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Poseidonius

(319 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
geb. um 135 v.Chr. in Apameia (Syrien); gest. um 51 v.Chr. auf Rhodos; griech. stoischer Philosoph, Historiker und Geograph. Werke Das umfangreiche und vielfältigeWerk ist nur in Fragmenten erhalten. Im Zentrum stehen die philosophischen Schriften mit Beiträgen zur Physik, Logik und Ethik. Sie werden ergänzt durch die geographische Schrift Über den Ozean und seine Anwohner, das Geschichtswerk Geschichte nach →Polybios [2] und einige wenige mathematisch-technische Schriften, die Spezialwissenschaften repräsentieren. Von den etwa 25 dem Titel nach bekannt…

Columella, Lucius Iunius Moderatus

(736 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
1. Jh. n.Chr.; röm. Agrarschriftsteller. Werke Hauptwerk ist die landwirtschaftliche Abhandlung De re rustica; in den Handschriften dieses Werkes ist außerdem zwischen B. 2 und 3 ein isoliertes Buch De arboribus erhalten, das als Teil einer eigenen kurzgefassten Landwirtschaftslehre zu gelten hat. Handschriften Aus der Zeit vor dem 15. Jh. sind nur zwei Handschriften erhalten (beide mit Lücken); sie bieten den besten Text. Aus dem 15. Jh. stammen ca. 40 Codices mit dem vollständigen Text und noch einmal ca. 20 mit Exzerpten. Aus der Grup…

Andokides [1]

(236 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
geb. 440 v.Chr. in Athen; gest. nach 392/91 v.Chr.; attischer Redner und Politiker. Werke Vier Reden sind erhalten. Handschriften Die Hss. gehen zurück auf eine byz. Sammelhandschrift (mit Isaios [1], Deinarchos, →Antiphon [4] und Lykurgos [9]). Werke Werktitel griech. Werktitel lat. Werktitel dt. Datierung Kurzbeschreibung 1 Περὶ τῆς πρὸς Λακεδαιµονίους εἰρήνης/Perí tēs eirḗnēs ( Or. 3) De pace Über den Frieden (mit Sparta) 392/391 Empfehlung zur Annahme des Friedens mit Sparta 2 Περὶ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ καθόδου/Perí tēs heautú kathódou ( Or. 2) De reditu Über die Rückkehr 409–406 Antrag a…

Clemens [3], Titus Flavius, aus Alexandreia

(649 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
geb. um 140/50 n.Chr., möglicherweise in Athen; gest. um 220 n.Chr.; bedeutender griech. christlicher Philosoph und Theologe. Werke Von den zahlreichen Schriften des Clemens sind viele verloren gegangen. Eine – allerdings nicht vollständige – Liste seiner Werke findet sich in der Kirchengeschichte des → Eusebios [7] (6,13). Außer einer Homilie ( Tis ho sōzómenos plúsios) ist vollständig eine Gruppe von drei thematisch und funktional zusammengehörigen Schriften erhalten, die in Auseinandersetzung v.a. mit der heidnischen Bildung und Theologie Elemen…

Apostolische Väter (Patres apostolici; Apostelväter*)

(657 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Neuzeitliche Sammlung von neun griech. frühchristlichen Schriften (1./2. Jh. n.Chr.) heterogener Gattung, Theologie und Funktion; ihre Autoren gelten als Schüler und Hörer der Apostel. Sie gehören nicht zu den Autoren der kanonischen Schriften des NT. Werke Werktitel griech. Werktitel lat. Werktitel dt. Datierung Kurzbeschreibung 1 Βαρνάβα ἐπιστολή/ Barnába epistolḗ ( Barn.) Barnabae epistula → Barnabasbrief* 132–135 Traktat über die vollkommene Gnosis 2 Διδαχὴ τῶν δώδεκα ἀποστόλων/Didachḗ tōn dṓdeka apostólōn ( Did.) Doctrina duodecim apostolorum → Didache* der 12 Ap…

Polybios [2]

(290 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
geb. vor 199 v.Chr. in Megalopolis; gest. um 120 v.Chr. in Megalopolis; griech. Historiker der hell. Zeit. Werke Hauptwerk sind die Historien in 40 B., von denen etwa ein Drittel erhalten ist. KleinereWerke sind verloren. Handschriften B. 1–5 der Historien sind vollständig erhalten. Für die übrigen Bücher gibt es umfangreiche Exzerptensammlungen: Excerpta antiqua (B. 1–16; 18) und Excerpta Constantini (Exzerpte des byz. Kaisers Konstantinos [1] VII. Porphyrogennetos, 905–959). Werke Werktitel griech. Werktitel lat. Werktitel dt. Datierung Kurzbeschreibung 1 Ἱστορίαι/Histo…

Gellius [6], Aulus

(571 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
geb. wahrscheinlich zw. 125 und 130 n.Chr. in Rom; gest. nach 170 n.Chr.; röm. »Buntschriftsteller«. Werke Unter dem Namen des Aulus Gellius ist nur ein einziges Werk, die Noctes Atticae, überliefert. Dieses enthält zahlreiche Fragmente verlorener Autoren, und Gellius wurde lange v.a. als Lieferant solcher Fragmente geschätzt. In den Handschriften wird als Verfasser ein Agellius genannt. Den Nachweis der Verfasserschaft des Gellius lieferte Peter Lambecius (Lambeck), Lucubrationes criticae in Gellium prodromus, Paris 1647. Handschriften Durch die Teilung des Werks in …

Dion [I 3] Cocceianus aus Prusa (Dion Chrysostomos)

(1,028 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
seit dem 3. Jh. auch Chrysostomos, »Goldmund«, genannt geb. um 40 n.Chr. in Prusa (Bithynien); gest. nach 112 n.Chr.; griech. Redner und Philosoph stoisch-kynischer Prägung mit politischen Interessen. Werke Erhalten ist ein Corpus von 80 Reden; zwei Reden ( Log. 37 und 64) sind von Dions Schüler Favorinus verfasst. Charakteristisch für das Werk ist die Vielfalt der Themen. Stoische Philosophie und kynische Kulturkritik sind bestimmende Faktoren; politisch setzte Dion seine Kunst für die Verkündigung der röm. Reichs- und der Herrscherideologie ein. Handschriften Die Handschrif…

Philostratos [5], Lukios Flavios (Philostrat)

(1,245 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
geb. um 170 n.Chr. in Athen als Spross einer Familie mit Besitzungen in Lemnos (daher der Beiname »der Lemnier«); gest. wohl zwischen 244 und 249 n.Chr.; bedeutender griech. Rhetor; Vertreter der Zweiten Sophistik. Werke Name und Identität sind nicht gesichert, aber hinreichend wahrscheinlich. Unter dem Namen des Philostratos sind verschiedene Schriften erhalten, die – v.a. aufgrund konfuser Angaben in der Suda* – möglicherweise verschiedenen miteinander verwandten Personen gleichen Namens zuzuschreiben sind. Mit einiger Wahrscheinlichkeit kann das Überl…

Archimedes [1] aus Syrakus

(623 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
geb. um 287 v.Chr. in Syrakus; erschlagen 212 v.Chr. bei der Eroberung der Stadt durch die Römer; bedeutender griech. Mathematiker. Werke Erhalten sind 10 Schriften zur Mathematik und Mechanik. Weitere Schriften sind entweder in Fragmenten oder in arab. Bearbeitungen bekannt. Handschriften Die Überlieferung ist von J.L. Heiberg in der Gesamtausgabe dargestellt (Bd. 3, Prolegomena). Werke Werktitel griech. Werktitel lat. Werktitel dt. Datierung Kurzbeschreibung 1 Ἔϕοδος/Éphodos ( Ephod.) Methodus Methodenlehre Mathematische Methodenlehre 2 Ἐπιπέδων ἰσορροπίαι/Epipédōn…

