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ʿAnnāzids

(1,745 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
( banū ʿannāz ), a dynasty (c. 381-511/991-1117) in the frontier region between ʿIrāḳ and Iran, which was one of the manifestations of the period "between the Arabs and the Turks" when, in the wake of the westward expansion of the Būyids, numerous principalities of Iranian origin sprang up in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān and Kurdistān. As the rise of the Banū ʿAnnāz was based on the S̲h̲ād̲h̲and̲j̲ān Kurds, the dynasty should be considered as Kurdish, although the Arabic names and titles of the majority of the rulers indicate the Arab links of the ruling fami…

Abīward

(738 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, or Bāward , a town and district on the northern slopes of the mountains of Ḵh̲urāsān in an area now belonging to the autonomous Turkoman republic which forms part of the U.S.S.R. The whole oasis region including Nasā [ q.v.], Abīward etc. (known by the Turkish name of Ātāk "foothills") played a great part in ancient times as the first line of defence of Ḵh̲urāsān against the nomads. In the Arsacid period this region was in the ancestral country of the dynasty. Isidore of Charax, par. 13 (at the beginning of the Christian era) mentions between Παρθυηνή (with the…

Ābādah

(149 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a small town in Persia, on the eastern (winter) road from S̲h̲īrāz to Iṣfahān. By the present-day highway Ābādah lies at 280 km. from S̲h̲īrāz, at 204 km. from Iṣfahān, and by a road branching off eastwards (via Abarḳūh) at 100 km. from Yazd. In the present-day administration (1952) Ābādah is the northernmost district ( s̲h̲ahristān ) of the province ( astān ) of Fārs. The population is chiefly engaged in agriculture and trade (opium, castor-oil; sesame-oil). Iḳlīd (possibly * kilid "key [to Fārs]") is another small town belonging to Ābādah. The whole…

Tūrān

(5,903 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, an Iranian term applied to the country to the north-east of Iran. The form of the name is not earlier than the Middle Persian period. The suffix - ān is used to form both patronymics (Pāpakān) and the names of countries (Gēlān, Dailamān) (cf. Grundr. d. iran. Phil., I/ii., p. 176; Salemann, ibid., I/i., p. 280 expresses doubts as to whether - ān is from the genitive plural - ānām). Three questions are raised by the name Tūrān: 1. its origin, 2. its later acceptation, which identifies Tūrān with “the land of the Turks”, 3. its modern geographical, linguistic and political applications. The Tūra.…

Türkmän-čai

(596 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(better T-čayi̊), a village in the district of Gärmärūd in the province of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. Türkmän-čai, “the river of the Turkomans”, is really the name of the stream on which the village stands; it comes down from the Čičäkli pass (between Türkmän-čai and Sarāb). It is one of the northern tributaries of the river of Miyāna (S̲h̲ähär-čayi̊) which flows into the Ḳi̊zi̊lüzän (cf. the article safīd-rūd). The village of Türkmän-čai marks a stage on the great Tabrīz-Zand̲j̲ān-Ḳazwīn-Tihrān-Ḵh̲urāsān road. The distances are Tabrīz-Türkmän-čai c. 60 miles; Türkmä…

Sulṭānābād

(993 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, 1. capital of the Persian province of ʿIrāḳ (popularly: ʿArāḳ). The town was founded in 1808 by Yūsuf Ḵh̲ān Gurd̲j̲ī in the S. W. corner of the plain of Farāhān. The town is built very regularly in the shape of a rectangle; its walls (2,000 × 2,666 feet) are each protected by 12 or 18 towers. The inhabitants number 25,000 (Stahl). The province now bearing the name of ʿIrāḳ (ʿArāḳ) must not be confused with the extensive area to which the geographers of the Mongol period gave the name of ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī (cf. Le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, p. 185—186) which included Kirmāns̲h̲ā…

Ahl-I Ḥaḳḳ

(5,008 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, “men of God”, a secret religion found especially in Western Persia. If one wished to choose a name for the sect, Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ would seem to lack precision for it was in use, for example, among the Ḥurūfīs (cf. Huart, Textes persons relatifs à la secte des Ḥurūfī, in G.M.S., 1909, p. 40), and it resembles Ṣūfī terms like Ahl-i Ḥaḳīḳat (this is also used by the Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ). In the narrow sense however, Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ is the name actually given themselves by the followers of the religion described in the present article. The name ʿAlī-Ilāhī [q. v.] given them by…

Sulṭān Isḥāḳ

(526 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(more frequently S. Sohāḳ, S. Sohāk), an important personage in the beliefs of the Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ sect (popularly known as ʿAlī llāhī; q. v.). The first manifestations of God (Ḵh̲āwandigār, ʿAlī, Bābā Ḵh̲os̲h̲īn) correspond to the stages of s̲h̲arīʿa, ṭarīḳa and maʿrifa, but it is the fourth avatar — Sulṭān Sohāk — which marks the highest degree of gnosis, the ḥaḳīḳa [q. v.]. Everything goes to show that Sulṭān Isḥāḳ was a historical personage. The Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ put him in the xivth century. He js said to have been a son of a certain S̲h̲aik̲h̲ ʿĪsā and Ḵh̲ātūn Dāyira (Dayarāḳ), da…

Tawakkul

(345 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
b. bazzāz (Tūklī [?] b. Ismāʿīl), a darwīs̲h̲, author of the Ṣifwat al-Ṣafā, which is a biography of the grand S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṣafī al-Dīn of Ardabīl (650—735= 1252—1334), ancestor of the Ṣafawid dynasty. The book was written in 750 (1350) under the direction of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṣadr al-Dīn, son of Ṣafī al-Dīn, whom Tawakkul quotes as an authority. Later under S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp I the text of the work was revised by a certain Abu ’l-Fatḥ Ḥusainī. The Persian text was published in Calcutta in 1329 (1911). The Ṣifwat al-Ṣafā is a work of considerable length, about 216,000 words. It is purely hagi…

Sind̲j̲ābī

(439 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Send̲j̲ābī), a Kurd tribe in the Persian province of Kirmāns̲h̲āh. In summer the Sind̲j̲ābī pitch their tents in the plain of Māhīdas̲h̲t and in the district of Ḏj̲wānrū; in winter they move to the lands south of the Alwand (in Kurdish: Halawān from the older Ḥulwān, cf. sarpul), a left bank tributary of the Diyāla which it joins near Ḵh̲āniḳīn. Here the ¶ pasturages of the Sind̲j̲ābī stretch from Sarpul to the mountains of Ag̲h̲-dāg̲h̲, Bāg̲h̲če and Ḳaṭār (south of Ḵh̲āniḳīn) and in the south stretch as far as Ḳala-naft. The delimitation of the Turco-Per…

Tug̲h̲a Tīmūr

(1,883 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a Mongol Ḵh̲ān, whose dynasty ruled in Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān for a century before 808 (1405). The Name. The Ḵh̲ān’s name may be read Tug̲h̲a or Tog̲h̲a. The Ẓafar-nāma transcribes it Ṭg̲h̲y (Tug̲h̲ai?); on a coin published by Fraehn it is spelled Tog̲h̲an (in Mongol character; cf. Howorth, op. cit., iii. 718). Family. Tug̲h̲a Tīmūr b. Suri (Surikuri?) b. Bābā Bahādur was a descendant in the sixth generation from a brother of Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān (Ḏj̲uči-Ḳasar, S̲h̲ad̲j̲arat, p. 315, misunderstood by Miles). In 705 (1305) Bābā Bahādur arrived in Ḵh̲orāsān with his tuman (10,000 families) and entered…

Malt̲h̲ai

(635 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, or properly Maʿalt̲h̲āyā, the Arabic name of two villages in the ḳaḍā of Duhūk in the old wilāyet of Mawṣil. They are about 40 miles N. N. W. of Mawṣil at the point where the river of Duhūk (left bank tributary of the Tigris) enters the plain, whence the Aramaic name Maʿallt̲h̲ā > Malt̲h̲ai, “entrance”. The pass of Maʿalt̲h̲āyā giving access to the country to the south of Lake Van must have played an important part in ancient times. Its importance is indicated by the famous bas-reliefs carved on the rock half an hour’s walk to the south of Maʿalt̲h…

