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Muṣḥaf

(1,600 words)

Author(s): Motzki, Harald
A non-qurʾānic term (pl. maṣāḥif) denoting the written corpus of the Qurʾān; in both classical and modern contexts this term creates a theological distinction between the individual's copy of the Qurʾān and the hypostatized notion of God's speech (q.v.; see also heavenly book; preserved tablet; word of god; book). The term stems from the same root as the word ṣuḥuf, “pages, books,” which the Qurʾān sometimes uses for documents of superhuman origin (for lexicographical details see Burton, Muṣḥaf, 668-9; see also instruments; writing and writing materials). Several issues are conn…

Bridewealth

(837 words)

Author(s): Motzki, Harald
The obligatory payment of a sum of money by the groom to the bride as stipulated in the marriage contract, a sum which in turn becomes her property. Modern English usage has shown a preference for the term bridewealth or marriage payment over the earlier term “dowry” (cf. Encyclopaedia Britannica 1996, s.v. “bridewealth” and “dowry”). In the Qurʾān three different words are used for the concept: ajr (reward), farīḍa (legal obligation) and ṣaduqa (nuptial gift). Several aspects of bridewealth are treated in the Qurʾān: (1) The payment of bridewealth is a prerequisite of…

Nāmūs

(1,004 words)

Author(s): Motzki, Harald
Term found in early Muslim traditions on the Prophet's life ( sīra, see sīra and the qurʾān ), but not explicitly mentioned in the Qurʾān. Its original meaning was “the revealed law.” The word was later interpreted as a designation for the angel Gabriel (q.v.; Jibrīl). In an early Arabic translation of a gospel fragment, the Greek expression en tō nomō autōn ( John 15:25), which means “the law of the Jews,” i.e. the Torah (q.v.), is rendered as fī l-nāmūs (Ibn Isḥāq, Sīra, 150). This rendering is based on a Palestinian Syriac translation of the gospel (q.v.; Guillaume, Version, 292; see …

ʿAmr b. Dīnār

(895 words)

Author(s): Motzki, Harald
Abū Muḥammad al-Athram (“the gap-toothed”) ʿ Amr b. Dīnār (c. 46–126/666–744) was a Meccan religious scholar and a mawlā (client) of the Banū Madhḥij or the Banū Jumaḥ. He became the leading scholar of Mecca following the death of ʿAṭāʾ b. Abī Rabāḥ (d. 115/733), and seems to have held the post of muftī of Mecca under the Umayyads during the last years of his life. He was highly regarded as a scholar. Very positive assessments of him are transmitted from his teachers Ṭāwūs b. Kaysān (d. 101/719–20) and ʿAṭāʾ, and his peers Ibn Abī Najīḥ (d. 131/74…
Date: 2019-08-29

ʿAṭāʾ b. Abī Rabāḥ

(699 words)

Author(s): Motzki, Harald
Abū Muḥammad ʿAṭāʾ b. Abī Rabāḥ (25 or 27–115 or 114/646 or 648–733 or 732) was a Meccan scholar known for his knowledge of legal and ritual matters and his transmission of ḥadīths. He was born in Yemen to black parents and died in Mecca. As a mawlā (client) of the Qurashī family of Abū Khuthaym al-Fihrī, ʿAṭāʾ grew up in Mecca and began work as a teacher of the Qurʾān. Over time he gained renown in the field of jurisprudence (fiqh) and was considered the leading Meccan scholar of his time. For some years he held the position of official muftī of Mecca, on behalf of the Umayyads. His transmission of ḥadīt…
Date: 2019-08-29

ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-Ṣanʿānī

(1,261 words)

Author(s): Motzki, Harald
ʿAbd al-Razzāq b. Hammām b. Nāfiʿ al-Ṣanʿānī, Abū Bakr al-Yamanī al-Ḥimyarī, was a Yemeni scholar who lived from 126/744 to the middle of Shawwāl 211/January 827. The nisba al-Ḥimyarī indicates that he was a mawlā of the Banū Ḥimyar, reportedly of Persian origin (min al-abnāʾ). His father was also a learned man and traditionist. ʿAbd al-Razzāq received his training as a scholar in Ṣanʿāʾ, where he studied for about eight years with Maʿmar b. Rāshid (d. 153/770), himself a Basran who had settled in Ṣanʿāʾ after studying in Basra, Medina, a…
Date: 2019-08-29