Augustinus, Aurelius

(1,759 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
geb. am 13.11.354 n.Chr. in Thagaste (Nordafrika); gest. am 28.8.430 n.Chr. in Hippo Regius (Nordafrika); bedeutender lat. Kirchenlehrer der Antike. Werke Die über 100 theologischen und philosophischen Schriften Augustins sind meist aufgrund konkreter Anlässe entstanden. Die Chronologie und die Titel sind durch Augustins autobiographische Schrift Retractationes hinreichend gesichert. Eine ausführliche und nach Anlässen geordnete Übersicht über das vielfältige Werk bieten: W. Geerlings, Augustinus. Leben und Werk, Eine bibliographische Einf…

Heliodoros [8] aus Emesa (Heliodor)

(252 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
vermutlich 3./4. Jh. n.Chr.; Verf. eines griech. Liebesromans in 10 B. Werke Werktitel griech. Werktitel lat. Werktitel dt. Datierung Kurzbeschreibung 1 Αἰθιοπικά/Aithiopiká Aethiopica Äthiopische Geschichten 3./4. Jh. n.Chr. Roman über die Trennung und Wiedervereinigung von Theagenes und Charikleia Handschriften Name/Nummer Datierung Auswahl Inhalt/Bes. Merkmale 1 Vaticanus gr. 1390 13./14. Jh. Besser als die älteste Hs., der Vaticanus 157 aus dem 11. Jh. Frühe Editionen Editor Auswahl/Bde. Ort/Reihe Jahr Inhalt/Bes. Merkmale 1 V. Opsopoeus Basel 1534 Ed. princ. 2 H. Com…

Frontinus, Sextus Iulius

(614 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
2. Hälfte des 1. Jhs. und Anfang des 2. Jhs. n.Chr.; röm. Technik- und Militärschriftsteller sowie hoher Staatsbeamter. Handschriften Die Strategemata sind in über 80 Handschriften überliefert, die sich auf zwei Klassen unterschiedlicher Qualität verteilen. Während die schlechtere Klasse durch über 80 Handschriften vertreten ist, bringt es die bessere Klasse nur auf drei Vertreter, von denen nur ein einziger, der Harleianus 2666, das ganze Werk enthält. Er bestimmt v.a. die Textkonstitution. Im Unterschied zu den Strategemata ist De aquaeductu urbis Romanae nur dürftig über…

Heron aus Alexandreia

(483 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
wirkte wohl in der 1. Hälfte des 1. Jhs. v.Chr.; griech. Mathematiker und Ingenieur. Werke Zahlreiche Werke zur Mechanik, Pneumatik, Geodäsie und zur Herstellung technischer Geräte; einige Schriften sind verloren, andere nur in arab. Übersetzung erhalten. In der Frühen Neuzeit waren v.a.die Pneumatik, Über die Kunst der Automatenherstellung und Über die Herstellung von Schusswaffen beliebt, allerdings in lat. Übersetzungen. Werke Werktitel griech. Werktitel lat. Werktitel dt. Datierung Kurzbeschreibung 1 Βελοποιικά/Belopoiiká ( Belop.) De machinis bellicis Über die Her…

Xenophon/Pseudo-Xenophon

(151 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
5. Jh. v.Chr. Werke Unter dem Namen des griech. Historikers→Xenophon [2] ist eine Staatsverfassung der Athener überliefert, die in der 2. H. des 5. Jhs. v.Chr. entstand. Die Zuschreibung gilt heute als falsch. Editionen Die Schrift wurde als Teil von Xenophon-Gesamtausgaben seit der Editio princeps (Venedig 1525) regelmäßig ediert; in lat. Übersetzungen ist sie seit 1534 bekannt. Werke Werktitel griech. Werktitel lat. Werktitel dt. Datierung Kurzbeschreibung 1 Ἀθηναίων πολιτεία / Athēnaíōn politeía Res publica Atheniensium Staatsverfassung der Athener Politischer Traktat …

Iamblichos [3] aus Syrien (Jamblich)

(135 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
2. Jh. n.Chr.; Verfasser eines griech. Liebesromans. Werke Fragmentarisch erhaltener Roman, vor allem in der Zusammenfassung durch→Photios [2], Bibliothek, Cod. 94. Werke Werktitel griech. Werktitel lat. Werktitel dt. Datierung Kurzbeschreibung 1 Βαβυλωνιακά/Babylōniaká Babylon. Geschichten 2. Jh. n.Chr. Roman über die Abenteuer des Brautpaares Rhodanes und Sinonis Neuere wissenschaftliche Editionen (Gesamtausgaben) Editor Auswahl/Bde. Ort/Reihe Jahr Inhalt/Bes. Merkmale 1 E. Habrich Teubner 1960 Neuere wissenschaftliche Übersetzungen Übersetzer Auswahl/Bde. O…

Herodotos [1] (Herodot)

(302 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
geb. um 485 v.Chr. in Halikarnassos (Kleinasien); gest. um 424 v.Chr.; erster griech. Geschichtsschreiber. Werke Möglicherweise unvollendetes Geschichtswerk in 9 B. mit zahlreichen ethnographischen Exkursen. Werke Werktitel griech. Werktitel lat. Werktitel dt. Datierung Kurzbeschreibung 1 Ἱστορίης ἀπόδεξις/Historíēs apódexis Historiae Darlegung der Erkundung Gesch. der Auseinander- setzung zw. »Barbaren« (d. h. v. a. Persern) und Griechen insbes. 560–479 v.Chr. Handschriften Name/Nummer Datierung Auswahl Inhalt/Bes. Merkmale 1 Laurentianus 70,3 10. Jh. Hauptvertr…

Agatharchides aus Knidos

(254 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
geb.vor200v.Chr.; gest. nach 145 v.Chr. oder nach 132/1 v.Chr.; griech. Geschichtsschreiber mit sozialkritischer Tendenz; Vertreter der sog. tragischen oder mimetischen Geschichtsschreibung (mit den Mitteln differenzierter literarischer Verfahren). Werke Das historische Werk ist v.a. durch längere Auszüge bei→Diodoros [18] und Photios [2] bekannt. Ü/K Engl. Übersetzung der FGrH mit aktualisiertem Kommentar ab 2007 bei Brill Online. Werke Werktitel griech. Werktitel lat. Werktitel dt. Datierung Kurzbeschreibung 1 Ἀσιατικά/Asiatiká (10 B.) Asiatica Gesch. Asiens Wahr…

Lysias [1]

(439 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
geb. 459/458 (oder um 445) v.Chr. in Athen; gest. um 380 v.Chr. in Athen; attischer Verfasser von Gerichtsreden. Werke Fast vollständig erhalten sind 31 Reden ( Or. 1–31), außerdem die Anfänge dreier weiterer Reden ( Or. 32–34) und der sog. Erótikós ( Or. 35), eine von Platon, Phaidros 231a ff. zitierte Schulrede. Bis auf Or. 2; 33; 34; 35 handelt es sich um Gerichtsreden. Einige Reden gelten als unecht (u.a. Or. 6; 20). Zahlreiche Reden sind verloren. In der Antike wurden Lysias 233 Reden zugeschrieben. Werke Werktitel griech. Werktitel lat. Werktitel dt. Datierung Kurzbeschreibung 1 ᾿Επ…

Corpus Iuris Civilis

(1,753 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Bezeichnung für die 528–534 n.Chr. entstandene Sammlung und Kodifikation des röm. Rechts durch Kaiser Iustinianus [1]; der Begriff wurde von D. Gothofredus in seiner Edition von 1583 eingeführt. Werke Das Corpus Iuris Civilis besteht aus vier Teilen: (1) dem Codex, (2) den Digesta, (3) den Institutiones und (4) den Novellae (Constitutiones) als Appendix. (1) Der Codex umfasst die Kaiserkonstitutionen ( constitutiones): kaiserliche Anordnungen ( edicta), Urteile ( decreta), schriftliche Verwaltungs- und Gerichtsbescheide ( epistulae), Dienstanweisungen (mandata), Erla…