Musāfirids

(2,340 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
( Kangarids or Sallārids ), a dynasty of Daylamī origin which came from Ṭārum [ q.v.] and reigned in the 4th-5th/10th-11th centuries of the Hid̲j̲ra in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, Arrān and Armenia. Its coming to power was one of the manifestations of the great movement of Iranian liberation which formed a kind of interlude between the end of Arab domination and the first Turkish invasions. While in K̲h̲urāsān and Transoxania this movement culminated in the rule of the Sāmānids [ q.v.], in western Persia and Mesopotamia its standard-bearers were the Daylamīs and to a smaller extent…

Anapa

(185 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a former fortress on the Black Sea, situated on the Bugur river 40 km. S. W. of the Kuban estuary. Built by French engineers for Sultan ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd I in 1781, it was unsuccessfully attacked by the Russians in 1787 and 1790, but stormed by Gen. Gudovich in 1791. Returned to Turkey by the treaty of Yassy (1791), it was in 1808 taken by the Russians but returned to Turkey in 1812. In 1828 it was blockaded by Admiral Greig and Prince Menshikov and ceded to Russia by the treaty of Adrianople of 1…

Lak

(986 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
1. The most southern group of Kurd tribes in Persia. According to Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn, their name (Läk, often Läkk) is explained by the Persian word läk (100,000), which is said to have been the original number of families of Lak. The group is of importance in that the Zand dynasty arose from it. The Lak now living in northern Luristān [ q.v.] are sometimes confused with the Lur (Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn), whom they resemble from the somatic and ethnic point of view. The facts of history, however, show that the Lak have immigrated to their present settlements from lan…

Ṭūrān

(462 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(or Ṭuwārān?), the mediaeval Islamic name for the district around Ḳuṣdār [ q.v.] or Ḳuzdār in the east-central part of what is now Balūčistān, the territory in British Indian times of the Ḵh̲ānate of Kalāt [see kilat ]. According to al-Ṭabarī, i, 820, the kings of Ṭūrān and of Makurān (Makrān) submitted to the Sāsānid Ardas̲h̲īr (224-41). The Paikuli inscription only mentions the Makurān-S̲h̲āh. Herzfeld, Paikuli, 38, thought that these princes at first owned the suzerainty of the Sakas, and their submission to Ardas̲h̲īr was the result of the conquest of Sak…

Abarḳūh

(211 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a small town belonging to Yazd and lying on the road from S̲h̲īrāz to Yazd (at 39 farsak̲h̲s from the former and at 28 fars. from the latter) and also connected by a road with Ābādah [ q.v.]. It lies in a plain, and according to Mustawfī, Nuzha , 121, its name ("on a mountain") refers to its earlier site. In 443/1051 Ṭug̲h̲ri̊lbeg gave Yazd and Abarḳūh to the Kākūyid Farāmarz (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, ix, 384) as a compensation for the loss of Iṣfahān. His successors continued to rule these towns as atābeks . In the 8th/14th century Abarḳūh is frequently mentioned in the …

Aḳ Ḳoyunlu

(997 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, “those of the White Sheep”, rederation of Turkmen tribes, which rose in the region of Diyār Bakr in post-Mongol times (in the 14th century) and lasted till c. 908/1502. The name (cf. Chalcocondyles, ch. ix: Λευκοὶ ᾿Ασπρο<προ>βατάντες) is unknown in earlier times. There is some uncertainty about the origin of the name, whether it refers to the breed of sheep, or to some kind of totem; the tumular stones of the Turkmens have often the form of rams, but such a symbol is absent in Uzun Ḥasan’s ban…

Abū Dulaf

(576 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, Misʿar b. Muhalhil al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ī al-Yanbuʿī , an Arab poet, traveller and mineralogist. The earliest date in his biography is his appearance in Buk̲h̲ārā towards the end of the reign of. Naṣr b. Aḥmad (d. in 331/943). His travels in Persia hint at the years 331-341/943-952. Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, whom Abū Dulaf mentions as his patron in Sīstān (read: *Aḥmad b. Muḥammad), ruled 331-52/942-63. The author of the Fihrist (completed in 377/987) refers to him as d̲j̲awwāla “globe-trotter” and as his personal acquaintance. Al-T̲h̲aʿālibī in his Yatīmat al-Dahr

Ḳubba

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(now Ḳuba), a district in the eastern Caucasus between Bākū and Derbend [ q.vv.]. The district of Ḳubba, with an area of 2,800 sq. miles, is bounded on the north by a large river, the Samūr, which flows into the Caspian, on the west by the “district” of Samūr which belongs to Dāg̲h̲istān [ q.v.], on the south by the southern slopes of the Caucasian range (peaks: S̲h̲āh-Dag̲h̲, 13,951 feet high, Bābā Dag̲h̲, 11,900) which separate Ḳubba from S̲h̲amāk̲h̲a (cf. the article s̲h̲īrwān ), on the southeast by the district of Bākū and on the east by the Caspian. …

Maṣmug̲h̲an

(1,910 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, (“great one of the Magians”) a Zoroastrian dynasty which the Arabs found in the region of Dunbāwand (Damāwand [ q.v.]) to the north of Ray. The origins of the Maṣmug̲h̲āns. The dynasty seems to have been an old, though not particularly celebrated, one, as is shown by the legends recorded by Ibn al-Faḳīh, 275-7, and in al-Bīrūnī, Āt̲h̲ār , 227. The title of maṣmug̲h̲ān is said to have been conferred by Farīdūn upon Armāʾīl, Bēwarāsp’s former cook (Zohāk), who had been able to save half the young men destined to perish as food for the t…

Ṣaḥna

(299 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a small town in the Zagros Mountains of western Persia on the highroad between Kangāwar and Bīsutūn at 61 km/38 miles from Kirmāns̲h̲āh [ q.v.]. The district of Ṣaḥna contains about 28 villages inhabited by settled Turks belonging to the tribe of K̲h̲odābandalū (of Hamadān). At Ṣaḥna there are a few Ahl-i-Ḥaḳḳ [ q.v.], who are in touch with their spiritual superiors in Dīnawar [ q.v.], a frontier district in the north. Ṣaḥna must not be confused with Sinna [ q.v.] or Sanandad̲j̲ [ q.v.], the capital of the Persian province of Kurdistān, the former residence of the Wālīs of Ardalān [ q.v.]. Quit…

Nirīz

(357 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a place in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān on the road from Marāg̲h̲a [ q.v.] to Urmiya [ q.v.] south of the Lake of Urmiya. The stages on this route are still obscure. At about 15 farsak̲h̲ s south of Marāg̲h̲a was the station of Barza where the road bifurcated; the main road continued southward to Dīnawar, while the northwestern one went from Barza to Tiflīs (2 farsak̲h̲s), thence to D̲j̲ābarwān (6 farsak̲h̲s), thence to Nirīz (4 farsak̲h̲s), thence to Urmiya (14 farsak̲h̲s); cf. Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih. 121 (repeated by Ḳudāma with some variations); al-Muḳaddasī, 383. The distance from Urmiya indi…

Mūḳān

(2,961 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, Mūg̲h̲ān . a steppe lying to the south of the lower course of the Araxes, the northern part of which (about 5,000 square km.) belongs to the Azerbaijan SSR and the other part (50-70 × ca. 50 km.) to Persia. The steppe which covers what was once the bottom of the sea has been formed by the alluvial deposits from the Kur (in Russian, Koura) and its tributary the Araxes. (The latter has several times changed its course and one of its arms flows directly into the gulf of Ki̊zi̊l-Aghač.) In the interior, the only water in Mūg̲h̲ān is…

Nihāwand

(803 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a town in the Zagros Mountains of western Persia, in the mediaeval Islamic province of D̲j̲ibāl [ q.v.], situated in lat. 34° 13’ N. and long. 48° 21’ E. and lying at an altitude of 1,786 m/5,860 feet. It is on the branch of the Gāmāsāb which comes from the south-east from the vicinity of Burūd̲j̲ird; the Gāmāsāb then runs westwards to Bisūtūn. Nihāwand lies on the southern road which, coming from Kirmāns̲h̲āh (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 198), leads into central Persia (Iṣfahān) avoiding the massif of Alwand (’Οροω…

Sarpul-i D̲h̲uhāb

(575 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(“bridgehead of Zohāb”), a place on the way to the Zagros Mountains on the great Bag̲h̲dād-Kirmāns̲h̲āh road, taking its name from the stone bridge of two arches over the river Alwand, a tributary on the left bank of the Diyāla. Sarpul in the early 20th century consisted simply of a little fort ( ḳūr-k̲h̲āna = “arsenal”) in which the governor of Zohāb lived (the post was regularly filled by the chief of the tribe of Gūrān), a caravanserai, a garden of cypress and about 40 houses. The old town of Zohāb, about 4 hours to the no…

