ilči murak̲h̲k̲h̲aṣ, minister plenipotentiary and orta ilči, resident minister. At the present day the diplomatic titles, the employment of which was fixed at the treaty of Vienna, are o…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Efendi

(310 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Ḳara Čelebī Zāde, ḳaḍī-ʿaskar and historian of the Ottoman empire, the son of Ḥusām. He was nominated Istambol ḳaḍī-si by the sultan Murād IV (1043 = 1633), and then deprived of his office in the same year on account of a famine which he had not remedied; he was put on board a boat to be drowned at Prince’s Island; he was saved through the intercession of the vizier, Bairām Pas̲h̲a, and was banished to Cyprus (Hād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, ed. Flügel, v. 233). It was on this occasion that he wrote his poem Guls̲h̲an-i niyāz. By his intrigues be succeeded in obtaining the title of honorary muftī (7th Ramaḍān…

Fārs

(414 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(arabiciscd from the Old Persian Pārça [Achaemenid inscriptions]), the ancient Persis or Persia in the narrowest sense, the ancestral home of the Persians, a province of Persia in the S. E. of the modern Īrān with its capital S̲h̲īrāz, bounded in the N. by ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī, in the S. by the Persian Gulf, in the E. by Kirmān and in the W. by Ḵh̲ūzistān. It was divided into five districts in the middle ages; Iṣṭak̲h̲r, Ardas̲h̲īr-k̲h̲urra, Dārābd̲j̲ird, Sābūr and Fennā-Ḵh̲usraw besides five ramm or camps of Kurds. — In the caliphate of ʿOmar, al-ʿAlā b. al-Ḥaḍramī, governor of B…

Ḳonya

(594 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(the ancient Iconium), a town in Asia Minor on the railway from Bag̲h̲dād, the capital of the province of the same name, in a barren plain. It is 5,000 feet above sea level; of its 44,000 inhabitants, 39,3000 are Muslims, 1,500 Greeks, 3,000 Armenians, 50 Protestants, 150 Catholics. The streets are broad and unpaved. The houses are built of terre pisée, except public and special buildings, 44 mosques, 147 masd̲j̲ids, 5 libraries, 42 medreses, the Greek church, the Armenian church, 68 schools, 7…

Daḳīḳī

(170 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Abū Manṣūr Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, a Persian poet belonging to Ṭūs. He began an epic in the mutaḳārib metre for the Sāmānid ruler Nūḥ II b. Mānṣūr and had completed 1000 couplets (covering the reign of Gus̲h̲tasp and the preaching of Zoroaster), when he was murdered by a Turkish slave, his …

Hātifī

(210 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, ʿAbd Allāh, a Persian poet, son of Ḏj̲āmī’s [q. v.] sister, born at Ḵh̲ard̲j̲ird in the district of Ḏj̲ām, which belonged to Herāt, and died in 927 (1521). He celebrated the conquests of Tīmūr in an epic entitled Tīmūr-nāmah (also Ẓafar-nāmah), lithogr., Lucknow 1869. He also intended to compose a “fiver” ( k̲h̲amsa), i. e. a collection of five long poems, but never carried his plan into operation. We possess however a ¶ Laila u Mad̲j̲nūn (ed. Sir William Jones, Calcutta 1788, and lithogr. Lucknow 1279), which was to form a part of it, as well as a Haft Manẓar. He was visited by S̲h̲āh Ismāʿ…

Liwāʾ

(110 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(a. “flag”, from lawā to “enrol”) means in Turkish official terminology an administrative area, several of which form a wilāyet “province” and one is in turn divided into ḳazā “districts”. It corresponds pretty much to the département in France. It is synonymous with sand̲j̲aḳ (t. “flag”) and is used alongside of it. The liwāʾ is governed by a mutaṣarrif, whence a third synonym mutaṣarrif-lik. The institution of the liwāʾ goes back to the early days of the Ottoman empire but it was under Maḥmūd II in 1834 that the present administrative organisation came into bei…