Thukydides [2]

(383 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
geb. um 460 v.Chr. in Athen; gest. um 400 v.Chr.; griech. Historiker. Werke Verfasser einer unvollendeten Monographie über den Peloponnesischen Krieg in 8 B. Papyri Die Papyri haben zur Bewertung der ma. Handschriften viel beigetragen. Übersetzungen Bereits im 16. Jh. wurde das Werk in die Nationalsprachen übersetzt. Werke Werktitel griech. Werktitel lat. Werktitel dt. Datierung Kurzbeschreibung 1 Ὁ πόλεμος τῶν Πελοποννησίων καί Ἀθηναίων/ Ho pólemos tōn Peloponnēsíōn kái Athēnáiōn Historiae Der Krieg der Peloponnesier und Athener zw. 421 und 400 v.Chr. Darstellung des Pelepo…

Proklos [2]

(1,539 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
geb. 410/12 n.Chr. in Konstantinopel; gest. 485 n.Chr. in Athen; bedeutender griech. Universalgelehrter und neuplatonischer Philosoph, seit etwa 450 Leiter der neuplatonischen Schule in Athen. Werke Das umfangreiche Werk ist nur teilweise erhalten. Überliefert sind (1) systematische philosophische Abhandlungen, (2) Kommentare zu → Platon [1], (3) mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Werke und (4) literarische Schriften. Handschriften Die Textüberlieferung ist für die einzelnen Werke bzw. Werkgruppen ganz unterschiedlich; ein besonderer Fall ist die der Hymnen. Sie …

Ailianos [2] , Klaudios (Claudius) (Aelian)

(645 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
geb.um 165/70 n.Chr.in Praenestebei Rom; gest.um 225/35 n.Chr.; griech. schreibender röm. »Buntschriftsteller«. Werke Mit der Eigenart der Tiere, den Exzerpten der Bunten Geschichte und den Briefen ist der wesentliche Teil des Werks des Ailianos gut kenntlich. Nur in dürftigen Fragmenten sind weitere Schriften bekannt. Handschriften Die Handschriften der Schrift Über die Eigenart der Tiere sind in zwei Klassen einzuteilen, in eine ältere nicht interpolierte (mit dem Hauptvertreter Parisinus suppl.gr.352) und eine interpolierte Klasse. Die Exzerpte der Bunten Geschichte s…

Eukleides [3] aus Alexandreia (Euklid)

(786 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
geb. um 350 v.Chr.; gest. um 290 v.Chr.; bedeutender griech. Mathematiker, Hauptschaffenszeit um 300 v.Chr.; er lebte v.a. in Alexandreia. Werke Durch die Stoichéıa/Elementa wurde Euklid zum wichtigsten Mathematiklehrer »aller Völker und Generationen«. Fünf kleinere Schriften sind außerdem erhalten. Andere Werke sind verloren; eine weitere Schrift, Perí diairéseōn/Über die Teilung von geometrischen Figuren, ist nur in einer arab. Übersetzung überliefert. Mittelalterliche Texte mit Titeln wie De levi et ponderoso/Über das Leichte und Schwere, die Probleme der Mechani…

Valckenaer, Lodewijk Caspar

(392 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Niederl. Klass. Philologe. Geb. am 7. 6. 1715 in Leeuwarden, gest. am 15. 3. 1785 in Leiden. Sohn eines Juristen; nach dem Besuch der Lateinschule in Leeuwarden ab 1731 Studium der Theologie in Franeker, aber auch der griech. Phil. bei Tiberius Hemsterhuis; Prom. 1735 ebda. [5. Bd. 1, 3–102]. Ab 1737 Studium v. a. des Hebräischen in Leiden und Arbeit an der Bibl. ebda. 1740 Konrektor an der Lateinschule in Kampen (Friesland); 1741 als Nachfolger von Hemsterhuis Prof. für griech. Sprache und Historia patria in Franeker; 1765 als dessen Nachfolger Prof. in Leiden mit dens…

Musgrave, Samuel

(367 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Engl. Philologe und Arzt. Geb. am 29. 9. 1732 in Washfield, Devon, gest. am 4. 7. 1780 in Bloomsbury in London; Sohn eines Arztes. 1749–1754 Studium u. a. des Griech. und Lat. in Oxford mit dem Abschluss BA; 1754–1765 Stipendium (Radcliffe travelling fellowship) v. a. für Frankreich (insbes. Paris) und für die Niederlande; 1756 MA in Oxford. 1760 Mitglied der Royal Society in London. 1762/63 Studium der Medizin mit dem Abschluss MD (Medicinae Doctor) in Leiden; 1763 Mitglied der Acad. royal des inscriptions et belles-lettres in Paris. Ab 1766 Arzt i…

Lachmann, Karl

(1,043 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Dt. Klass. Philologe und Germanist. Geb. am 4. 3. 1793 in Braunschweig als Karl Konrad Friedrich Wilhelm L., gest. am 13. 3. 1851 in Berlin. Sohn eines Predigers; Schulbildung auf dem Gymnasium Katharineum in Braunschweig. 1809 Studium v. a. der Theologie für ein Semester in Leipzig (nur eine philol. Vorlesung bei Gottfried Hermann); ab 1809 Studium v. a. der Klass. Phil. in Göttingen insbes. bei Ludolph Dissen, dann auch der älteren dt. und engl. Literatur bei Georg Friedrich Benecke. 1814 Prom…

Reiske, Johann Jacob

(844 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Dt. Klass. Philologe und Arabist. Geb. am 25. 12. 1716 in Zörbig bei Leipzig, gest. am 14. 8. 1774 in Leipzig. 1728–1732 Besuch des Gymnasiums des Francke’ schen Waisenhauses in Halle; 1733–1738 formal Studium der Theologie in Leipzig, in Wirklichkeit Selbststudium des Griech. und des Arab.; 1738–1746 Aufenthalt in Leiden; 1746 Abschluss eines Medizinstudiums ebda. ohne Folgen für die Praxis. 1746 Rückkehr nach Leipzig; 1747 ao.Prof. für Arab. ebda.; 1758 bis zu seinem Tod Rektor der Nicolaischule in Leipzig. Werdegang, Werk und Wirkung Als Sohn eines Lohgerbers verdiente …

Wyttenbach, Daniel

(432 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Schweizer.-niederl. Klass. Philologe und Philosoph. Geb. als Daniel Albert W. am 7. 8. 1746 in Bern, erblindet gest. als Civis Bernas am 17. 1. 1820 in Oegstgeest (Niederlande). Sohn eines Theologieprof.; 1760–1768 Studium der Theologie in Marburg; 1768–1770 Studium der Klass. Phil. in Göttingen bei Christian Gottlob Heyne und 1770/71 in Leiden bei David Ruhnken und Lodewijk Caspar Valckenaer. 1771 Lehrer am Gymnasium der Remonstranten in Amsterdam; 1779 Prof. für Philosophie und Klass. Phil. am Athenaeum Illustre…

Ritschl, Friedrich Wilhelm

(866 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Dt. Klass. Philologe. Geb. am 6. 4. 1806 in Großvargula bei Erfurt, gest. am 9. 11. 1876 in Leipzig. Sohn eines Pfarrers; Besuch des Gymnasiums in Erfurt und Wittenberg; 1825–1829 Studium der Klass. Phil. zunächst für ein Jahr in Leipzig v. a. bei Gottfried Hermann, dann in Halle bei Christian Karl Reisig; 1829 Prom. und Habil. ebda. 1832 ao.Prof. in Halle (ohne Besoldung); 1833 ao.Prof. in Breslau, ab 1834 o.Prof. ebda.; 1836/37 Italienreise zur Kollationierung von Hss. 1839 o.Prof. für Klass. …