Arūr

(204 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(aror) also written al-rūr , town in Sind; it is surmised to have been the capital of king Musicanus, defeated by Alexander the Great, and to be mentioned in the 7th century A.D. by Hiungtsang. The town was conquered by Muḥammad b. al-Ḳāsim before 95/714 (al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūh , 439, 440, 445) and it is mentioned by al-Istak̲h̲rī, 172, 175, and al-Bīrunī, Hind (Sachau), 100, 130, according to whom it lay thirty farsak̲h̲s S-W of Multān and twenty farsak̲h̲s upstream from al-Manṣūra. The Indus used to flow near the town, but later it changed its course, destroying the pro…

Sunḳur

(533 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
or Sonḳor , the name of a district and of a present-day small town in western Persia (town: lat. 34° 45′ N., long 47° 39′ E.). It lies in the Zagros Mountains between modern Kangāwar [see kinkiwar ] and Sanandad̲j̲ [ q.v.] or Sinna, within the modern province of Kirmāns̲h̲āh. In mediaeval Islamic times, it lay on the road between Dīnawar [ q.v.] and Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, and must correspond approximately to the first marḥala on the stretch from Dīnawar to Sīsar, the name of which is read al-D̲j̲ārbā (al-Muḳaddasī, 382), K̲h̲arbārd̲j̲ān (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 119; Ḳudāma, 212), etc. which was 7 f…

Abaskūn

(203 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(or Ābaskūn ), a harbour in the south-eastern corner of the Caspian. It is described as a dependency of Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān/Gurgān (Yāḳūt, i, 55: 3 days’ distance from Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān; i, 91: 24 farsak̲h̲s). It might be located near the estuary of the Gurgān river (at Ḵh̲od̲j̲a-Nefes?). Al-Istak̲h̲rī, 214 (Ibn Ḥawḳal, 273) calls Abaskūn the greatest of the (Caspian) harbours. The Caspian itself was sometimes called Baḥr Abaskūn . Abaskūn possibly corresponds to Ptolemy’s Σωκανάα in Hyrcania (Gurgān). Several times Abaskūn ¶ was raided by Rūs pirates (some time between 250-70/864-84, a…

Bābā-Ṭāhir

(3,476 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a mystic and poet who wrote in a Persian dialect. According to Riḍā Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān (19th century), who does not give his source, Bābā-Ṭāhir lived in the period of Daylamī rule and died in 401/1010. Among his quatrains there is an enigmatical one: “I am that sea ( baḥr ) which entered into a vase; that point which entered into the letter. In each alf (“thousand”, i.e. of years?) arises an alif-ḳadd (a man upright in stature like the letter alif ). I am the alif-ḳadd who has corne in this alf” . Mahdī Ḵh̲ān in the JASB has given an extremely curious interpretation of this quatrain: the letters alf-ḳd

Yag̲h̲mā D̲j̲andaḳī

(693 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the tak̲h̲alluṣ or pen-name of the Persian poet Mīrzā Abu ’l-Ḥasan Raḥīm ( ca. 1196-1276/ ca. 1782-1859), often called by his fellow-poets Ḳaḥba-zan “whore” from the expression repeated monotonously in his obscene verse. He was born at K̲h̲ūr in the D̲j̲andaḳ oasis in the central desert of the Das̲h̲t-i Kawīr, roughly half-way between Yazd and Simnān. He began his life as a camel-herd but by the age of seven his natural gifts had been noticed by the owner of the oasis, Ismāʿīl K̲h̲ān ʿArab-i ʿĀmirī, whose secretary ( muns̲h̲ī-bās̲h̲ī ) he ultimately became. Hi…

Sīsar

(742 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a town of mediaeval Islamic Persian Kurdistān, in the region bounded by Hamadān, Dīnawar and Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. The Arab geographers ¶ place Sīsar on the Dīnawar-Marāg̲h̲a road 20-22 farsak̲h̲s (3 stages) north of Dīnawar (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 119-21; Ḳudāma, 212; al-Muḳaddasī, 382). According to al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 310, Sīsar occupied a depression ( ink̲h̲ifāḍ ) surrounded by 30 mounds, whence its Persian name “30 summits”. For greater accuracy it was called Sīsar of Ṣadk̲h̲āniya ( wakāna Sīsar tudʿā Sīsar Ṣadk̲h̲āniya ), which al-Balād̲h̲urī …

Marāg̲h̲a

(5,725 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the old capital of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. Position. The town lies in lat. 37° 23′ N. and long 46° 15′ E. at a height of 5,500 feet above sea-level on the southern slope of Mount Sahand (11,800 feet high) which separates it from Tabrīz [ q.v.]. This explains the very considerable difference in climate ¶ between the two towns, which are only 50 miles apart as the crow flies (by the high road 80 miles). The climate of Marāg̲h̲a is mild and rather moist (H̲amd Allāh and Mecquenem, 1904). The plentiful water supply makes the vegetation rich. The fruit of …

Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab

(489 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a town in the district of Buk̲h̲ārā, also called Nasaf by the Arab geographers (cf. the similar evolution of Nas̲h̲awā from Nak̲h̲čiwān). The town lay in the valley of the Kas̲h̲ka-Daryā, cf. Ibn Ḥawḳal, 2460, tr. Kramers and Wiet, 444: Kas̲h̲k-rūd̲h̲, which runs southwards parallel to the Zarafs̲h̲ān (river of Samarḳand) and runs towards the Amū-Daryā [ q.v.] but before joining it disappears in the sands. Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab lay on the road joining Buk̲h̲ārā to Balk̲h̲ four days’ journey from the former and eight from the latter (cf. al-Muḳaddasī, 344). In…

Sipihr

(400 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, “celestial sphere”, nom-de-plume ( tak̲h̲alluṣ ) of the Persian historian and man of letters, Mīrzā Muḥammad Taḳī of Kās̲h̲ān (d. Rabīʿ II 1297/March 1880). After a studious youth spent in his native town, he settied definitely in Tehran, where he found a patron in the poet-laureate ( malik al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ ) of Fatḥ ʿAlī S̲h̲āh. On his accession (1250/1834), Muḥammad S̲h̲āh appointed him his private panegyrist ( maddāḥ-i k̲h̲āṣṣa ) and secretary and accountant in the treasury ( muns̲h̲ī wa-mustawfī-i dīwān ). The same S̲h̲āh entrusted him with the compo…

Abhar

(109 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(in Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam : Awhar), a small town owing its importance to the fact that it lies half-way between Ḳazwīn (86 km) and Zand̲j̲ān (88 km.) and that from it a road branched off southwards to Dīnawar. It was conquered in 24/645 by Barāʾ b. ʿĀzib, governor of Rayy. Between 386/996 and 409/1029 it formed the fief of a Musāfirid [ q.v.] prince. The stronghold of Sar-d̲j̲ahān (in Rāḥat al-ṣudūr : Sar-čāhān), lying some 25 km. N.W. of Abhar near a pass leading into Tārom [ q.v.] played an important rôle under the Sald̲j̲ūkids. (V. Minorsky) Bibliography Le Strange, 221 Schwarz, Iran, 726-8 Minorsky,…

Us̲h̲nū

(803 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Us̲h̲nuh, Us̲h̲nūya), a district and small town of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. The modern town, known as Ushnuwiyya (Oshnoviyeh), situated in lat. 37° 03ʹ N., long. 45° 05ʹ E., is some 56 km/35 miles south of Urmiya [ q.v.], on which it has usually been administratively dependent. It is at present the cheflieu of a bak̲h̲s̲h̲ in the s̲h̲ahrastān of Urmiya. The present population (1991 census results) is 23,875. The district of Us̲h̲nū is watered by the upper course of the river Gādir (Gader) which, after traversing the district of Sulduz [ q.v.], flows into Lake Urmiya on the south-west. To …

Sulduz

(760 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, Süldüz , a Mongol tribe which played a considerable role in mediaeval Islamic history of the Mongol and II K̲h̲ānid periods. According to Berezin, the correct Mongol form would be Süldes (pl. of sülde “good fortune”; Vladimirtsov interpreted sülde as “le génie-protecteur habitant le drapeau”). L. Ligeti, Die Herkunft des Volksnamens Kirgis , in Körösi Csoma Archivum , i (1925), saw in the ending of Suld-uz, as in Ḳi̊rḳ-i̊z, the remains of an ancient Turkish plural suffix (cf. biz “we”, siz “you”, etc.) and as a hypothetical singular quoted the name of a Ḳi̊rg̲h̲i̊z clan Su…