Ibn Jurayj

(1,071 words)

Author(s): Motzki, Harald
ʿAbd al-Malik b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Ibn Jurayj was an early Meccan scholar. According to the sources he was born in the city in 80/699 and died in 150/768. His grandfather Jurayj (George) had been a slave of Byzantine origin who belonged to a woman of the Meccan Khālid b. Asīd clan, part of the Banū Umayya of Quraysh. Either Jurayj or his son was set free, and thus became a client (mawlā) of this clan, a legal status that their offspring inherited. When he was about fifteen years old and able to recite the Qurʾān, Ibn Jurayj was accepted as a student in the circle of the Meccan sc…
Date: 2019-08-29

Waiting Period

(914 words)

Author(s): Motzki, Harald
The period that must be observed by a married couple after separation. Waiting periods are known in many cultures. Within the Qurʾān this concept is expressed by two Arabic words: tarabbaṣa or tarabbuṣ, literally “waiting,” and by ʿidda, literally “number.” The first word appears in q 2:226, 228, 234 and seems to be the earlier expression because the verses in which the term ʿidda is used ( q 33:49; 65:1, 4) answer questions that must have been raised from rules stipulated in q 2 (see law and the qurʾān ). The clear relation between the two groups of verses shows that the word ʿidda in this conte…

Chastity

(1,036 words)

Author(s): Motzki, Harald
Avoidance of illicit sexual intercourse. Within the Qurʾān, this concept is generally expressed by the Arabic verb aḥṣana, its participles and the verbal noun taḥaṣṣun. The original meaning of the fourth form of the verb is “to protect or preserve something or someone,” in the fifth form “to protect oneself” (Lane, 586). Other verbs used to convey this idea are ḥafiẓa (to protect) and istaʿaffa (to abstain). The special meaning of the concept can be discerned by a comparison of qurʾānic verses in which the word, its synonyms or antonyms occur. There are transit…

Marriage and Divorce

(2,855 words)

Author(s): Motzki, Harald
The social institution through which a man and a woman are joined in a social and legal dependence for the purpose of forming and maintaining a family (q.v.), and the regulated dissolution of such a union. Both marriage and divorce are legal issues extensively dealt with in the Qurʾān (see law and the qurʾān ). Marriage ¶ between a man and a woman is called nikāḥ. In most cases, the verb nakaḥa, “to marry,” is used to denote men marrying women, but in one case, also women marrying men. Giving a woman away in marriage is ankaḥa when there is mention of a father or guardian (see guardianship ), zawwaja w…

Tradition

(8,661 words)

Author(s): Baumann, Martin | Hezser, Catherine | Liss, Hanna | Schröter, Jens | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In general usage, tradition (from Lat. transdare/ tradere, “hand on, transmit”) connotes retention and safeguarding, understood as a conservative handing down of mores, customs, norms, rules, and knowledge. The emphasis is on continuity with the past. Jan Assmann interprets tradition as an exemplary case of “cultural memory,” an enduring cultural construction of identity. In religions appeal to tradition is a prominent element justifying interpretations, practices, clai…

Tradition

(7,687 words)

Author(s): Baumann, Martin | Hezser, Catherine | Liss, Hanna | Schröter, Jens | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Im allg. Sprachgebrauch ist »T.« (lat. transdare, »weiterreichen, übergeben, überliefern«) als ein Festhalten und Bewahren konnotiert; als ein konservierendes Weiterreichen von Sitten, Bräuchen, Normen, Regeln und Wissen verstanden. Im Vordergrund steht der Aspekt der Kontinuität von Hergebrachtem. Jan Assmann interpretiert T. als einen exemplarischen Fall des »kulturellen Gedächtnisses«, als eine auf Dauer gestellte kulturelle Konstruktion von Identit…

Education

(15,718 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian | Zenkert, Georg | Harich-Schwarzbauer, Henriette | Fox, Michael V. | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Philosophy – III. Greco-Roman Antiquity – IV. Bible – V. Church History – VI. Ethics – VII. Practical Theology and Pedagogy – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam I. Concept Traditionally, “education” has denoted the intentional interaction of adults with the younger generation in order-usually-to influence them positively; whether it makes sense to speak of education when negative goals are deliberately pursued is …