Dindorf, Karl Wilhelm

(643 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Dt. Klass. Philologe. Geb. am 2. 1. 1802 in Leipzig, gest. am 1. 8. 1883 ebda. Bruder des Philologen Ludwig D. Besuch der Thomasschule; ab 1817 Studium der Klass. Phil. bei Christian Daniel Beck und Gottfried Hermann in Leipzig. 1828 Prom. und 1828–1833 ao. Prof. für Literaturgesch. (ohne Vorlesungsverpflichtungen) ebda.; Rücktritt aus Ärger über die Nichtberücksichtigung bei der Nachfolge Becks. Danach Leiter der Neuausgabe des Thesaurus Graecae Linguae in der Pariser Verlagsbuchhandlung A. F. Didot . Ab 1846 korrespondierendes Mitglied der Berliner Akad. der Wis…

Hemsterhuis, Tiberius

(841 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Hemsterhusius; niederl. Klass. Philologe und Mathematiker. Getauft am 18. 1. 1685 in Groningen (alternativ: geb. am 1. 2. 1685 [11. Kap. 11]), gest. am 7. 4. 1766 in Leiden. Sohn eines Arztes; nach der Groninger Lateinschule 1698 Studium der Theologie, aber auch der Philosophie und Mathematik bei Johannes Jacob Bernoulli an der Univ. Groningen.; 1700–1704 Studium der griech. und lat. Sprache und Phil. sowie der Gesch. an der Univ. Leiden bei Jacob Perizonius und Arbeit an der Ordnung der Hss. de…

Schleiermacher, Friedrich Daniel Ernst

(799 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Dt. Philosoph, Theologe und Philologe. Geb. am 21. 11. 1768 in Breslau, gest. am 12. 2. 1834 in Berlin. 1785–1787 Schulbildung im Seminarium der Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine in Barby; 1787–1789 Studium der Theologie, Philosophie und Klass. Phil. in Halle; 1790 erste theologische Prüfung. 1790–1804 Lehrer und Prediger an wechselnden Orten, darunter 1796–1802 an der Charité in Berlin. 1804 Universitätsprediger und ao.Prof. für Theologie und Philosophie in Halle; Februar 1806 o.Prof. ebda.; seit Mai 1807 öffentliche Vorlesungen in Berlin; Juni 1807 theologische Prom. in absenti…

Bekker, Immanuel

(869 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Dt. Klass. Philologe. Geb. am 21. 5. 1785 in Berlin, gest. am 7. 6. 1871 ebda. Den Taufnamen August Emanuel ersetzte B. (nach Kant) durch Immanuel. Besuch des Gymnasiums zum Grauen Kloster in Berlin. 1803–1806 Studium der Klass. Phil. in Halle; 1806 Prom., Juli 1806 Inspector des Philol. Seminars ebda. Ab Dezember 1806 Hauslehrer; ab 1810 ao.Prof., ab 1811 o.Prof. für Klass. Philol. in Berlin. Ab 1815 Mitglied der Berliner Akad. der Wiss. [17. 364 f.]. Biographie und wiss. Werdegang Als Sohn eines Schlossermeisters sicherte sich B. ohne elterliche Unterstützung auf der…

Reiske, Johann Jacob

(902 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
German classical philologist and Arabist. Born Zörbig (Leipzig) 25. 12. 1716, died Leipzig 14. 8. 1774. 1728–1732 attended the Gymnasium of the Francke’sches Waisenhaus (orphanage) in Halle; 1733–1738 formally studying theology at Leipzig, really teaching himself Greek and Arabic. 1738–1746 at Leiden; 1746 completed medical training there, but this did not lead to work in practice. Returned to Leipzig 1746; 1747 prof. ext. of Arabic there. Rector of the Nicolaischule at Leipzig from 1758 to his death. Career, works and influence The son of a tanner, R. earned his living prio…

Catonis dicta/Dicta Catonis (Catonis disticha/Disticha Catonis)

(780 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Collection of moral maxims from the 3rd/4th cent. AD. The author is anonymous; the suggestion that they could be attributed to Marcus Porcius Cato [1] Censorius is no longer deemed possible. Up to the early 19th cent., it was ascribed to one Dionysius Cato.; this identification had been sanctioned by the edition of Joseph Justus Scaliger (Leiden 1598). Works The collection consists of: (1) a prefatory epistle in prose ( Epistola Catonis); (2) 57 breves sententiae in prose; (3) the central part, 144 hexametrical Disticha in four books (books 2–4 with hexametric prologues); (4) 1…

Bacchylides of Ceos

(279 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
ca. 520/510–ca. 450 BC; writer of choral poetry; rival of Pindarus [2]. Works His works, which belonged to the central genre of choral poetry (dithyramb, encomium, epinicion, hyporchema, etc.), are, for the most part, lost. Roughly 100 lines are preserved through the manuscript tradition as quotations in the writing of other ancient authors. It was only through a papyrus find, published in 1897, that – in some cases substantial – parts of 14 epinician poems and six dithyrambs became known. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Ἐπίνικοι / Epínikoi ( Epin.) E…

Lyrici Graeci (melos, elegy, iambus)

(1,101 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Fragments of Greek lyric poetry from the 7th to the 5th cents. BC. Works Greek lyric poetry in the major genres of melos (individual song, choral song), elegy, and iambus. With the exception of Pindar’s Epinicia, Theognis’ elegies, and a monody by Sappho (fragment 1), the poems are only extant in fragments; either on papyri, or in quotations in works transmitted in manuscripts. The main examples of the melos (monody) are: Sappho , Alcaeus [4] , Anacreon [1], Corinna, and Erinna. Representative …

Apollonius Rhodius (Apollonius of Rhodes)

(420 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. early 3rd cent. BC in Alexandria; d. 2nd half of the 3rd cent. BC; major Greek scholar and epic writer. Works Of his works, only the epic poem Argonautiká has been transmitted. Papyri The papyri (all dating to the Christian era) frequently offer a better reading than the manuscripts. Manuscripts The manuscripts fall into three classes. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Ἀργοναυτικά / Argonautiká Argonautica Argonautica ca. 250 BC Epic poem about the legendary journey of the Argonauts, in 4 bks. Manuscripts Name / Number Dating Selection Content / No…

Dion Cocceianus of Prusa (Dio Chrysostom)

(1,152 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
since the 3rd cent. AD also called Chrysostom (‘golden-mouthed’) b. ca. AD 40 in Prusa (Bithynia); d. after AD 112; Greek orator and philosopher with Stoic and Cynical roots, who also demonstrated an interest in politics. Works A corpus of 80 orations is preserved; two orations ( Log. 37 and 64) were composed by Dion’s pupil Favorinus. A characteristic quality of his work is the great variety of topics that are covered. Stoic philosophy and Cynical cultural criticism are determining factors; in the political arena, Dion used his art to propa…

Hellenica Oxyrhynchia

(250 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Anonymous Greek historical fragment from the 4th cent. BC Works The work continues the account of Thucydides [2], which breaks off in 411 BC, for the time from 411 to at least 395 BC; it comprises ca. 20 pages (with gaps). papyri The work became known through two papyrus finds. Translation / Commentaries English translation of the FGrH with updated commentary in the online edition of Brill’s New Jacoby (BNJ), 2006ff. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Ἑλληνικὰ Ὀξυρύνχια / Hellēnikà Oxyrhýnchia Hellenica Oxyrhynchia ( Hell.) Greek History from Oxyrhy…

Hesiodus (Hesiod)

(1,477 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
lived in Ascra (Boeotia) around 700 BC; roughly one generation younger than Homerus; one of the earliest Greek poets. Works A large number of works were ascribed to Hesiod in Antiquity; three compositions are preserved in their entirety, namely: Theogony, Works and Days, and The Shield. Of these, only the first two are considered to be genuine. The Catalogue of Women became known chiefly through extensive papyri, but it is generally not accepted as Hesiodic. Other works, such as the Greater Ehoiai, only survive in small fragments. papyri Numerous papyri from the Imperial period tha…