Ḳuban

(1,674 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(called in Nog̲h̲ay Turkish, Ḳuman , in Čerkes, Phs̲h̲iz ), one of the four great rivers of the Caucasus (Rion, Kura, Terek and Ḳuban). It is about 450 miles long. It rises near Mount Elburz at a height of 13,930 feet. Its three constituents (K̲h̲urzuḳ, Ulu-Ḳam, Uč-Ḳulan) join together before reaching the defile through which the Ḳuban enters the plains (at a height of 1,075 feet). The Ḳuban at first runs through the wooded outer spurs of the mountains and then, taking a westerly di…

Bahārlū

(350 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, name of a Turkish tribe in Persia. In particular, the name refers to the ruling faroily of the Ḳarā-Ḳoyūnlū federation of Türkmen tribes (also called Bārānī). It is most probable that the name (“those of Bahār”) is connected with the village of Bahār (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x, 290: W. hān , read Vahār ) situated at 13 kms. north of Hamadān. According to Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, Nuzha , 107 (Eng. transl. 106) the castle of Bahār served as residence to Sulaymān-s̲h̲āh b. Parčam Īwāʾī, who later became one of the three chief ministers of the caliph al…

Rūyān

(1,160 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a district of the Caspian coastlands region of Persia comprising the western half of Māzandarān [ q.v.]. Iranian tradition. According to Darmesteter, Avesta , ii, 416, Rūyān corresponds to the mountain called Raodita (“reddish”) in Yas̲h̲t , 19, 2, and Rōyis̲h̲nōmand in Bundahis̲h̲n , xii, 2, 27 (tr. West, 34). Al-Bīrūnī, Chronologie , ed. Sachau, 220, makes Rūyān the scene of the exploits of the archer Āris̲h̲ (cf. Ẓahīr al-Dīn Marʿas̲h̲ī, Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ṭabaristān u Rūyān u Māzandarān , ed. Dorn, 18 [ Yas̲h̲t 8, 6, in this connection mentions the hill Aryō-xs̲h̲nθa]). In the …

Ṭufailī

(267 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, “parasite, sponger”. This is the meaning given to the word in the majority of the European dictionaries of Arabic, Persian and Turkish, e.g. Bélot, G̲h̲affārow, Sāmī-bey, etc. But this does not render the exact shade of meaning of the word, which was first of all applied to an individual who goes to a feast without being invited or accompanies a person invited. A little lower class of parasite is called in everyday Persian ḳufailī ¶ the term applied to hangers on of the ṭufaili. According to the Arabic dictionaries, Lisān al-ʿArab, xiii., p. 429, Tād̲j̲ al-Arūs, vii., p. 418 the word ṭufailī c…

Nirīz

(325 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a place in Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān on the road from Marāg̲h̲a [q. v.] to Urmiya [q. v.] south of the Lake of Urmiya. The stages on this route are still obscure. At about 15 farsak̲h̲s south of Marāg̲h̲a was the station of Barza where the road bifurcated; the main road continued southward to Dīnawar while the northwest went from Barza to Tiflīs (2 farsak̲h̲s), thence to Ḏj̲ābarwān (6 farsak̲h̲s), thence to Nirīz (4 farsak̲h̲s), thence to Urmiya (14 farsak̲h̲s); cf. Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih, p. 121 (repeated by Ḳudāma with some variations); Muḳaddasī, p. 383. The distance from Urmiya indicates that…

Uwais I

(1,565 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Sulṭān Uwais), second king of the dynasty of Ḏj̲alāʾir [q. v.] or Īlakān (Īlkān <*Ilg’än?) who reigned 756—776 (1355—1374). Uwais, born about 742 (1341), was the son of Ḥasan Buzurg [q. v.], son of Ḥusain Gurgān ( Küräkän, “son-in-law of the Ḵh̲ān”), son of Aḳ-bug̲h̲a Noyon, son of Īlakān (*Īlkān) Noyon (Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn: Īlkāy, *Ilg’äy). Ḥasan Buzurg’s mother was a Mongol princess, daughter of Arg̲h̲un-Ḵh̲ān. Ḥasan himself married the famous Dils̲h̲ād-Ḵh̲ātūn, daughter of Dimis̲h̲ḳ-Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a, son of Čopan [cf. suldūz], who had previously married Abū Saʿīd Ḵh̲ān and on h…

Raiy

(2,942 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the ancient Ragha, a town in Media. Its ruins may be seen about 5 miles S. S. E. of Teheran [q. v.] to the south of a spur projecting from Elburz into the plain. The village and sanctuary of S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm lie immediately south of the ruins. The geographical importance of the town lies in the fact that it was situated in the fertile zone which lies between the mountains and the desert, by which from time immemorial communication has taken place between the west and east of Īrān. Several roads from Māzandarān [q. v.] converge on Raiy on the north side. In the Avesta, Wīdēwdāt, i. 15, Raghā is men…

Maʿmūret al-ʿAzīz

(339 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the name given to the new town of Mezre, built beside Ḵh̲arpūt [q. v.] in honour of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz. In time the name became applied to the new wilāyet formed in 1879 around Ḵh̲arpūt-Mezre; this consisted of three sand̲j̲aḳs: al-ʿAzīz, Ḵh̲ozāt and Malaṭiya. As a result of the administrative reforms of 1340 (1921) each of these sand̲j̲aḳs became an independent wilāyet but later modifications were made. According to the official annual of 1925—1926, the wilāyet of Maʿmūret al-ʿAzīz has an area of 11,299 sq. km. or 12,428,900 dönüms, of which 3,124,596 are arable. It contains 6 …

Niẓām-s̲h̲āhī

(310 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(i. e. Ilčī-yi Niẓām-s̲h̲āhī “ambassador of Niẓām-S̲h̲āh” of the Dakhan), a Persian historian whose real name was Ḵh̲ūrs̲h̲āh b. Ḳubād al-Ḥusainī. Born in the Persian ʿIrāḳ, he entered the service of Sulṭān Burhān [cf. nihẓāms̲h̲āh]. The latter being converted to the S̲h̲īʿa sent Ḵh̲ūrs̲h̲āh as ambassador to Ṭahmāsp-S̲h̲āh Safawi. Reaching Raiy in Rad̲j̲ab 952 (Sept. 1545), he accompanied the S̲h̲āh to Georgia and S̲h̲īrwān during the campaign of 953 (1546) against Alḳāṣ-Mīrzā. He stayed in Persia till 971 (1563), perhaps with occasional breaks. He died at Golconda on the 15th Ḏh̲u …

Kurds

(24,870 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, an Iranian people of Nearer Asia, living in Persia, Transcaucasia, Turkey and al-ʿIrāḳ (cf. kurdistān). Before 1914 the number of Kurds living in compact bodies or isolated colonies (Ḵh̲orāsān, Asia Minor, Cilicia, southern Syria) was estimated at two to three millions. Although many, travellers have passed through Kurdistān and there are a large number of important works dealing with the Kurds from the linguistic, historical, ethnographical and political point of view, we still lack a general study devoted to this people. Its prepara…

Mes̲h̲hed-i Miṣriyān

(1,051 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a ruined site in Transcaspiana (Türkmenistan), N. W. of the confluence of the Atrak and its right bank tributary the Sumbar, or more exactly, on the road which runs from Čat at right angles to the road connecting Čikis̲h̲lär with the railway station of Aydi̊n. The ruins are surrounded by a wall of brick and a ditch and have an area of 320 acres. The old town, situated in the steppes which are now peopled by Turkomans, received its water from a canal led from the Atrak about 40 miles ¶ above Čat. Near the latter place the canal diverged northwards from the river, crossed the Sumbar b…

Ḳubba

(1,052 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(now Ḳuba), a district in the eastern Caucasus, between Bākū and Derbend [q. v.]. The district of Ḳubba with an area of 2,800 square miles is bounded on the north by a large river, the Samūr, which flows into the Caspian, on the west by the “district” of Samūr which belongs to Dāg̲h̲istān [q. v.], on the south by the southern slopes of the Caucasian range (peaks: S̲h̲āh-Dag̲h̲, 13,951 feet high, Bābā Dag̲h̲ 11,900) which separate Ḳubba from S̲h̲amāk̲h̲a (cf. the article s̲h̲īrwān), on the S. E. by the district of Bākū and on the east by the Caspian. The area between the mount…