Ḳōmis

(229 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a province in Persia, the Κωμισηνή of the ancients (Polybius, Excerpta, x. 25) between ʿIrāḳ-ʿAd̲j̲amī, Ḵh̲orāsān and Ṭabaristān; capital Dāmag̲h̲ān; other towns Bisṭām and Biyār; the canton of Semnān is sometimes included in it. Through it passes the trade-route between Raiy (and now Ṭeherān) and Ḵh̲orāsān. Muḳaddasī (p. 353) places it in the Dailam country. Industry flourished there; kisāʾ were made there, woollen blankets used both as cloaks and. for beds (Dozy, Dict. des noms des vêtements, p. 383) which were exported abroad, cotton handkerchiefs with embroidered d…

Ḳalam

(695 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(κάλαμοΣ, reed) the reed-pen used for writing in the Arabic character. It is a tube of reed cut between two knots, cut obliquely (or concave) at the thicker end, having the point slit, as with us for the quill and later for the steel pen. It has to be very firm so that it does not wear away too quickly; the best kind comes from Wāsiṭ and grows in the marshes ( baṭāʾiḥ) of the ʿIrāḳ. It is allowed to steep like hemp and is kept in the water until its skin has taken on a beautiful dark brown colour. Its fibres should be quite straight so that the slit may also be even. To make the slit the slanted end of the ḳalam is …

Ẓahīr al-Dīn

(133 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Saiyid) al-Marʿas̲h̲ī, son of the Saiyid Nāṣir al-Dīn, descendant of a family of ¶ Saiyids, Persian statesman and historian, born in 815 (1412), was at the court of Muḥammad, Sulṭān of Gīlān, for whose son Kārgiā Mīrzā ʿAlī he composed the Chronicle of Ṭabaristān from the earliest times to 881 (1476). The sovereign employed him on various missions, sent him to the help of Malik Iskandar, son of Malik Kayomart̲h̲ of Rustamdār, who was fighting his brother Malik Kāʾūs and entrusted him with other military expeditions; among these …

S̲h̲aibānī

(138 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Abū Naṣr Fatḥ-Allāh Ḵh̲ān of Kās̲h̲ān, a Persian poet of the xixth century. His father Muḥammad Kāẓim was the son of the Muḥammad Sanī Ḵh̲ān who had been governor of Kās̲h̲ān, had fought successfully against the nomad Turkomans and was fond of the society of men of distinction. The poet lived at thé court of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh and then retired from the world. He wrote a work in prose and verse entitled Maḳālāt „discourses” containing dithyrambics in honour of his patron Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh, the prime Minister Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Mīrzā Āḳās, Ferīdūn Mīrzā, governor of Ḵh̲orāsā…

Ekrem-bey

(105 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Maḥmūd, one of the most important of modern Turkish lyric poets, wrote ballads and romances after French models and, by introducing these new forms, improved the poetry of his native land. His collections of poems Nag̲h̲ame-i Seḥer (“Morning Lays”), Zemzeme (“Whisperings”) and Gend̲j̲lik (“Youth”) enjoy a great popularity. He also wrote several plays; of these the most original is the Waṣlat (1874), the history of a slave who falls in love with the youthful son of the house and is thereupon sold by her mistress. The poet was still alive in 1902. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography P. Horn, Geschichte…

Bostānd̲j̲i

(200 words)

Author(s): Huart., Cl.
(t.), the gardeners of the Imperial palaces of Constantinople, who form a regular body of troops. This organisation dates from Sulṭān Muṣṭafā II, who, on taking command of the army in 1107 (1695), formed three regiments each of 1000 men with a particular uniform, out of 3000 bostānd̲j̲i, half of whom were drawn from ¶ the palaces of Adrianople and Constantinople: their dress consisted of a long red head dress ( berāta) peculiar to the corps, red jacket and blue trousers for the first regiment, blue jacket and red trousers for the second, green doiman and blue trous…

Kārwān

(484 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(older former kar-bān, “He who protects trade”) the original of the word caravan, means in Persian a number of merchants who organise themselves into a body to defend themselves against robbers and brigands (Ar. ḳāfila). The beasts of burden are camels, horses and mules: the camels are usually arranged in files of seven animals ( ḳatār): the camel-driver rides on an ass at the head of the procession. The caravan drivers are slow and do not hurry, but their work is hard and trying; a man has often ten or twelve camels to watch and guide: sometimes th…