Clemens, Titus Flavius (Clement of Alexandria)

(721 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. ca. AD 140/150, possibly in Athens; d. ca. AD 220; distinguished Greek Christian philosopher and theologian. Works Many of Clemens’ numerous writings have been lost. An incomplete list of his works can be found in the Church History of Eusebius [7] (6,13). Apart from a homily ( Tís ho sōzómenos ploúsios), a group of three thematically and functionally related texts is preserved intact, which, in their examination of pagan scholarship and theology, develop elements of Christian ethics and theology ( Paidagōgós; Protreptikòs pròs Héllēnas; Strōmateîs). Works Greek Title Latin Title E…

Achilles Tatius of Alexandria

(383 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
2nd cent. AD; author of a Greek romance novel. Works Novel in eight books. Manuscripts Twenty-three manuscripts are known, but only 12 contain the full text; most manuscripts date from the 16th cent. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Τὰ κατὰ Λευκίππην καὶ Κλειτοφόντα/Tà katà Leukíppēn kaì Kleitophónta The Adventures of Leucippe and Clitophon 2nd cent. AD Novel about the separation and reunion of the lovers Leucippe and Clitophon Papyri Name / Number Dating Selection Content / Notable Features 1 P.Oxy. 3836 2nd cent. AD Terminus ante quem for the d…

Petronius Niger (Arbiter), Publius

(1,033 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
d. AD 66 by suicide; Roman novelist. Works The author Petronius as portrayed by Tacitus [1] ( Annales 16,18–19) is now generally attributed with the excerpts of a Latin novel, transmitted under the title of Satyricon (Σατυρικῶν/ Satyricṓn libri = Satyrica). The size of the original work must have far exceeded that of the extant fragments. According to its literary form, it is a mixture of prose and verse passages. Their parodistic-satirical function is obvious. The episodic structure of the story, characterized by individual separat…

Phylarchus of Athens or Naucratis

(262 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
active in the 3rd cent. BC; Greek historian; representative of the so-called tragic, or mimetic, school of historiography (by means of sophisticated literary techniques). Works His works are only extant in fragments. They were not only used as source material by later historians, but also seen as exponents of a narrative culture, as evident in the reception of the Deipnosophistaí by Athenaeus [3] , which transmits the largest proportion of fragments (cf. also the more recent translations). Translation / Commentaries English translation of the FGrH with updated commentary in…

Priapea

(177 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Works Anonymous collection of 80 lascivious Latin epigrams. Works Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Carmina Priapea The Priapus Poems/The Garden of Priapus ca. AD 100 Manuscripts Name / Number Dating Selection Content / Notable Features 1 Laurentianus 33,31 First half of the 14th cent. Oldest MS, written by Giovanni Boccaccio Early editions Editor Selection / Vols. Place / Series Year Content / Notable Features 1 G.A. de’ Bussi Rome 1469–1471 Ed. princ.; under the name of Vergilius [4] 2 J.J. Scaliger Lyon 1572 With comm. Modern editions (complete works) Editor Select…

Aratus of Soli

(400 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
active from the end of the 4th cent. to the middle of the 3rd cent. BC; Greek poet and scholar. Works Only the didactic poem Phainómena has been preserved. Translations The work enjoyed a wide reception in the form of ancient and medieval translations. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Φαινόµενα/Phainómena Phaenomena Appearances 1st half of the 3rd cent. BC Description of the constellations and weather signs in the form of a didactic poem, in 1,154 dactylic hexameters Manuscripts Name / Number Dating Selection Content / Notable Features 1 Marcianus gr…

Heliodorus of Emesa

(300 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
3rd/4th cent. AD; author of a Greek novel in ten books. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Αἰθιοπικά / Aithiopiká Aethiopica An Ethiopian Romance (or: Story) 3rd/4th cent. AD Novel about the separation and reunion of Theagenes and Charicleia Manuscripts Name / Number Dating Selection Content / Notable Features 1 Vaticanus gr. 1390 13th/14th cent. Better than the oldest MS, Vaticanus 157 from the 11th cent. Early editions Editor Selection / Vols. Place / Series Year Content / Notable Features 1 V. Opsopoeus Basel 1534 Ed. princ. 2 H. Commelinus Heidelber…

Anacreontea

(544 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Anonymous collection of Greek poems on the themes of wine and love from the period of the 1st cent. BC/1st cent. AD to the 5th/6th cent. AD; transmitted in the codex of the Anthologia Palatina (cf. Anthology), erroneously under the name of the Greek poet Anacreon [1] (6th cent. BC). Works While only three are complete, authentic poems (fragment 2 Diehl/12 PMG; fragment 40 Diehl/50 PMG; 88 Diehl/72 PMG) and a number of fragments by the lyric poet Anacreon have been preserved. The collection comprises ca. 60 poems from various periods of Antiquity…

Gregorius of Nyssa (Gregory of Nyssa)

(805 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. between AD 335 and 340 in Caesarea (Cappadocia); d. shortly after AD 394 in Nyssa (Cappadocia); eminent Greek Doctor of the Church; became bishop of Nyssa in 372; brother of Basilius [1] of Caesarea. Works Among the extant works are a large number of short catechetical (e.g. Lógos katēchētikós ho mégas; Perì parthenías; Perì psychês kaì anastáseōs), dogmatic (e.g. Pròs Eunómion lógoi antirrhētikoí), and exegetical writings (e.g. Perì kataskeuês anthrṓpou; Perì toû Mōyséōs), as well as orations and letters. Editions The modern critical edition ( Gregorii Nysseni Opera = GNO), beg…

Anubion

(99 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
1st cent. AD; author of an astrological poem in Greek (original title not preserved). Works Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Carmen astrologicum elegiacum Astrological Poem in Elegiacs 1st cent. AD Didactic poem on astrology/astronomy; the model for subsequent works, such as the Mathesis of Firmicus Maternus Papyri Name / Number Dating Selection Content / Notable Features 1 P. Oxy. 4503–4507 2nd–5th cent. Modern editions (complete works) Editor Selection / Vols. Place / Series Year Content / Notable Features 1 D. Obbink Teubner 2006 Ed. princ. Manfred Landfester S…

Euripides

(1,860 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. between 485 and 480 BC on Salamis; d. 406 BC in Pella (Macedonia); Greek writer of tragedies and satyr plays. Works Of the 90 works, 17 tragedies and one satyr play are extant. The Rhesus transmitted under Euripides’ name is surely spurious. Papyri Numerous papyrus and other fragments convey the content and plot of further tragedies ( Antiope; Erechtheus; Phaethon; Alexander; Archelaus; Hypsipyle; and Cresphontes). Manuscripts The tradition falls into two strands: (1) the ten plays with commentaries ( Alcestis; Andromache; Bacchae; Hecuba; Hippolytus; Medea; Orestes; Phoenician…

Priscianus Caesariensis (Priscian)

(850 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. in the latter half of the 5th cent AD in Caesarea (Mauretania); d. in the first half of the 6th cent. AD; important Latin grammarian and teacher of grammar in Constantinople. Works The main focus of his written work was on grammar. Also extant are a poetic panegyric, and the Latin version of Dionysius [27] Periegetes’ didactic geographic poem. Manuscripts Due to their importance in the educational system, Priscian’s grammatical works have been transmitted in many manuscripts. More than 800 manuscripts are known for his main work Institutio de arte grammatica. From the 12th cent., i…