Nihāwand

(735 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a town in the old province of Hamad̲h̲ān, with, at the present day, 5,000-6,000 inhabitants (de Morgan), at a height of 5,860 feet on the branch of the Gāmāsāb which comes from the S. E. from the vicinity of Burūd̲j̲ird; the Gāmāsāb then runs W. to Bisūtūn. Nihāwand lies on the southern road which, coming from Kirmāns̲h̲āh (Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih, p. 198), leads into Central Persia (Iṣfahān) avoiding the massif of Alwand (ʾΟρόντηΣ) which rises W. of Hamad̲h̲ān. Hence the importance of the town in the wars of Persia with her western neighbours. The French excavations of 1931 (Dr. Contenau)…

Māzyār

(1,925 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, [Balād̲h̲urī gives the form Māyazdiyār < *Māh-yazd-yār], the last of the Ḳārinid rulers of Ṭabarīstān, leader of the rising against the caliph al-Muʿtaṣim. Origins. The Ḳarīn-wand dynasty claimed descent from Ḳarīn b. Sūk̲h̲rā, whom Ḵh̲usraw Anus̲h̲irwān had established in Ṭabarīstān and who was descended from the legendary smith Kāwa, who saved Farīdūn. The hereditary fief of the dynasty was the “mountain of Ḳarīn” [or of Windād Hurmuz], Ṭabarī, iii. 1295. The capital of this region was probably Lapūra (cf. Lafūr on…

Ṣaḥna

(195 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a little township in the Persian province of Kermāns̲h̲āh on the great road between Kangāwar and Bīsutūn. The district of Ṣaḥna contains about 28 villages inhabited by settled Turks belonging to the tribe of Ḵh̲odābandelū (of Hamadān). At Ṣaḥna there are a few Ahl-i-Ḥaḳḳ (see the article ʿalī ilāhī), who are in touch with their spiritual superiors in Dīnawar (see dīnawar), a frontier district in the north. Ṣaḥna must not be confused with Senne, the capital of the Persian province of Kurdistān, the former residence of the Wālīs of Ardilān [q. v.]. Quite …

Musāfirids

(2,298 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Kangarī or Sallārī), a d y n as t y of Dailamī origin which came from Tārom [q. v.] and reigned in the fourth and fifth centuries of the Hid̲j̲ra in Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān, Arrān and Armenia. Its coming to power was one of the manifestations of the great movement of Īrānian liberation which formed a kind of interlude between the end of Arab domination and the first Turkish invasions. While in Ḵh̲urāsān and Transoxania this movement culminated in the rule of the Sāmānids [q. v.], in western Persia and Mesopotamia its standardbearers were the Dailamīs and to a smaller extent the Kurds (cf. V. Minorsky, L…

Artsruni

(931 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, Thoma, an Armenian historian, who lived in the second half of the ninth century and beginning of the tenth. He says he was acquainted with the assassin of Yūsuf b. Abī Saʿīd, who was killed in 851 (p. 105) and the authentic part of his work comes down at least to 906 (p. 210—211) and perhaps even to before 943 (p. 236, 245). Of his private life we know only that he was a monk ( vardapet) and that he travelled in Transcaucasia (p. 236). By birth he must have been connected with the Artsruni noble family who were feudatories of Waspurakan, i. e. of the lands lying east o…

al-Maṣmug̲h̲ān

(1,888 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a Zoroastrian dynasty whom the Arabs found in the region of Dunbāwand (Damāwand) to the north of Raiy. The origins of the Maṣmug̲h̲āns. The dynasty seems to have been an old though not particularly celebrated one as is shown by the legends recorded by Ibn al-Faḳīh, p. 275—277, and in al-Bīrūnī, p. 227. The title of maṣmug̲h̲ān is said to have been conferred by Farīdūn upon Armāʾīl, Bēwarāsp’s former cook (Zohāk), who had been able to save half the young men destined to perish as food for the tyrant’s serpents. A…

Bāward

(719 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, or Abīward [q. v.], a town and district on the northern slopes of the mountains of Ḵh̲orāsān in an area now belonging to the autonomous Turkoman republic which forms part of the U. S. S. R. The whole oasis region including Nasā [q.v.], Bāward etc. (known by the Turkish name of Ätäk “foothills”) ¶ played a great part in ancient times as the first line of defence of Ḵh̲orāsān against the nomads. In the Arsacid period this region was in the ancestral country of the dynasty. Isidore of Charax, § 13 (at the beginning of the Christian era) mentions between Παρθυηνή (with…

Lur-i Kūčik

(1,815 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a dynasty of Atābegs which ruled in Northern and Western Luristān between 580 (1184) and 1006 (1597) with Ḵh̲urramābād as their capital. The Atābegs were descended from the Lur tribe of Ḏj̲angrūʾī (Ḏj̲angardī?). The dynasty is also known by the name of Ḵh̲urshīdī from the name of the first Atābeg. (It remains to be seen if this name is connected with that of Muḥammad Ḵh̲urs̲h̲īd, vizier of the former rulers ¶ of Luristān before the rise of the Atābegs of Lur-i Buzurg). After 730 the power passed to another line which later claimed to be of ʿAlid descent; at this time also the title malik succeede…

Ṭūrān

(620 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(or Ṭawārān?), the old name of a district in Balūčistān. According to Ṭabarī, i. 820, the kings of Ṭūrān and of Makurān (Mukrān) submitted to the Sāsānian Ardas̲h̲īr (224—241). The Paikulī inscription only mentions the Makurān-s̲h̲āh. Herzfeld, Paikuli, p. 38, thinks that these princes at first owned the suzerainty of the Sakas and their submission to Ardas̲h̲īr was the result of the conquest of Sakastān (=Sīstān) by this monarch. Balād̲h̲urī does not mention al-Ṭūrān. According to one of his sources, Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ [q. v.] appointed Saʿīd b. Aslam to Mukrān and…

Tasūd̲j̲

(789 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(and Ṭassūd̲j̲), 1. Arabicised forms of the Persian word tasū (Phi. *tasūk, cf. Phi. tasum “fourth” <.*čaθruma; cf. Salemann, Manich. Studien, i. 128; Tedesco, Dialectologie der west-iranischen Turfantexte, p. 209) which means the 24th part of certains measures (Vullers, i. 445). According to the Farhang-i S̲h̲uʿūri, two d̲j̲aw = a ḥabba; two ḥabba = a tasūd̲j̲; four tasūd̲j̲ = a dāng; six dāng = a dīnār. In the Dīwān of Ḳāsim al-Anwār (Bib. Nat. de Paris, Sup. Pers. 717, fol. 174) is a verse giving to tasu some mystic sense. The word is found in Arménien thasu and in Aramaic ṭyswga; cf. Hübsc…

Lāhīd̲j̲ān

(1,279 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
1. A town in Gīlan to the east of the Safīd-Rūd and north of the mountain Dulfāk (cf. the ancient name of a people Δέρβικαι) on the river Čom-k̲h̲ala (Purdesar) which 8 miles higher up flows through Langarūd, the present capital of the district of Rān-i Kūh. Lāhīd̲j̲ān although unknown to the early Arab geographers is certainly one of the oldest towns in Gīlān. Its foundation is attributed to the legendary Lāhīd̲j̲ b. Sām b. Nūḥ. The river Safīd-Rūd divides Gīlān into two parts. In ancient times the river formed the frontier between the Amar…

Mūḳān

(1,330 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Mūg̲h̲ān). In the important passage in Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, ii. 5 (omitted in Marquart, Ērānšahr, p. 119), it is distinctly stated that al-Mūḳāniya conquered by the lord of S̲h̲irwān [q. v.] was situated near Ḳabala [cf. s̲h̲ekkī], i. e. to the north of the Kur, and was different from al-Mūḳāniya on the shore of the Caspian Sea (cf. the Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam, with notes by Minorsky, in G.M.S., 1937, p. 407). In the Georgian Chronicle (Brosset, Hist. de la Georgie, i. 18) we read that Mowakan son of Thargamos received from his father “the north ( sic) of Mtkwar (= Kur) from the junction with the …

Salmās

(1,320 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a district in the province of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān in Persia, to the north-west of the Lake of Urmiyah and having an area of 25 miles (N. to S.) by 40 (E. to W.). To the south the chain ¶ of the Awg̲h̲ān (Afg̲h̲ān)-dag̲h̲ with its pass Wer gewīz (6,150 feet high) separates Salmis from the district of Urmiyah (Urūmī); the eastern portion of the Awg̲h̲ān-dag̲h̲ forms the lofty promontory of Ḳara-bāg̲h̲ [q.v.] which runs out into the Lake; at the end of it is the fortress of Güwerčin-Ḳalʿa. In the west the Harāwīl range (in Turkish Araʾu…