Zulālī

(145 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian poet at the court of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I, born at Ḵh̲wānsār to the north of Iṣfahān, died in 1024 (1615), wrote seven mat̲h̲nawīs which were collected after his death under the title Sabʿi Saiyāra,The seven Planets”; they include Maḥmūd u-Āyāz, begun in 1001 (1592—1593), finished shortly before his death in 1024 (1615), lithographed at Lucknow in 1290, Mai-k̲h̲āne “The Tavern” and Ḏh̲arra u-Ḵh̲urs̲h̲īd “The Atom and the Sun”. — Luṭf Alī Beg ( Ātes̲h̲-kede, p. 139) mentions a poet of the same name, born at Herāt. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography …

al-As̲h̲tar

(641 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl
, Mālik b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Nak̲h̲ʿī loyal companion and lieutenant of the Caliph ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭâlib; accompanied him on a campaign against the Byzantines on the northern frontier ot Syria (Belād̲h̲orī, ed. de Goeje, p. 164); conveyed to Medīna the complaints of the habitants of Kūfa about the forestalling of estates which Saʿīd b. al-ʿĀṣ, governor of ʿIrāḳ, was executing for ʿOt̲h̲mān on behalf of the Ḳorais̲h̲; but since his mission met with no success, he incited the inhabitants to revolt, blocked t…

Bog̲h̲dān

(634 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the Turkish name for Moldavia, ¶ borrowed from that of its founder Bog̲h̲dān I Dragos̲h̲ (1352). Stephen the Great had gained a victory over the Turks at Racova (1475) but in the following year he was in turn defeated in the White Valley ( Valea Alba). In alliance with the Turks he laid waste a part of Poland in 1498; but a year later he threw off the suzerainty of the Ottomans. In alliance with the Poles and Hungarians, he repelled another invasion in 1499. On his death-bed (2nd July 1504) he advised his son Bog̲h̲dān to submit to Turkey (Treaty of 1511 ). During the siege of Vie…

Fīrūz-Ābād

(329 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(earlier Pīrūz-ābād, “city of victory”, Muḳaddasī, p. 432), a name given to the town of GUr (arabicised Ḏj̲ūr) in Fārs, by the Būyid ʿAḍud al-Dawla to avoid the evil omen suggested by the Persian name of the town ( gōr; gūr, “tomb”). It was founded by Ardas̲h̲īr I. on the site of a marsh that had been drained (Yāḳūt, iii. p. 146) and remained the capital of the province of Ardas̲h̲īr-Ḵh̲nrra, although not so large as S̲h̲īrāz or Sīrāf (Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, p. 97); it was fortified by a wall with a ditch but not surrounded by suburbs (ibid. p. …

Diwrigi

(439 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Asia Minor, the ¶ capital of a Ḳaẓā of the province and sand̲j̲aḳ of Sīwās, near the Čalta-Irmaḳ, a tributary of the Ḳara-Ṣū (Western Euphrates), lies at the bottom of a valley surrounded by high mountains; the population is 5,600 of whom 3,000 are Sunnīs and 1,500 S̲h̲īʿīs. In it are the ruins of a fortress the surrounding wall of which alone survives, the mosque of the Amīr S̲h̲āhāns̲h̲āh ( Ḳalʿa-Ḏj̲āmiʿ) built in 576 (1180) or 596 (1200), and the mosque of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh b. Sulaimān S̲h̲āh ( Ūlū-Ḏj̲āmiʿ) built in 626 (1228) of yellow freestone and well preserved; it has be…

Kai-K̲h̲usraw

(571 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a mythical king of Persia, of the Kayānid dynasty. Son of Siyāwak̲h̲s̲h̲, who had left his father Kai-Kāʾūs and taken refuge in Tūrān where he had married the daughter of king Afrāsiyāb [q. v.], he was born after his father’s death and brought up in this country among the shepherds of the mountains of Ḳalū (a valley near Bāmiyān), in ignorance of his i…

Kas̲h̲kūl

(203 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.), an oval bowl of metal, wood or cocoanut (calabash), worn suspended by a chain from the shoulder, in which the dervishes put the alms they receive and the food which is given them. The etymology of this word is obscure; a popular one is given by the Persians: kas̲h̲ “draw” (imperative) and kūl “shoulder”, “what one draws over the shoulder”; but as we find a form k̲h̲ačkūl attested in the older poets (Anwārī, Saif Isfarangī), this explanation can hardly be accepted. The dictionaries give as the first sense “beggar” and then “beggar’s bowl”. We are not able to say whether they are right. In lit…

