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Ḥamdūn al-Ḳassār

(226 words)

Author(s): Smith, M.
, Ḥamdūn b. Aḥmad b. ʿUmāra Abū Ṣāliḥ al-Ḳaṣṣār, a celebrated Ṣūfī and learned divine, was a follower of Sufyān al-T̲h̲awrī [ q.v.] and the chief of the Malāmatīs (who incurred blame by concealing their good deeds, in order to avoid self-conceit). He lived and taught in Nīs̲h̲āpūr, where he died in 271/884, and was buried in the cemetery of Hīra. Among his associates were Abū Turāb al-Nak̲h̲s̲h̲abī, ʿAlī Naṣrābādī and Abū ʿAlī al-T̲h̲aḳafī. His followers formed a sect of Ṣūfīs called Ḳaṣṣārīs or Ḥamdūnīs: among his pupils was ʿAbd Allāh Mubārak. He taught asceticism and also tolerance …

al-Bisṭāmī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(182 words)

Author(s): Smith, M.
b. muḥammad b. ʿalī b. aḥmad al-ḥanafī al-ḥurūfī was born in Antioch and appears to have witnessed the sack of Aleppo, by Tīmūr, in 803/1400. He studied in Cairo and went to Bursa, then the Ottoman capital and imperial residence. There he gained the favour of Sulṭān Murād II, a patron of learning, to whom several of his works are dedicated; there he died in 858/1454. He was a mystic, belonging, as his name indicates, to the Ḥurūfī [ q.v.] order of dervishes, who attributed a mystical signifcance to the letters of the alphabet and to combinations of these (cf. his Kas̲h̲f Asrār al-Ḥurūf and his S̲h̲a…

D̲h̲u ’l-Nūn, Abu ’l-Fayḍ

(599 words)

Author(s): Smith, M.
T̲h̲awbān b. Ibrāhīm al-Miṣrī . This early Ṣūfī was born at Ik̲h̲mīm, in Upper Egypt, about 180/796. His father was a Nubian and D̲h̲u ’l-Nūn was said to have been a freedman. He made some study of medicine and also of alchemy and magic and he must ¶ have been influenced by Hellenistic teaching. Saʿdūn of Cairo is mentioned as his teacher and spiritual director. He travelled to Mecca and Damascus and visited the ascetics at Lubbān, S. of Antioch; it was on his travels that he learnt to become a master of asceticism and self-discipline. He met with hostility from the Muʿtazila [ q.v.] because he up…

al-Fuḍayl b. ʿIyāḍ

(225 words)

Author(s): Smith, M.
, Abū ʿAlī al-Tālaḳānī, of ¶ the tribe of Tamīmī, an early Ṣūfī, disciple of Sufyān al-T̲h̲awrī, was born in Samarḳand, grew up in Abiward, and in his youth was a highway robber. After his conversion, he betook himself to the study of Ḥadīt̲h̲ at Kūfa. He was summoned to give ascetic addresses to Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd, who called him “The chief of the Muslims”. He settled in Mecca and died there 187/803. Mentioned frequently as a transmitter of Traditions, he was also a noted ascetic and advocate of other-worldliness, known as one who lived with God. “The servant’s fear…

Ḥamdūn al-Ḳaṣṣār

(234 words)

Author(s): Smith, M.
, Ḥamdūn b. Aḥmad b. ʿUmāra, Abū Ṣāliḥ al-Ḳaṣṣār, célèbre Ṣūfī et savant devin, était un partisan de Sufyān al-T̲h̲awrī [ q.v.] et le chef des Malāmatiyya (qui encouraient le blâme, en dissimulant leurs bonnes actions, afin d’éviter l’orgueil). Il vécut et enseigna à Nīs̲h̲āpūr, où il mourut en 271/884, et fut enterré au cimetière de Ḥīra. Parmi ses associés, se trouvaient Abū Turāb al-Nak̲h̲s̲h̲abī, ʿAlī Naṣrābādī et Abū ʿAlī al-T̲h̲aḳafī. Ses partisans, parmi lesquels on compte ʿAbd Allāh Mubārak, formaient une secte de Ṣūfis appelée Ḳaṣṣāris ou Ḥamdūnis. Il préconisa l’ascétisme …

al-Bisṭāmī

(187 words)

Author(s): Smith, M.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Aḥmad al-Ḥanafī al-Ḥurūfī, naquit à Antioche, et il semble qu’il ait assisté au sac de Ḥalab par Tīmūr, en 803/1400. Il fit ses études au Caire, puis se rendit à Brousse qui était alors la capitale et la résidence impériale des Ottomans. Il s’y acquit la faveur du sultan Murād II, mécène des lettrés, à qui plusieurs de ses ouvrages sont dédiés; il y mourut en 858/1454. C’était un mystique qui appartenait, comme son nom l’indique, à l’ordre des derviches Ḥurūfīs [ q.v.], qui attribuait une signification mystique aux lettres de l’alphabet et à le…

al-Fuḍayl b. ʿIyāḍ

(246 words)

Author(s): Smith, M.
, Abū ʿAlī al-Tālaḳānī, de la tribu des Tamīm, est un des premiers ṣūfis, disciple de Sufyān al-T̲h̲awrī. Né à Samarḳand, il passa son enfance à Abīward et, dans sa jeunesse, fut bandit de grand chemin. Après sa conversion, il s’adonna à l’étude du ḥadīt̲h̲ à Kūfa. Il fut mandé auprès de Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd pour lui faire des exposés sur l’ascétisme, et celui-ci l’appelait «le chef des Musulmans». Il s’installa à la Mekke et y mourut en 187/803.…

Ḏh̲ū l-Nūn, Abū l-Fayḍ

(639 words)

Author(s): Smith, M.
T̲h̲awbān b. Ibrāhīm al-Miṣrī, un des premiers Ṣūfis; il naquit à Ik̲h̲mīm. en Haute-Égypte, vers 180/796. Son père était nubien, et on disait de Ḏh̲ū l-Nūn qu’il était un affranchi. Il fit quelques études de médecine ainsi que d’alchimie et de magie, et dut subir l’influence de l’ense…

Macaulay

(152 words)

Author(s): Smith, M.
[English Version] Macaulay, Zachary (2.4.1768 Inverary – 13.5.1838 London). Als Sohn eines Pastors der Church of Scotland arbeitete M. seit seinem 16. Lebensjahr als Buchhalter auf einem Anwesen in Jamaika. Seine dortigen Erfahrungen bewirkten eine lebenslange Abscheu gegenüber der Sklaverei. 1793 nahm M. eine Stellung in der neuen Kolonie von Sierra Leone an, die als Ansiedlung befreiter Sklaven gegründet worden war. Er…

Rābiʿa al-ʿAdawiyya al-Ḳaysiyya

(2,288 words)

Author(s): Smith, M. | Pellat, Ch.
(double nisba parce qu’on la rattache à une famille, les Āl ʿAtīk, des ʿAdī b. Ḳays (de Ḳurays̲h̲; voir Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, tab. 35), célèbre mystique et sainte de Baṣra. On ne peut aller jusqu’à révoquer en doute son existence historique, mais les traditions concernant sa vie et ses enseignements comportent une très large part de légende qu’il n’est guère possible aujourd’hui de distinguer des …