Tabrīz

(11,636 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, capital of the Persian province of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān [q. v.]. Geographical position. The town lies in the eastern corner of the alluvial plain (measuring about 30 × 20 miles) sloping slightly towards the north-east bank of Lake Urmiya. The plain is watered by several streams, the chief of which is the Ad̲j̲i̊-čai (“bitter river”) which, rising in the south-west face of Mount Sawalān runs along the Ḳarad̲j̲a-dag̲h̲ which forms a barrier on the south and entering the plain runs around on the northwest suburbs of the town. The left bank tributary ¶ of the Ad̲j̲i̊-čai, Mihrān-rūd (now th…

Ḳutlug̲h̲-k̲h̲ān

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, 1. a dynasty in Kirmān [q. v.] in the viith (xiiith) century, descended from the heathen Ḳara-Ḵh̲itai people [q. v.]. The dynasty, successively vassals of the Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh, the Great Mongol Ḵh̲āns and the dynasty of Hūlāgū Ḵh̲ān (Īlk̲h̲āns), lasted from 619 (620?) to 706 and never had more than local importance. It entertained close relations with the neighbouring dynasties of the Atābegs of’Yazd, the Salg̲h̲urids of Fārs and the Muẓaffarids [q. v.] and came into occasional contact with the Caliph and with India. The…

Nak̲h̲čuwān

(914 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Nak̲h̲ičewān), a t own to the north of the Araxes. The town Ναξουάνα is mentioned in Ptolemy, v., ch. 12. The Armenians explain the name of Nak̲h̲čawan (Nak̲h̲čuan) by a popular etymology as nak̲h̲-id̲j̲ewan “(Noah’s) first stopping-place” (although the name is apparently compounded with -awan “place”) and locate the town in the province of Waspurakan (cf. Yāḳūt, i. 122), or in that of Siunikh. According to Moses of Chorene, i. ch. 30, Nak̲h̲ičewan was in the area peopled by Median prisoners ( mar) in whom we should see the ancestors of the Kurds of this region (cf. Balād̲h̲urī, p. 200; nahr …

S̲h̲ehrizūr

(2,194 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(S̲h̲ahrazūr, in the S̲h̲eref-nāme:. S̲h̲ahra-zūl), a district in Kurdistān. S̲h̲ehrizūr, strictly speaking, is a beautiful and fertile plain (36 × 25 miles) situated to the west of the chain of Awrāmān (cf. senne). To the south-east it adjoins the Persian district of Awrāmān-i luhūn. On the south the river Sīrwān is the boundary of the district; on the south-west S̲h̲ehrizūr extends as far as the pass of Darband-i Ḵh̲ān by which the Sīrwān (Diyāla) makes its way to the south. On the west S̲h̲ehrizūr is bounded by Arbet which …

Nasā

(457 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(often Nisā), the name of several places in Persia: in Ḵh̲urāsān, Fārs, Kirmān and Hamad̲h̲ān; cf. Yāḳūt, iv. 778. (According to Bartholomae, nisāya means “settlement”). 1. Nasā in Ḵh̲urāsān was situated in the cultivated zone which lies north of the range separating Ḵh̲urāsān from the Turkoman steppes. It corresponds to the Νίσαια, Νίσαιον πεδίον of the classical authors, celebrated for its breed of horses (Herodotos, iii. 106; cf. Strabo, xi., ch. xiv., §7). Alexander the Great is said to have built an Alexandropolis …

Zūrk̲h̲āna

(869 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(p.), “house of strength”, the Persian gymnasium. There are zūrk̲h̲āna in many Persian towns and often also in several quarters of a large town. From the architectural point of view these gymnasiums recall an eastern bath lit by a skylight in the centre of the little dome. The arena ( go u d) lies below the level of the floor. The superintendent and the spectators take their places in niches cut in the walls; sometimes there is a kind of gallery reserved for the public. Among the members of a zūrk̲h̲āna various degrees are distinguished: a nouče “novice”, nouk̲h̲āste “beginner”, pähläwān “athl…

Mūḳān

(1,707 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Mūg̲h̲ān), a steppe lying to the south of the lower course of the Araxes, one part of which (about 5,000 square kilometres) belongs to Russia (U. S. S. R.) and the other (50—70 × c. 50 kilometres) to Persia. The steppe which covers what was once the bottom of the sea has been formed by the alluvial deposits from the Kur (in Russian Koura) and its tributary the Araxes. (The latter has several times changed its course and one of its arms flows directly into the gulf of Ḳi̊zi̊l-Ag̲h̲ač). In the i…

Linga

(196 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a little seaport on the Persian Gulf which lies between Lāristān [q. v.] and the desert. The old port was at Kung, 8 miles east of Linga; the Portuguese had a factory there where they ruled long after the loss of Hormūz (to 1711). In the reign of the Zand dynasty, 1,000 Ḏj̲awāsim Arabs (Banī Ḏj̲ās̲h̲im, Ḏj̲awās̲h̲im, Kowāsim) with their chief S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṣāliḥ came from Ras al-Ḵh̲aima (ʿOmān) and took Linga from the kalāntar of the district Ḏj̲ahāngīrī. In 1887 the Persian government took possession of Linga and deported to Ṭeherān the last hereditary s̲h̲aik̲h̲ (Ḳaḍ…

Ṣōmāi

(820 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a Kurdish district in Persia near the Turkish frontier. In Kurdish, sōmāi means “view” (cf. in Persian sūma, “terminus, finis, scopus”, Vullers, ii. 352). To the north Ṣōmāi is separated from the basin of the Zola-čai (S̲h̲epirān, Salmās, q. v.) by the mountains of Bere-dī, Und̲j̲ali̊ḳ and Ag̲h̲wān; on the east the canton of Anzal separates it from Lake Urmia; to the southeast lies the S̲h̲aik̲h̲-Bāzīd range, to the south the canton of Brādōst; to the S.W. the peak of Kotūl; towards the west the ravine of Bāneg…

Lām

(529 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Banī Lām), an Arab tribe leading a nomadic life on the lower course of the Tigris (ʿAlī G̲h̲arbī, ʿAlī S̲h̲arḳī, ʿAmāra). According to the statistics of Ḵh̲urs̲h̲īd Efendi (middle of the xixth century) there were over 4,400 families of Banī Lām west of the Tigris (between ʿAmāra and S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Ḥaiy) and 5,070 east of the Tigris, along the Persian frontier from Mandalī to the region of marshes ( k̲h̲ōr) into which the Kark̲h̲a disappears. 17,450 families of the Banī Lām went over to Persian territory between 1788 and 1846 (the southern parts of the Pus̲h̲t-i Kūh…

Kurdistān

(2,459 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, “land of the Kurds”. The name can be regarded from two points of view: historical and ethnographical. I. From the historical point of view the term Kurdistān seems to have been invented by the Sald̲j̲ūḳs as a name for the province including the lands between Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān and Luristān (Senna, Dainawar, Hamadān, Kirmāns̲h̲āh etc.) as well as certain a joining areas to the west of Zagros (S̲h̲ahrizūr, Ḵh̲uftiyān = Kōi-sand̲j̲aḳ?). The capital of the province of Kurdistān was at first Bahār (N. E. of Hamadān) a…

Urmu

(202 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a district in Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. According to Balād̲h̲urī, p. 328, Saʿīd b. al-ʿĀṣ, sent to conquer Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān, attacked the people of Mūḳān and Gīlān. A number of inhabitants of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān and Armenians who had gathered in the nāhiya of Urm and at *Balwānkarad̲j̲ were defeated by one of Saʿīd’s captains. The leader of the rebels was hanged on the walls of the fortress of Bād̲j̲arwān ( Nuzhat al-Ḳulūb, G.M.S., p. 181: Bād̲j̲arwān was 20 farsak̲h̲s north of Ardabīl). Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih, p. 119, mentions the citadel of Urm between al-Bad̲h̲d̲h̲ (a town of Bābak…