Rhetores Graeci

(681 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Authors of didactic treatises on rhetoric, from the 4th. cent. BC to the 5th cent. AD. Works The wealth of Greek rhetorical textbooks illustrates the importance attached to rhetoric even outside the educational system. Only a small fraction of this literature is extant. Anonymous treatises, pseudepigrapha, and authentic texts by a wide range of rhetoricians provide an insight into the theory and practice of rhetorical training. These include Anaximenes [2] of Lampsacus (2nd half of the 4th cent. BC, Téchnē rhētorikḗ; transmitted under the name of Aristoteles [6] as

Duris of Samos

(281 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
ca. 340–ca. 270 BC; Versatile Greek writer, especially of historical works; representative of the so-called tragic or mimetic school of historiography (by means of sophisticated literary techniques). Works The historical work is only preserved in fragments It became a source for later historians, thus for instance his History of Agathocles was used by Diodorus [18]. The Makedoniká is extensively quoted by Athenaeus [3] in the Deipnosophistaí (for more recent translations cf. these two authors). Translation / Commentaries English translation of the FGrH with updated comme…

Gregorius of Nazianzus (Gregory of Nazianzus)

(822 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. AD 329/30 in Arianzus (near Nazianzus, Cappadocia); d. ca. AD 390 in Arianzus; important Greek Christian orator and poet who received the epithet ‘ho theológos’ for his defence of the Orthodox doctrine of the Trinity. Works The extant works comprise a corpus of 44 orations ( Log. 35 is spurious), a corpus of roughly 400 poems with 17,000 lines of verse, and a corpus of 249 letters. To these we must add a collection of epigrams that are preserved in the Anthologia Palatina. The medieval tragedy Christòs páschòn, a cento made from verses by Greek poets, was erroneously attributed …

Moschus of Syracuse

(416 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
middle of the 2nd cent. BC; Greek bucolic poet (alongside Theocritus [2] and Bion [2] of Smyrna). Works In total, Moschus is attributed with eight small poetic works: Érōs drapétēs, Eurṓpē, Epitháphios Bíōnos, Megára, and four Bukoliká. However, only the first two poems can be ascribed to him with complete certainty. Manuscripts The first four poems are transmitted in the Corpus Theocriteum , whearas the Bukoliká are part of the Stobaeus tradition. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Βουκολικά (Ἀποσπάσµατα)/Boukoliká (Apospásmata) Bucolica Pastor…

Augustinus, Aurelius (Augustine)

(1,912 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. 13 November AD 354 in Thagaste (North Africa); d. 28 August AD 430 in Hippo Regius (North Africa); major Latin Doctor of the Church. Works The theological and philosophical writings of Augustine, numbering over some 100 individual works, were composed mostly for specific occasions. The chronology and titles of these works are sufficiently documented in Augustine’s autobiographical work Retractiones. A detailed overview of the highly diverse œuvre, arranged by occasions, can be found in Wilhelm Geerlings, Augustinus. Leben und Werk. Eine bibliographis…

Isocrates

(622 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. 436 BC in Athens; d. 338 BC in Athens; Attic orator and political publicist. Works Twenty-one orations, and nine epistles are preserved under Isocrates’ name; these probably include some spurious material ( Or. 1; Ep. 6; 10). Manuscripts More than 100 manuscripts are extant; they have been divided into two distinct classes since the Middle Ages. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description

Novel (Greek), fragments of

(117 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Works Novels extant in fragments through their transmission in the works of other authors, particularly including those of Antonius [3] Diogenes, Ta hypèr Thúlēn ápista, and Iamblichus [3] of Syria, Babyloniaká. Those preserved on papyri include Ninos, Parthenope, and Sesonchosis. Modern translations (individual works) Translator Selection / Vols. Place / Series Year Language 1 B. Kytzler in Im Reiche des Eros, Vol. 2, 667–750 (Munich) 1983 GE 2 G. Sandy, B.P. Reardon in CAGN, 773–827 1989 EN Modern bilingual editions …

Terentius Afer, Publius (Terence)

(1,940 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. 185 (or 195) BC in Carthage; d. 159 or 158 BC; important Roman comic playwright. Works The six extant comedies represent Terence’s complete work. Their chronology is confirmed by the didascalia; such confirmation of dates is exceptional in Archaic literature. All of his pieces are adaptations of Greek comedies; four are based on plays by Menander [4], two on plays by Apollodorus [5] of Carystus. …

Oppianus (Oppian)

(642 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
[1] of Anazarbus (or Corycus) in Cilicia; active in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent AD; author of a Greek didactic poem about fishing. [2] of Apamea; active in the first half of the 3rd cent. AD; author of a Greek didactic poem about hunting. Works Two didactic poems are transmitted under the name of Oppianus: Halieutiká ( Hal.), On Fishing, and Kynēgetiká ( Kyn.), On Hunting. Due to differences in the quality of these texts, it is generally accepted that they were written by different authors. Hal. is now attributed to an Oppianus [1] of Anazarbus, and Kyn. is attributed to an Oppianus [2] of A…

Pappus of Alexandria

(244 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
active in the first half of the 4th cent. AD in Alexandria; Greek mathematician. Works Synagògḗ, the most important of his works, is largely extant. Some has been transmitted in Arabic. This collection is of great value for the histor…

Varro, Marcus Terentius (Reatinus)

(1,213 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. 116 BC in Reate or Rome; d. 27 BC; important Roman universal scholar and high-ranking official Works His huge oeuvre comprised at least 74 works in about 620 books, and can be divided into the following subject areas: antiquarian history, linguistics, literary history, and works of poetry. They also included encyclopaedias, and reference works. The only completely extant work is the treatise De re rustica in 3 books. Six of the 25 books of another thesis, entitled De lingua Latina, are also transmitted. A significant number of fragments provide knowledge about Saturae Menippeae (bare…

Ptolemaeus, Claudius (Ptolemy)

(478 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
active in the 2nd cent. AD; important Greek natural scientist. Works Fundamental works on astronomy, astrology, geography, optics, harmonics, and mathematics. Translations Translations of Ptolemaeus into Arabic, and from Arabic into Latin, secured his influence up to the Early Modern age. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Γεωγραφικὴ ὑφήγησις/Geōgraphikḕ hyphḗgēsis ( Geogr.)/Chōrographía/Kosmographía Geographia Guide to Geography Handbook of mathematical geogr. with instructions on cartography in 8 bks. 2 Μεγίστη σύνταξις/Megístē sý…

Longus

(383 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
AD 200; Greek novelist. Works The romantic novel of Daphnis and Chloe is extant under the name of Longus, who is otherwise unidentifiable. Translations Thanks to its translation into various vernacular languages, particularly the French translation by J. Amyot, this novel greatly influenced the development of the early modern pastoral novel, even before the Greek version appeared in print. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Δάφνις καὶ Χλόη/Dáphnis kaì Chlóē Daphnis and Chloe ca. AD 200 Combination of elements of the trad. love story with b…

Bible: Vetus Testamentum (Old Testament; Hebrew Bible)

(1,982 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
(without commentaries and modern translations) name for the canon of (older) Jewish scriptures in the Christian Bible; as distinct from the canon of Christian writings that constitute the NT ( Novum Testamentum). Works The basis for the canon of OT writings is the classical Jewish canon, which was probably closed around AD 100 ( Hebrew Bible). It comprises 39 books (according to the now common division based on the Vulgate) and is composed in Hebrew, with the exception of the Aramaic parts of the books of Dan and Ezra. The canon of the Hebrew Bible is a selection…

Basilius of Caesarea (Basil the Great)

(650 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. ca. AD 320 in Caesarea (Cappadocia); d. probably AD 379; distinguished Greek Doctor of the Church; Bishop in Caesarea and Metropolitan of Cappadocia from 370 on; brother of Gregorius [2] of Nyssa. Works The substantial literary œuvre contains a corpus asceticum of seven authentic pieces ( ascetica), ca. 46 authentic homilies, two dogmatic treatises ( Against Eunomius, On the Holy Spirit), a corpus of 365 letters, and a Protreptikós (an exhortation to young men), which is transmitted along with the homilies. Numerous pseudepigrapha are transmitted in the Basilius manuscript…

