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Matn

(207 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), a term with various meanings, of which that of text of a ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.] is to be noted. Matn already appears with the sense of “text” in pre-Islamic poetry, and has been used thus in Arabic literature up to the present day. It denotes especially the text of a book as distinguished from its oral explanation or its written or printed commentary. In connection with traditions, matn denotes the content or text itself, in distinction from the chain of traditionists who have handed it down ( isnād [ q.v.]). The choice of this term to designate the body of a ḥadīt̲h̲ led Goldziher to put forwar…

Rasūl

(783 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a., pl. rusul ), messenger, apostle. 1. In the religious sense. According to the Ḳurʾān, there is a close relation between the apostle and his people ( umma [ q.v.]). To each umma God sends only one apostle (sūra X, 48, XVI, 38 cf. XXIII, 46, XL, 5). These statements are parallel to those which mention the witness whom God will take from each umma at the Day of Judgment (IV, 45, XXVIII, 75 and cf. the descriptions of the rasūl who will cross the bridge to the other world at the head of his umma: al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Ad̲h̲ān , bāb 129; Riḳāḳ , bāb 52). Muḥammad is sent to a people to whom Allāh has not ye…

Amīr al-Muslimīn

(108 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, i.e. lord of the Muslims, a title which the Almoravids first assumed, in contra-distinction to Amīr al-Muʾminīn [ q.v.]. The latter title was born by the independent dynasties; the Almoravids, however, recognized the supremacy of the ʿAbbāsids and did not wish to arrogate to themselves this title of the Caliphs. So they established a kind of sub-caliphate with a title of their own. Afterwards the African and Spanish princes bore either the one or the other of these titles, according as they sought after the independent caliphate or recognized any supremacy. (A.J. Wensinck) Bibliogr…

K̲h̲id̲h̲lān

(437 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), nomen actionis from the root k̲h̲-d̲h̲-l , “to leave in the lurch”, a technical term in Islamic theology, applied exclusively to Allāh when He withdraws His grace or help from man. The disputes regarding it first appear in connection with the quarrel over ḳadar [ q.v.]. A starting point is found in Sūra III, 154/160: “but if He abandon you to yourselves (

Samūm

(588 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), yielding Fr. simoun and Eng. simoom, a hot wind of the desert accompanied by whirlwinds of dust and sand, and set in motion by moving depressions which form within the trade winds or calm zones of the high, subtropical depressions. This wind is especially characteristic of the Sahara, in Egypt, in Arabia and in Mesopotamia. The word occurs in three passages of the Ḳurʾān, where it is, however, not especially applied to the wind. In sūra XV, 27, it is said that the Ḏ…

Mīkāl

(994 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, the archangel Michael [see also malāʾika ], whose name occurs once in the Ḳurʾān, viz. in II, 92: “Whosoever is an enemy to God, or his angels, or his apostles, or to Gabriel or to Michael, verily God is an enemy to the unbelievers.” In explanation of this verse two stories are told. According to the first, the Jews, wishing to test the veracity of the mission of Muḥammad, asked him several questions, to all of which he gave the true answer. Finally, they asked him, …

Rahbāniyya

(503 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), monasticism. The term is derived from rāhib [ q.v.] “anchovite, monk”; it occurs in the Ḳurʾān once only, in a complicated passage (sūra LVII, 27) that has given rise to divergent interpretations: “And we put in the hearts of those who followed Jesus, compassion and mercy, and the monastic state ( rahbāniyya ); they instituted the same (we did not prescribe it to them) only out of a desire to please God. Yet they observed not the same as it ought truly to have been observed. And we gave unto such of them as believed, their reward; but many of them have been doers of evil.” According to some of …

Muslim

(261 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), the active participle of the IVth form of the root s-l-m, designates the person who professes Islam [ q.v.], islāmī being exclusively used today for what is relative to Islam and having, as a corresponding term, the forms in western languages islamic , islamique , islamisch , etc. However, in the 4th/10th century the theologian al-As̲h̲ʿarī [ q.v.] called his heresiographical work Maḳālāt al-Islāmiyyīn in order not to prejudice the question which of the various sects could or could not be called muslim . Whilst forms like mohammedan , mahométan , maomettano ,…

Muṭlaḳ

(386 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A .J.
(a.), part. pass. IV from ṭ-l-ḳ, “to loose the bond ( ḳaid) of an animal, so as to let it free” (e.g. Muslim, Ḏj̲ihād, trad. 46; Abū Dāwūd, Ḏj̲ihād, bāb 100). The term is also applied ¶ to the loosening of the bowstring (Buk̲h̲ārī, Ḏj̲ihād, b. 170), of the garments, the hair etc. Thence the common meaning absolute, as opposed to restricted ( muḳaiyad), and further the accusative muṭlaḳan “absolutely”. The use of the term is so widely diffused, that a few examples only can be given. In grammar the term mafʿūl muṭlaḳ denotes the absolute object (cognate accusative), i. e. the objectivate…