Zand̲j̲ān

(898 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a town in northern Persia, capital of the province of Ḵh̲amsa which lies between Ḳazwīn, Hamad̲h̲ān, Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān and Gīlān. Geography. The town of Zand̲j̲ān is situated on the river Zangānarūd (the old name of which, according to the Nuzhat al-Ḳulūb, p. 221, was Mād̲j̲-rūd), which runs from east to west and joins the Safīd-rūd [q. v.] on its right bank. Zand̲j̲ān is an important station on the great road from Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān to Ḳazwīn and thence to Tiḥrān and Ḵh̲urāsān. Zand̲j̲ān is also at the junction of several other roads: to the north, that to Ardabīl [cf. tārom] and Gīlān (via…

Ḳuban

(1,655 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(called in Nog̲h̲ai Turkish, Ḳuman, in Čerkes, Phs̲h̲iz), one of the four great rivers of the Caucasus (Rion, Kura, Terek and Ḳuban). It is about 450 miles long. It rises near Elburz at a height of 13,930 feet. Its three constituents (Ḵh̲urzuḳ, Ulu-Ḳam, Uč-Ḳulan) join together before reaching the defile through which the Ḳuban enters the plains (at a height of 1075 feet). The Ḳuban at first runs through the wooded outer spurs of the mountains and then, taking a westerly direction, flows through the pla…

Ṣāin-ḳalʿa

(374 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a little town and district in southern Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān, on the right bank of the Ḏj̲ag̲h̲ātū. In the south the boundary runs a little over the river Sāruḳ, a tributary on the right bank of the Ḏj̲ag̲h̲ātū. In the north it is bounded by the district of Ād̲j̲arī, in the east by the province of Ḵh̲amse. The name is derived from the Mongol sain = good. Population: The Turkish Afs̲h̲ar tribe, of which a part had to emigrate to Urmia to make room for the Čārdawrī (Čārdowlī) tribe of Lūr origin (the district of Čardawr on the Seimerre) whom Fatḥ ʿAlī S̲h̲āh brough…

Tīmūr-Tas̲h̲

(716 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, an Ortoḳid, son of Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn Īlg̲h̲āzī of the line of Mārdīn. Al-Malik al-ʿĀlim al-ʿĀdil Ḥisām al-Dīn Tīmūr-Tas̲h̲ was born in 498 (1104) and by the age of 12 (in 512) his father had left him in Aleppo as his temporary deputy. In 515, Tīmūr-Tas̲h̲ was sent to the Sald̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭān Maḥmūd and as a result of this mission Maiyāfāriḳīn [q.v.] was added to the territory of the Ortoḳids. After the death of Īlg̲h̲āzī, his lands were divided up. Tīmūr-Tas̲h̲ received Mārdīn, his brother Sulaimān, …

Sulaimānīya

(2,263 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Sulēmānī), a town and district in southern Kurdistān. A distinction must be made between the ḳaḍā of Sulaimānīya proper (the canton of Sar-činār) and the territory formerly ruled first by hereditary pās̲h̲ās and later by the Ottoman mutaṣṣarifs of Sulaimānīya. The historical region of Sulaimānīya lies between the Persian frontier, the Diyāla [q.v.], the lands that go with Kirkūk [q. v.] and the little Zāb and occupies the group of mountains from which flow rivers to the east (Sīrwān; cf. s̲h̲ahrizūr), the south (ʿAḍaim, q.v.) and the north and northwest (left bank tributar…

Uzun Ḥasan

(4,502 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a ruler of the Turkoman dynasty of the Aḳ-Ḳoyunlu (the founder of the dynasty was Bāyandur), prince of Diyār Bakr from 858, and then (872—882) sovereign of a powerful state comprising Armenia, Mesopotamia and Persia. The stature of Ḥasan Beg b. ʿAlī Beg b. Ḳara ʿOt̲h̲mān (= Ḳara Iläḳ?, reading uncertain), earned him the nickname of Uzun (= “the long”). The reign of Uzun Ḥasan is very important but not well known. Rivalries of the Turkoman tribes. The original fief of the chiefs of the house of Bāyandur and of their Turkoman tribe “of the White Sheep” (Aḳ-Ḳoyunlu) w…

Wak̲h̲ān

(942 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(in Arabie Wak̲h̲k̲h̲ān), a district to the south of the Pāmīr [q. v.]. Wak̲h̲ān is a long and narrow valley which runs from east to west and is watered by the upper course of the Oxus (Pand̲j̲a) and by the river Wak̲h̲ān-daryā, which is the most southern source of the Oxus [cf. amū-daryā]. The length of Wak̲h̲ān along the Oxus is 67 miles and of the Wak̲h̲ān-daryā (from Langar-kis̲h̲ to the Wak̲h̲d̲j̲īr pass) 113 miles, Afg̲h̲an sources put the distance from Is̲h̲kās̲h̲im to Sarḥadd at 66 kurōh = 22 farsak̲h̲s. To the south of Wak̲h̲ān rises the wall of the Hindū-Kus̲h̲ through whic…

Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab

(451 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a town in Buk̲h̲āra, also called Nasaf by the Arab geographers (cf. the similar evolution of Nashāwa from Nak̲h̲čawan). The town lay in the valley of the Kas̲h̲ka-Daryā, cf. Ibn Ḥawḳal, p. 376: Kas̲h̲k-rūd̲h̲, which runs southwards parallel to the Zarafs̲h̲ān (river of Samarḳand) and runs towards the Amū-Daryā [q. v.] but before joining it disappears in the sands. Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab lay on the road joining Buk̲h̲ārā to Balk̲h̲ 4 days’ journey from the former and eight from the latter (cf. Muḳaddasī, p. 344). In the time of Iṣṭak̲h̲rī (p. 325) the town consisted only of one quarter ( rabaḍ) and a …

S̲h̲ekkī

(2,391 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a district in Eastern Transcaucasia. In Armenian it is called S̲h̲akhē, in Georgian S̲h̲akha (and S̲h̲akik̲h̲?); the Arabs write S̲h̲akkai = S̲h̲akhē (Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih, p. 123, Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, p 183, Balād̲h̲urī, p. 206), S̲h̲akkī (Yāḳūt, iii. 311), S̲h̲akkan (Ibn al-Faḳīh, p. 293, Balād̲h̲urī, p. 194), S̲h̲akīn (Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, ii. 68). The usual boundaries of S̲h̲ekkī were: on the east, the Gök-čai which separates it from S̲h̲īrwān [q. v.] proper; on the west, the Alazan (Turk. Ḳani̊ḳ?) and its left tributary the Ḳas̲h̲ḳa-čai, which separa…

Lūlī

(2,648 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, one of the names for gipsies in Persia; parallel forms are: in Persian, lūrī, lōrī (Farhang-i Ḏj̲ahāngīrī); in Balūčī, lōrī (Denys Bray, Census of Baluchistan, 1911, iv. 143, gives the popular etymology from lōṛ = “lot, share”). The name lūlī is first found in a legend relating to the reign of Bahrām Gūr (420—438 a. d.). At the request of this Sāsānian King, who wished to amuse his subjects, the Indian king S̲h̲angal (?) sent to Persia 4,000 (12,000) Indian musicians. Ḥamza (350 = 961), Berlin-Kaviani, p. 38, calls them al-Zuṭṭ [q. v.], Firdawsī (M…

Tiyūl

(1,889 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a term used in the administrative system of Persia (the usual pronunciation tuyūl is due to a false assimilation to Arabic plurals of the type fuʿūl; in the same way Chardin’s translation “perpetual” is due to an erroneous derivation from the Arabic ṭawīl “long”). The tiyūl (at least in the xixth century and in principle) is the authorisation granted by the government to an individual to levy his salary or pension directly on the taxes which a village or group of villagers has to pay the treasury. In its simple form the tiyūl was a kind of guarantee to secure the payment of the pensio…

Marand

(1,492 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(i.), a town in the Persian province of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲an. Position. The town lies about 40 miles N. of Tabrīz, halfway between it and the Araxes (it is 42 miles from Marand to Ḏj̲ulfā). The road ¶ from Tabrīz to Ḵh̲oi also branches off at Marand. A shorter road from Tabrīz to Ḵh̲oi follows the north bank of Lake Urmia and crosses the Mis̲h̲owdag̲h̲ range by the pass between Tasūd̲j̲ [q.v.] and Ḍiyā al-Dīn. Marand, which is surrounded by many gardens, occupies the eastern corner of a rather beautiful plain, about ten miles broad a…