Palladius, Rutilius Taurus Aemilianus

(588 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
ca. AD 400; Roman agrarian writer. Works Differences in topic and form have frequently led to splitting the text of the 15 books into three separate works: Opus agriculturae ( On Agriculture, books 1–13); De veterinaria medicina (On Vetinary Medicine, book 14); Carmen de insitione ( On Fruit Trees, book 15). Manuscripts More than 100 manuscripts from the 9th to 16th cent. confirm the wide dissemination of the work. The three parts of the work with their differences in topic and form have a different history of transmission, thus supporting the su…

Hero of Alexandria

(546 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
first half of the 1st cent. BC; Greek mathematician and engineer. Works Numerous works on mechanics, pneumatics, geodesy and the construction of technical apparatus; some of the writings are lost, others are only preserved in Arabic translations. In the Early Modern period, the Pneumatica, the Belopoeica, and On Automata-making were especially popular, albeit in Latin translations. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Βελοποιικά/Belopoiiká ( Belop.) De machinis bellicis Belopoeica/On the Construction of War Catapults Manual for the constru…

Lucretius Carus, Titus

(1,216 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. between 94 and 98 BC; d. 15 Oct. 55 BC; eminent Roman Epicurean poet and philosopher. Works The only extant work transmitted under the name of Lucretius is the didactic poem De rerum natura. Duplicate copies of the text raise doubts as to whether the poem had been finished by the author himself or whether later interpolations are present. Manuscripts Even though the manuscript transmission dates back to the Carolingian Age, Lucretius’ work was not known in the Middle Ages. Christianity – as Antiquity had done earlier – regarded Atomism (which did not r…

Columella, Lucius Iunius Moderatus

(809 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
1st cent. AD; Roman agricultural writer. Works Columella’s principal work is the agricultural treatise De re rustica; the manuscripts contain an isolated book De arboribus between books 2 and 3 of De re rustica, which must be treated as part of a separate, shorter manual on agriculture. Manuscripts Only two manuscripts are preserved from before the 15th cent. (both with gaps); they offer the best text. Roughly 40 codices containing the complete text date from the 15th cent.; additionally, there are ca. 20 manuscripts with excerpts. The gaps i…

Xenophon of Ephesus

(325 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
active in the 2nd cent. AD; author of a romantic Greek novel in five books. Manuscripts Transmitted in a single codex. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Τὰ κατ’ Ἀνθείαν καὶ Ἁβροκόµην Ἐφεσιακά / Tà kat’ Antheían kaì Habrokómēn Ephesiaká ( Ephes.) Ephesiaca de amoribus Anthiae et Abrocomae The Ephesian Story of Anthea and Habrocomes 2nd cent. AD Novel about the separation and reunion of lovers Anthea and Habrocomes Manuscripts Name / Number Dating Selection Content / Notable Features 1 Laurentianus conventi sopressi 627 13th cent. Also contains novel…

Ambrosius

(1,221 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. ca. AD 340 in Trier; d. 4 April AD 397 in Milan; Latin Doctor of the Church; along with Augustinus, Hieronymus [8] and Gregorius [II 3] the Great he is one of the four Western Doctores Ecclesiae. Works Ambrosius’ versatile œuvre is closely tied to his episcopal office. Roughly half of it consists of exegetic writings that are based on sermons, with a particular emphasis on exegeses of the Pentateuch. One example is the Hexaemeron, which examines Gen 1,1–26. With his ethical writings, which were also based on sermons, Ambrose expanded the field of Christian ethics. F…

Persius (Aulus Persius Flaccus)

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. 4 December AD 34 in Volaterrae (Etruria); d. 24 November AD 62 in Rome; important Roman satirical poet alongside Lucilius [I 6] , Horatius [7] (Horace) and Iuvenalis . Works Six satires are extant, in the spirit of Stoic philosophy (with a total of 650 verses; the 6th satire is fragmentary). In addition, 14 choliambs are transmitted at the opening or end of the manuscripts; these are generally regarded as introductory poems. According to the early medieval biography, which itself was based on ancient sources, the lyric poe…

Lucianus of Samosata (Lucian)

(1,489 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. between AD 115 and 125 in Samosata in Syria; d. ca. AD 190; important Greek author of rhetoric, popular-philosophical, satirical, and autobiographical works (mainly dialogues). Works The diverse Corpus Lucianeum is comprised of 80 works. Of these, nos. 12 ( Makróbioi), 72 ( Alkyṓn ē Perí metamorphṓseòn), and 74 ( Ōkýpus) are undoubtedly spurious. The authenticity of the following works is controversial: nos. 18 ( Pseudosophistḗs ē Soloikistḗs), 39 ( Lúkios ē Ónos), 49 ( Érōtes), and 58 ( Demosthénus enkṓmion). Wrongly attributed to him are: nos. 81 ( Epistolaí), 82 ( Philópatris ē Di…

Plato

(1,681 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. 428/7 BC in Athens; d. 348/7 in Athens; important Greek philosopher. Works All works published by Plato are completely extant. However, because his works were only put into systematic order some time after his death, some spurious texts have been included in the corpus. The entire corpus is comprised of three main parts: (1) 36 treatises ordered in tetralogies ( Tetr.) (34 dialogues, the Apology of Socrates, and an anthology of 13 letters); (2) an anthology of – probably post-Platonic – definitions ( Hóroi); and (3) 6 minor dialogues ( Perì dikaíou; Perì aretḗs; Dèmódokos; Sísyphos…

Aristoteles (Aristotle)

(2,199 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. 384 BC in Stagira (Chalcidice); d. 322 BC in Chalcis (Euboea); Greek polymath of singular importance. Works Ancient catalogues of Aristotle’s works list approximately 200 titles. Thirty-eight works that have been transmitted in manuscript form are collected in the Corpus Aristotelicum; it contains some spurious material. One other work, the Athènaíòn politeía, became known through papyrus finds. The general nature of these writings is didactic; they were intended for teaching purposes, and were never published. Also known are fragments of 19 dialogues and the Protrepticus, an…

Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus

(1,359 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. ca. AD 480 in Rome; executed in AD 524 near Pavia; Roman statesman, scholar, philosopher and theologian. Works The extant works comprise writings on the Artes liberales ( De institutione arithmeticae; De institutione musicae), on logic (translations, commentaries and treatises), theological works ( Opulusca sacra), and the Consolatio philosophiae. The chronology remains vague. The only securely dated works are his translation and commentary of the Aristotelian Categories (510), and the Consolatio (523/24). The works on logic include: (1) Boethius’ own five treatises ( De dif…

Diophantus of Alexandria

(289 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
active around AD 250 in Alexandria; Greek mathematician. Works Only his major work, the Arithmètiká, are preserved in large parts. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Ἀριθµητικά/Arithmētiká ( Arithmet.) Arithmetica Arithmetic Problems Treatise on number-theoretical and algebraic problems in 13 bks., of which six bks. are preserved in GK ( Arithmet. gr.) and four more in Arab. ( Arithmet. arab.) Manuscripts Name / Number Dating Selection Content / Notable Features 1 Matritensis 48 13th cent. Arithmet. gr. Oldest MS 2 Marcianus Venetus 308 15th cent…

Xenophon/Pseudo-Xenophon

(183 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
5th cent. BC Works A writing called Constitution of the Athenians has been transmitted under the name of the Greek historian Xenophon [2]. The work is from the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC. The attribution to Xenophon is nowadays considered false. Editions Since the Editio princeps (Venice 1525), the work has regularly been edited as a part of the collected works of Xenophon; it has been known in Latin translations since 1534. Works Greek title Latin title English title Dating Brief description 1 Ἀθηναίων πολιτεία / Athēnaíōn politeía Res publica Atheniensium Constitution of the Athenians P…

