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(1,575 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
(i.e., “champion of the people”) is the name of two local Sald̲j̲ūḳ rulers of the Artuḳid dynasty who attained power in northern Mesopotamia. 1. Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn Īlg̲h̲āzī I b. Artuḳ . He was first of all a supporter of his brother-in-law Tutus̲h̲ in his eventful struggle for the throne of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire of Persia. After Tutus̲h̲’s defeat and death (488/1095) he withdrew to Jerusalem, which he had received as a fief from Tutus̲h̲ jointly with his brother Suḳmān. The two brothers had, however, after …


(1,156 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Mantran, R.
, muṣṭafā b. aḥmad b. ʿabd al-mawlā čelebi , one of the most outstanding representatives of Turkish literature of the 16th century. Born at Gallipoli in 948/1541, from the age of 10 he studied under Surūrī, great expert in Persian language and literature, and then under the Arab poet Muḥyi ’l-Dīn. In 965/1557 he presented to the heir-apparent Selīm his work entitled Mihr u-Māh , a step which determined his future career (see Dozy, Cat . cod . or. bibl . Acad . Lugd . Batavae , ii, 128). He became a member of the circle of his fellow-citizen Muṣṭafā, tutor to…

Aḳ Ḥiṣārī

(654 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Schacht, J.
, nisba of several authors originating from one of the places called Aḳ Ḥisār. To Aḳ Ḥiṣār in Aydi̊n belong: (a) Ilyās b. ʿIsā, commonly called, ibn ʿīsā b. mad̲j̲d al-dīn , author of a Turkish book of prophecies ( Kas̲h̲f-i Rumūz-i Kunūz ) which, composed in 965/1557-8 when the Ottomans had reached the summit of their power, foretold the continuation of their empire until the end of the world and, from the numerical value of the letters of proper names, predicted the fate of the nation until the year 2035 A.H. (Cf. Pertsch, Cat . Berlin , No. 45, 9; Krafft, Cat. Vienna Acad ., No. 301; Flügel, Cat. Vie…

Aḳ Ḥiṣār

(568 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Babinger, Fr.
(T. "white castle"), name of several towns. 1. The best known is Aḳ Ḥiṣār in Western Anatolia, formerly in the wilāyet of Aydi̊n, since 1921 in that of Manisa, situated in a plain near the left bank of the river Gördük (a sub-tributary of the Gediz), 115 m. above sea level. Known as Thyatira (see Pauly-Wissowa, s.v.) in antiquity and Byzantine times, it owes its Turkish name to the fortress on a neighbouring hill. Annexed by the Ottomans in 784/1382, it was lost again during the disorders which followed Tīmūr’s invasion, and recaptured from the rebel Ḏj̲unavd [ q.v.] by Ḵh̲alīl Yak̲h̲s̲h̲ī B…

Aya Sofya

(4,297 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Taeschner, F.
, the largest mosque in Constantinople (Istanbul), and at one time the leading Metropolitan Church of Eastern Christendom. It was known, generally as ʿH Mεγάλη ’Εκκλησία up to 1453, having been called Σοφία (without the article) around 400 A.D., and since the 5th century, ʿH ‘Αγία Σοφία According to the most recent research, the original Aya Sofya was not built by Constantine the Great, but, in accordance with his last wishes, by his son, Constantius, after the latter’s victory over his brother-in-law Licinius. It was then built in the shape…

Aḥmad Iḥsān

(467 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Lewis, G.L.
( Ahmet ihsan tokgöz ), Turkish author and translator, was born in Erzurum on 24 Ḏh̲ū’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1285/7 April 1869. Passing out from the school of administration ( Mülkiyye ) at the age of 17, he was appointed interpreter to the Commander-in-Chief of the artillery, but soon abandoned this post, despite strong family opposition, to become a journalist. At the age of 18 he founded a shortlived fortnightly, ʿUmrān , and at the same time embarked on his career as a translator of French novels, including many of the works of Jules Verne and A…