Bug̲h̲rā

(84 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, in Eastern Turkī means a dromedary (cf. būg̲h̲ūr), generally a male one; it was also the name of several rulers in Central Asia (cf. bug̲h̲rā k̲h̲ān), after whom a certain dish is named, a kind of pastry called in Ottoman Turkish ʿad̲j̲em yak̲h̲nisi “Persian ragout” and tawa böreki “pasty”. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Suleimām-Efendi, Lug̲h̲āt-i d̲j̲ag̲h̲atāi, p. 82 Vámbéry, Čagataische Sprachstudien, p. 248 Pavet de Courteille, Dictionnaire turc-oriental, p. 172 [Mīrzā Ḥabīb], Glossary to the Dīwān-i aṭʿime of Abū Isḥāḳ Ḥollād̲j̲, p. 175.

Kilāt-i Nādirī

(192 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(strictly Kalāt-), a town in Persia (Ḵh̲orāsān) on the Russo-Persian frontier to the north of Mes̲h̲hed and to the north-east of Sarak̲h̲s. ¶ It is a natural fortress perched on a spur of the Ḳara-Dāg̲h̲ mountains. When Arg̲h̲ūn rebelled against the election of Takūdar Aḥmad as Mongol Īl-k̲h̲ān, he took refuge after his defeat, in this fortress (680/1281), the entrance on the west side of which is still known as Darbend-i Arg̲h̲ūn (it is also pronounced Arg̲h̲awān, probably by a popular etymology). It was besieged by…

Burhān al-Dīn

(413 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Ḳāḍī), aḥmad, ruler of Sīwās and one of the earliest Ottoman lyric poets. He was born at Ḳaiṣarīya in 745 (1344) of a family of judges; on the completion of his studies in Aleppo, he settled in the town of Erzingān, became very friendly with the Emir who was then governing it and married his daughter; he afterwards quarrelled with him, put him to death and installed himself in his place. He took possession of Sīwās and Ḳaiṣarīya, and fought without success against an army sent against him by the ¶ Mamlūks of Egypt in 389 (1387); ten years later he had resource to Egyptian troops (79…

Tāfta

(81 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p. “twisted”), a kind of silk, taffeta. Clavijo, ambassador of Henry III of Castile, found in the markets of Tabrīz, of Sulṭānīya and of Samarḳand, tafetanes woven in the country itself. This material spread more and more in the West towards the end of the Middle Ages. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography M. Devic, Dict, des mots français aborigine orientale, p. 214 Clavijo, Narrative, p. 109, 114, 190 W. Heyd, Hist. du commerce du Levant, French ed. by Raynaud, Leipzig 1886, Index.

Čaws̲h̲

(324 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Turkish word signifying, „usher” „doorkeeper”. It was formerly the name of a body of 630 court ushers employed in the various tribunals, who marched at the head of the procession at state ceremonials ( alāi-čaws̲h̲i, dīwān-čaws̲h̲i): ¶ their chief ( čaws̲h̲-bās̲h̲ī) was vice-president of the Grand Vizier’s court, minister of police, grand-master of ceremonies and introduced ambassadors. He also had command of a company of 200 gedikli zaʿīm, who carried orders to the provinces. He also supervised the farming out of taxes during for the lifetime of the purchase…

Bālā

(82 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, (p.) “height”, “high”, also a preposition “over”, is frequently found in composition in place-names; examples will be found below. — The word comes to be the name of a Turkish government official, corresponding to the rank of general of a division of the first class, immediately below the Mus̲h̲īr and Wazīr; in correspondence, officials of this rank are addressed as follows: ʿOṭūfetlü efendim ḥazretleri (To his Gracious Excellency, my lord etc.). (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Sālnāma 1325, p. 38 et seq.