Sunḳur

(552 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Sonḳor), a canton between Dainawar [q. v.] and Senna [q. v.], a dependency of Kirmans̲h̲āh. Lying on the road between Dainawar and Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān it must correspond approximately to the first marḥala on the stretch from Dainawar to Sīsar, the name of which is read al-Ḏj̲ārbā (Muḳaddasī, p. 382), Ḵh̲arbārd̲j̲ān (Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih, p. 119; Ḳudāma, p. 212) etc. which was 7 farsak̲h̲s from Dainawar (the actual distance between the present ruins of Dainawar and Sunḳur is however not more than 15 miles). Sunḳur might therefore…

Mākū

(3,276 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a k̲h̲ānate in the Persian province of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. Mākū occupies the N. W. extremity of Persia and forms an enclave between Turkey (the old sand̲j̲aḳ of Bāyazīd) and Transcaucasia. In the west the frontier with Turkey follows the heights which continue the line of Zagros in the direction of Ararat. The frontier then crosses a plain stretching to the south of this mountain (valley of the Ṣari̊-ṣu) and runs over the saddle between Great and Little Ararat. Down to 1920 Great Ararat formed the fronti…

Sarpul-i Zohāb

(489 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(“bridgehead of Zohāb”), a place on the way to Zagros on the great Bag̲h̲dād-Kirmāns̲h̲āh road, taking its name from the stone bridge of two arches over the river Alwand, a tributary on the left bank of the ¶ Diyāla. Sarpul now consists simply of a little fort ( ḳūr-k̲h̲āna = “arsenal”) in which the governor of Zohāb lives (the post is regularly filled by the chief of the tribe of Gūrān), a caravanserai, a garden of cypress and about 40 houses. The old town of Zohāb about 4 hours to the north is now in ruins. To the east behind the cliffs of …

Senna

(4,575 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
is written Sinna or Sinandid̲j̲ ( did̲j̲ = diz “castle, fort”). The form Sihna leading to confusion with Ṣaḥna [q. v.] is wrong. 1. Capital of the Persian province of Kurdistān, the ancient seat of the wālīs of Ardilān [q. v.]. For the period before the building of the present town see the article sīsar. Under the year 988 (1580) the S̲h̲araf-nāme (i. 88) speaks of a fief of Tīmūr-Ḵh̲ān, Ardilān, including Ḥasanābād, Sīna, etc., but the historian of Senna attributes to Sulaimān-Ḵh̲ān the building of the modern town on the site of a ruin already there. Acc…

Urmiya

(5,805 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a district and town in the Persian province of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. The name. The Syrians write Urmiyā, the Armenians Ormi, the Arabs Urmiya, the Persians Urūmī, the Turks Urūmīye or Rūmīye (through a fanciful derivation from Rūm “Byzantium, Turkey”). The name is of uncertain, non-Iranian origin. Assyrian sources mention a place called Urmeiate in the land of Mann in the vicinity of the Lake of Urmiya (cf. Streck, in Z.A., xiv. 140; Belck, Das Reich der Mannäer, in Verhandl. d. Berl. Gesell. f. Anthrop., 1894, and Minorsky, Kelas̲h̲in etc., in Zap., xxiv. [1917], 170). On the other ha…

Rūyān

(1,284 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a district comprising the western half of Māzandarān [q. v.]. Iranian tradition. According to Darmesteter, Avesta, ii. 416, Rūyān corresponds to the mountain called Raodita (“reddish”) in Yas̲h̲t, 19, 2, and Rōyis̲h̲n-ōmand in Bundahis̲h̲n, xii. 2, 27 (transl. West, p. 34). Bīrūnī, Chronologie, ed. Sachau, p. 220, makes Rūyān the scene of the exploit of the archer Āris̲h̲ (cf. Ẓahīr al-Dīn, p. 18 [ Yas̲h̲t,8, 6, in this connection mentions the hill Aryō-xs̲h̲nθa]). In the letter addressed to the mobad Tansar by king *Gus̲h̲nasps̲h̲āh (iiird century a.d.?), the latter claims to b…

Lār

(2,283 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
1. Capital of the district of Lāristān, to the southeast of Fārs. Very little is known of Lāristān and its early history. The country appears to correspond to the land of the dragon Haftān-bōk̲h̲t which was killed by Ardas̲h̲īr Pāpakān. According to Persian legend, Ardas̲h̲īr’s adversary lived in the village of Alār in the rustāḳ of Kōd̲j̲arān which was one of the maritime rustāḳs ( rasātīḳ al-sīf) of the province Ardas̲h̲īr-Ḵh̲urra (Ṭabarī, i. 820); Nöldeke in his translation of the Kārnāmak (p. 50) gives the variants Gulār (?) and Kōčārān; the S̲h̲āh-nāme, ed. Mohl, v. 308: Kud̲j̲ār…

S̲h̲ūlistān

(1,668 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, “Country of the S̲h̲ūl’, a district ( bulūk) in the province of Fārs. Three epochs must be distinguished in the history of the district: one before the arrival of the S̲h̲ūl, the period of their rule (from the viith/xiiith centuries), and the period of its occupation by the Mamassanī Lūrs about the beginning of the xiith/xviiith century. During the Sāsānid period the district was included in the kūra of S̲h̲āpūr-k̲h̲ūra. The founding of its capital Nawbandagan (Nawband̲j̲ān) is attributed to S̲h̲āpūr I. This important town situated on the road from Fārs to Ḵh̲…

Laz

(2,446 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a people of South Caucasian stock (Iberic, “Georgian”) now dwelling in the southeast corner of the shores of the Black Sea. The ancient history of the Laz is complicated by the uncertainty which reigns in the ethnical nomenclature of the Caucasus generally; the same names in the course of centuries are applied to différents units (or groups). The fact that the name Phasis was applied to the Rion, to the Čorok̲h̲ (the ancient Akampsis) and even to the sources of the Araxes also creates difficulties. The earliest Greek writers do not mention the Laz. The name Λαξοί, Λᾶξοι is only…

Warāmīn

(1,088 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(or Warām, cf. Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, iv. 918), a town about 40 miles (Yāḳūt, c. 30 mīl) S.S.W. of Ṭeherān, now the capital of the district of Ḵh̲wār-wa-Warāmīn. The plain of Warāmīn watered by canals trom the Ḏj̲ād̲j̲arūd is regarded as the granary of Ṭeherān. The town lies to the south of the great road from Raiy to Ḵh̲urāsān passing via Ḵh̲wār (near Ḳis̲h̲lāḳ?) and Simnān (cf. Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih, p. 22; only in the Mongol period did the road from Sulṭānīya to Ḵh̲urasān run via Raiy-Warāmīn-Ḵh̲wār: Nuzhat al-Ḳulūb, p. 173). On the other hand in the ninth and tenth centuries, Raiy wa…

Lankoran

(560 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Lenkoran), the capital of the district of the same name in the province of Bākū. Lankoran is the Russian pronunciation of the name which was at one time written Langar-kunān (anchorage), or perhaps Langar-kanān (place which pulls out the anchors) which is pronounced Länkärān in Persian and Lankōn in Tālig̲h̲ī The ships of the Bākū-Enzelī [q. v.] line call at Lankoran, which has an open roadstead but at 8 miles N. E. of the town is the island of Sarā, which has an excellent roadstead which shelters the ships in bad weather. In the district of Lankoran, de Morgan found monuments of very…

Sulṭānīya

(1,295 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a town in Persian ʿIrāḳ, about ten miles west of the watershed between the Zand̲j̲ān [q. v.], which runs to the Ḳi̊zi̊l-Üzän and the Abhar, which loses itself in the direction of Ṭeherān. The old Persian name of the canton of Sulṭānīya was S̲h̲āhrūyāz. It was originally a dependency of Ḳazwīn. The Mongols called this district Ḳung̲h̲ur-ölöng (“the prairie of the Alezans”: there is still a village called “Öläng” S.E. of Sulṭānīya). Sulṭānīya is about 5,000-5,500 feet above sea-level. The coolne…

Wān

(2,087 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a town in Turkey on the Armenian plateau on the eastern shore of Lake Wān. The name Wān is not found in the Arabic sources which deal with the Muslim conquest. Lake Wān is usually named by the Arabs after the towns on the northern shore, Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲ and Ak̲h̲lāṭ. Ibn Ḥawḳal alone (p. 250) mentions the Artsrunid Ibn Dairānī, lord of Zawazān, of Wān and Wosṭān. Yāḳūt, iv. 895, mentions a fortress of Wān but makes it a dependency of Erzerum and locates it between Ak̲h̲lāṭ and Tiflis (?). For the Muslim conquest of Armenia see that article. The important fact is the campaign of Bug̲h̲ā…
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