Euclides of Alexandria (Euclid)

(874 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. ca. 350 BC; d. ca. 290 BC; eminent Greek mathematician, most active around 300 BC; lived primarily in Alexandria. Works It is through his Stoicheía/Elementa that Euclid became the most important teacher of mathematics “of all peoples and all generations”. Five shorter works have also been preserved. Other works are lost; a further text, Perì diairéseōn / On Divisions ( of Figures) is extant only in Arabic Medieval texts. Titles such as De levi et ponderosa / On the Light and the Heavy are probably derived from Euclid via Arabic adaptations. Manuscripts Two ancient editions can be ver…

Athenaeus of Naucratis (Egypt)

(623 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
AD 190; eminent Greek miscellanist. Works An incomplete version of the Deipnosophistaí exists in 15 books. Yet, there is a complete epitome, probably of Byzantine origin, which covers approximately 60 per cent of the full text when the same divisions into separate books are applied. Hundreds of quotations from a large number of authors, most of who are now lost, have augmented our knowledge of Greek literature. Only the titles of two further works are known. Manuscripts The transmission of the manuscript hinges on Marcianus Venetus gr. 447 (10th cent.); Giovanni Aurispa,…

Theognis

(613 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. in the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC in Megara (Greece); d. in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC; Greek elegiac poet. Works One thousand three hundred and eighty-nine verses are extant under the name of Theognis. It is doubtful that they are all the work of a single poet. At present, the collective works, known as Corpus Theognideum, are divided into two books. Book 1 (vv. 1–1230) consists of four parts: (1) addresses to gods (vv. 1–18); (2) Cymus poems (vv. 19–254), most likely the part by Theognis himself; (3) excerpts from other Greek elegiacs (vv. 255…

Iambulus

(120 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Terminus ante quem: middle of the 1st cent. BC; author of a utopian Greek novel. Works Fragments of a novel are preserved in the paraphrase of Diodorus [18], Library of History 2,55–60. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 without title Utopian novel with the description of a blissful island Modern translations (complete works) Translator Selection / Vols. Place / Series Year Language 1 B. Kytzler Im Reiche des Eros, vol. 2, 678–684 (Munich) 1983 GE Modern bilingual editions (complete works) Translator Selection / Vols. Place / Series Year Language 1 C.H.…

Demosthenes

(774 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. 384/ 3 BC in Attica; d. 322 BC in Calauria; Attic orator and politician. Works The following works have been preserved under the name of Demosthenes ( Corpus Demosthenicum): 61 orations (some spurious), a collection of 56 proems (partially spurious), and one of six letters ( Epist.; probably spurious). The orations can be grouped into four classes: (1) political speeches (nos. 1–17); (2) judicial orations for public (political) trials (nos. 18–26); (3) speeches for private prosecutions (nos. 27–59); and (4) epideictic speeches (nos. 60–61). Papyri The numerous papyri do not of…

Hypsicles

(261 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
lived in Alexandria around 175 BC; Greek mathematician and astronomer. E / T For editions, translations, and commentaries of Perì dṓdekaédrou kaì eikosaédrou cf. Euclides [3], Stoicheîa. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Ἁναφορικός / Anaphorikós ( Anaph.) De ascensionibus On the Rising of Stars (On Rising Times) Calculation of the time it takes for the signs of the zodiac to rise at the specific geogr. location of Alexandria; division of the ecliptic into 360 degrees 2 Περὶ δωδεκαέδρου καὶ εἰκοσαέδρου / Perì dōdekaédrou kaì eikosaédrou ( Dodek. eiko…

Origenes (Origen)

(803 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. ca AD 185/6 in Alexandria; d. in AD 254, probably in Tyre; important Greek Christian theologian and philosopher; teacher at the Catechetical School of Alexandria, and successor to Clemens [3] of Alexandria. Works Only a small part of his works is extant, half of which in Latin translation. Prominent among the lost works are his commentaries and homilies on the Bible. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Ἑξαπλᾶ (Βιβλία)/Hexaplâ (Biblía) ( Hex.) Hexapla The Sixfold Bible 228–245 Text-crit. edn. of the OT, extant in frgs.: (1) Heb. text; (2) H…

Ap(p)uleius of Madaura

(872 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. AD 125 in Madaurus (North Africa); d. no later than ca. AD 190; novelst, philosopher and orator; of his Latin and Greek works only those in Latin have been preserved. Works The preserved œuvre is heterogenous, and includes: (1) the novel Metamorphoses, (2) rhetorical-biographical works ( Apologia; Florida), and (3) philosophical writings ( De deo Socratis; De mundo; De Platone et eius dogmate). The following must be regarded as pseudepigrapical: Asclepius and Perì hermèneías, the poem Anechomenos ex Menandro, and one poem transmitted in Gellius [6], 19,11,4. No accurate…

Anthologia Graeca

(326 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Works Major anthology of Greek epigrams by hundreds of poets from 16 cents.; consists of the collection of the Anthologia Palatina (3,700 poems) in 15 books and, as book 16, 388 additional poems only preserved in the Anthologia Planudea (so-called Appendix Planudea). Translations Partial translations, especially into Latin, began to appear in the middle of the 16th cent. Works Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Anthologia Palatina ( Anth. Palat.) Palatine Anthology ca. 980 Collection of ca. 3,700 GK poems, arranged systematically and comprising ca. 23,…

Theopompus of Chios

(279 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. 378/7 BC on Chios; d. shortly after 320 BC; Greek historiographer; representative of the rhetorical school of historiography (alongside Ephorus of Cyme). Works His works (speeches, pamphlets, and historical writings) are extant only in fragments. Only his main work, the History of Philip (the Macedonian king Philippus [4]), can be reasonably well identified. About 370 fragments with approximately 500 lines of verbatim quotations are extant. Translation / Commentaries English translation of the FGrH with updated commentary in the online edition of Brill’s New J…

Aristophanes of Athens

(1,108 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. ca. 450 BC in Athens; d. after 388 BC; Greek comic dramatist. Works Eleven of the 44 (54) plays are extant. Papyri The papyrus fragments have added only a small number of unknown texts. Manusc…

Timaeus of Tauromenium (Sicily)

(283 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. ca. 350 BC; d. shortly after 264 BC; Greek historian. Works His main work, extant only in fragments, depicts the history of Sicily from the mythical age to the death of Agathocles [2] (289/8 BC) within the context of the history of the western Greek sphere. The supplementary book, On Pyrrhus (also extant only in fragments), continues the historical account with the Pyrrhic War, and the period up to 264 BC (including the history of Ro…

Apicius, Caelius

(477 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Fictitious name for the author of the Latin cookbook, De re coquinaria, which was probably compiled in the 4th/5th cent. AD. The work has only been widely attributed to Apicius since the Humanistic period. Works The work provides instructions for the preparation of simple and more sophisticated dishes. Apici excerpta a Vinidario viro inlustri is the title of a short, related compendium ascribed to the Goth Vinidarius (ca. AD 500). Manuscripts The collection of recipes has been transmitted with…

Avienus, Postumius (?) Rufius Festus

(625 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
middle of the 4th cent. AD; Roman didactic poet. Works Three works have been transmitted that are adaptations of texts from the field of Greek science and didactic poetry: Descriptio orbis terrae, Ora maritima and Phaenomena; there is also a verse epistle in 31 hexameters addressed to one Flavianus Myrmeicus. A poem about ‘Tales from Virgil’ ( Fabulae Vergilii) is lost. Manuscripts Because Avienus was not read in the Middle Ages, the manuscript tradition is sparse. The extant work…

Anthologia Latina

(203 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Works Collection of Latin poems; the most complete version is gathered in the Codex Salmasianus. Works Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Anthologia Latina Latin Anthology 1st-6th cent. AD Lat. poems …
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