Afsūn

(107 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p), charm, incantation; secondary form of afsān, derived from afsāyīdan (comp. fasā, fasāi, fasāyīdan etc.), root (Salemann, in Grundr. d. iran. Philol., i. 1, 304). This word designates especially now, in Persia, a charm against the biting of poisonous animals; certain derwīs̲h̲es who pretend to have the power to charm serpents, scorpions etc., will, for some gratuity, communicate their invulnerability to other persons. Often it is one part of the body which is so protected, ¶ as for instance the right or the left hand, and it is with this that the animals of this …

Selefke

(278 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the ancient Σελεύκια, Seleucia Trachaea or Ciliciae, a small town, capital of the sand̲j̲aḳ of Ič-Il in the province of Adana. It was built by Seleucus Nicator towards 300 b. c. The river Gök-Ṣū (Calycadnus) runs past it, about 10 miles from its mouth. In it is a reservoir called Tekfūr Anbāri, “the Emperors storehouse”, hewn out of the rock and covered by a vaulted roof; it is a great cistern carved out of the rock, 30 cubits broad and deep and 60 long; the aqueduct which brought the water to it has been destroyed. There are numerous ancient r…

Abū Bekr

(281 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
b. Saʿd b. Zengī, atābeg of Fārs of the Salg̲h̲uride dynasty. He did not wish to accept the conditions of the peace concluded by his father with Sultan Muḥammed Ḵh̲wārizm S̲h̲āh in 623 (1226), laid an ambuscade for the former on his return to S̲h̲īrāz and even struck him with his sword without wounding him; his father countered with a mace which stretched him at his feet and threw him into prison in the citadel of Iṣṭak̲h̲r. He regained his freedom the same year on the death of the atābeg Saʿd (21st Ḏj̲umādā I 623 = 20th May 1226), restored prosperity to the province of Fārs and added to i…

Kās̲h̲ī

(318 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Yāḳūt: Ḳās̲h̲ānī, Ḳās̲h̲ī; in Ibn Baṭṭūṭa: Ḳas̲h̲ānī), the name derived from that of the town of Kās̲h̲ān [q. v.] in Persia, given to square, sometimes hexagonal, plaques of faience used in the exterior decoration of buildings or of interior walls. It is one of the most ancient arts of nearer Asia (already known to the Assyrians and then to the Achaemenids) which survived in Persia in the middle ages, and more especially, it appears, in the town of Kās̲h̲ān. The monuments of modern Persia from the time of the Ṣafawids to our day (those that are older are in ruins) are covered with these plaques of faience decorated with conventional flowers ( kās̲h̲ī-kārī), in which the predominant colours are indigo blue, turquoise b…

Ḏj̲ilwatī

(89 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a religious order founded by Muḥammad Ḏj̲ilwatī, called Pīr Uftāda, a pupil of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bairam, who died at Brusa, his native town, in 988 (1580). Their cloth turban has eighteen folds and they wear their hair long. The mother-house is at Brusa, near the mosque of the citadel in which the founder is buried. …

Zāwa

(145 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Persia, in Ḵh̲orāsān near Naisābūr. In the time of Muḳaddasī, it was a rural district which did not contain a town; but later (xivth century) there was a fine town there with a citadel built of brick. It contains the tomb of the s̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Ḥaidar, who was still alive in 617 (1220) whence the name of Turbat-i Ḥaidarī now given to the town. Muḳaddasī mentions a town of the same name near G̲h̲azna ( B. G. A., iii. 50, 297). (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ii. 770, 910 = Barbier de Meynard, Dict. de la Perse, p. 282 B. G. A., iii. 319c Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, Voyages, iii. 79 Ḳazwīnī, Āt̲…

Lamas-Sū

(396 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Turk, “river of Lamas”; Ar. Lāmis), a river in Cilicia, coming from the Taurus, a day’s journey from Ṭarsūs between Ayās̲h̲ and Mersina; in ancient times it marked the boundary between the two Cilicias (of the mountains and the plains). On the banks of this river exchanges of prisoners with the Greeks and the payment of ransoms were several times made. The first of these took place in the reigns of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd and the emperor Nicephorus I in 189 (805); the second under the same caliph and empe…

Fidāʾī

(245 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in vulgar Arabic fidāwī), he who offers up his life, a name given to the Ismāʿīlis, particularly to the assassins appointed to murder their victims (Ibn Baṭūṭa, i. 167; v. Hammer, Funagruben des Orients, iii. 204; do., Assassinen, p. 88); but the word has frequently also a good sense, “paladin, knightly, courageous, brave, undaunted” (Quatremère, Mongols, 124a; cf. v. Oppenheim, Vom Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf, ii. 100). In Algeria fidāwī means a narrater of heroic deeds and fidāwīya, a tale or song of heroic deeds. During the Persian revolution fidāwī was applied in the first p…

Iʿtimād al-Dawla

(292 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Arabic: support of the kingdom), title of the Persian Prime Minister under the Ṣafawids; also called wazīr-i aʿẓam, “great minister”, nuwwāb (“Nabob”, deputy) or Īrān madārī, “the hinge of Persia”. As the chief administrator of the kingdom he possessed far-reaching powers and no document of the king was valid without his seal; his position however was exceedingly precarious as his fate depended entirely on his master’s humour. A controller ( nāẓir, supervisor) appointed by the king assisted him as secretary. The residence of the Prime Minister was near the royal …

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(335 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Dāmād, Turkish statesman and general born at the village of Seloz, on the banks of Lake Nicæa, succeeded the Abaze Sulaimān as Siliḥdār; became the favourite of Sultan Aḥmed III, who gave him his daughter Fāṭima, then aged four years, in marriage (6 Rabīʿ I 1121 = May 16, 1709); succeeded in bringing about the dismissal from office of his enemy, ʿAlī Pās̲h̲a of Čorlū, and the appointment ¶ in his stead of the incapable Noʿmān Köprülü, afterwards of Balṭad̲j̲i Muḥammed Pas̲h̲a; the Ḳapūdān-pas̲h̲a, Ibrāhīm Ḵh̲od̲j̲a, who had been appointed Grand Wezīr, plotted to…

Bahādur

(168 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Turkish word of Mongol origin ( bak̲h̲atur, Eastern Turkish bātūr, bātōr) signified originally “brave”, “courageous” and became a title of honour at the court of the Great Mug̲h̲als (cf. bātūr-bāshi, a title in Turkestan: Sulaimān-Efendi, Lug̲h̲āti d̲j̲ag̲h̲atāi, p. 66). The word is met with as early as 927 of our era in the name of the Bulgarian chief Alobogotur, which is explained as Alp bagatūr, “the brave hero” (J. Marquart, Osteur. u. ostasiat. Streifzüge, p. 156). — In the middle of the nineteenth century there was in Persia a regiment, composed of Christians called bahādurān “th…

Ālāi

(164 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) = “procession”, “pageant”, “ceremony”; also “regiment” in the military organisation of the Turks. — Gelīn ālāyi = bridal procession to the husband’s home. — Ṣürrè ālāyi = ceremony at the departure of the ṣürrè-emīni (d’Ohsson, Tableau de l’empire ottoman iii. 202). — Bairām-ālāyi = the Sultan’s solemn procession to the mosque for the mid-day prayer on the two Bairāms. — Ālāi čaws̲h̲lari — “sergeants of the procession”, the title of twelve subaltern officers charged with the organisation of the public processions; they were dressed in red velvet and ca…

Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ

(327 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Abu ’l-Bas̲h̲ar, the Arab name of Severus, Monophysite bishop of Us̲h̲mūnain, a contemporary of the Copt patriarch Philotheos (979—1003). Nothing is known of his life except that he was authorised by the Fāṭimid Caliph al-Muʿizz to dispute with the ḳāḍīs on religious questions (Huart, Hist. des Arabes, i. 344). He wrote a history of the dignitaries who had occupied the patriarchal see of Alexandria, which forms the basis of Abbé Renaudot’s Historia Patriarcharum Alexandrinorum Jacobitarum (Paris 1713). The municipal library of Hamburg possesses the most ancient Mss. …

Bāb

(1,589 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Arabic word signifying ”gate”, early ¶ received among the Ṣūfis the meaning of “gate by which one enters, means of communication with that which is within”. Among the Ismaélis, this word is used symbolically for the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ or spiritual leader, who initiates into the mysteries of religion, the Asās (Guyard, Fragments, p. 106); among the Noṣairis, Salmān al-Fārisī, entrusted with the propaganda is the Bāb (R. Dussaud, Noṣair…

Baihaḳ

(103 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a district ofthe province of Nīsābūr in Ḵh̲orāsān, had at first as its capital, Ḵh̲usiawd̲j̲ird, a farsak̲h̲ (4 miles) from Sabzewār, then Sabzewār itself.. One of the villages attached to it is Bās̲h̲tīn, the native place of the Emīr ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ, founder of the Sarbadār dynasty. Its inhabitants have always …
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