Zaid b. T̲h̲ābit

(429 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
b. al-Ḍaḥḥāk b. Zaid b. Lawd̲h̲ān b. ʿAmr b. ʿAbd Manāf (or ʿAwf) b. G̲h̲anm b. Mālik b. al-Nad̲j̲d̲j̲īr al-Anṣārī al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ī, one of the Companions of Muḥammad, best known through his part in the editing of the Ḳurʾān. His…

al-Masd̲j̲id al-Aḳṣā

(475 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, the mosque built on the site of the Temple in Jerusalem. The name means “the remotest sanctuary” and is first found in the Ḳurʾān, Sūra xvii. 1: “Praise ʿilm who made his servant journey in the night from the holy place to the remotest sanctuary, which we have surrounded with blessings to show him of our signs”. As was explained in the article isrāʾ [q. v.], the older exegesis refers this verse to the journey to heaven [cf. miʿrād̲j̲] and sees in the name al-Masd̲j̲id al-Aḳṣā a reference to some heavenly place (cf. Sidrat al-Muntahā, Sūra liii. 14). This explanation had however in time to give way to another, according to which the expression is a name of Jerusalem. This explanation is connected with Muḥammad’s “journey in the night” (…

ʿIzrāʾīl

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(in European literature one also finds ʿAzrāʾīl), the name of the angel of death, one of the four archangels (next to Ḏj̲ibrīl, Mīk̲h̲āʾīl, Isrāfīl). The name is perhaps a corruption of which is given by Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenthum, ii. 333, as the name of the prince of Hell. Like Isrāfīl, whose office of trumpet-blower at the last judgment is sometimes given to him, he is of cosmic magnitude; if the water of all the seas and rivers were poured on his head, not a drop would reach the earth. He has a seat ( sarīr) of light in the fourth or seventh heaven, on which one of his feet re…

Sad̲j̲d̲j̲āda

(1,785 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a., plural sad̲j̲id̲j̲id, sad̲j̲ād̲j̲īd, sawād̲j̲id), the carpet on which the ṣalāt is performed. The word is found neither in the Ḳorʾān nor in the canonical Ḥadīt̲h̲; the article itself, however, was known at quite an early period, as may be seen from the traditions about to be mentioned. In the Ḥadīt̲h̲ we are often told how Muḥammad and his followers performed the ṣalāt on the floor of the mosque in Medīna after a heavy shower of rain with the result that their noses and heads came in contact with the mud (e. g. al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Ad̲h̲ān, bāb 135, 151; Muslim, Ṣiyām, trad. 214—216, 218 etc.)…

Firʿawn

(1,457 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(Plur. Farāʿina), Pharaoh. The word is explained by the commentaries on Sūra ii. 46 of the Ḳorʾān as a laḳab or ʿalam of the Amalakite kings, like Kisrā and Ḳaiṣar of the Kings of the Persians and Romans. The verb tafarʿana means “to be arrogant and tyrannous”, hence the Ḳorʾānic Firʿawn is called al-Ḏj̲abbār “the tyrant” by al-Yaʿḳūbī (ed. Houtsma), i. 31. A number of Firʿawns are mentioned in Arabic literature; their number is very differently given. In the Ḳorʾān, however, Firʿawn is always the kfng with whom Mūsā and Hārūn had to deal; the word is here clearly understood as a proper name. The …

al-Awzāʿī

(254 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAmr Abū ʿAmr, a jurist born in Baʿalbekk 88 (757). Later he lived in Damascus and Bairūt. Nothing else is known abut his life, his good character and asceticism are emphasized; he died in his bath in the year 157 (774) and was buried in the Ḳibla of the mosque in Bairūt. — Al-Awzāʿī during his life-time was a star of the first magnitude. He is said to have been the Imām of Syria and even the Mag̲h̲rib and Spain are said to have followed his Mad̲h̲hab. His influence soon declined in favour of that of Abū Ḥanīfa and of Mālik. Hardly any data about hi…

Aʿs̲h̲ā Hamdān

(194 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, properly ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd Allāh, Arab poet, who lived in Kūfa in the second half of the i. (vii.) cent. He was married to a sister of the theologian al-S̲h̲aʿbī, and he, again, had married a sister of al-Aʿs̲h̲ā. The role which he played under ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ is best known. He took part in his campaign against the Turks and was taken captive but escaped with the aid of a Turkish woman whose passions were enflamed for him. When Ibn al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ turned against al-Ḥad̲j̲d…

Kānūn

(172 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, the name of a month, which is found as early as in inscriptions from Palmyra (see S. A. Cook, A Glossary of the Aramaic Inscriptions, s. v.) and corresponds to Marḥes̲h̲wān. It later appears among the Syriac names of the months (see Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syrd., s.v.) as K. ḳed̲ēm or ḳad̲māyā and K. ḥrāy or ḥrāyā. Here the two K. are the ninth and tenth months respectively. Al-Bīrūnī, Kitāb al-Āt̲h̲ār al-bāḳiya, ed. Sachau, p. 60, transcribes the Syriac forms exactly as K. ḳadīm and K. ḥrāy. In Arabic terminology they are called K. al-awwal and K. al-āk̲h̲ir, In the Ḥadīt̲h̲ the former app…

al-Nasafī

(411 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, nisba [cf. nasaf] of several eminent persons of whom the following may be mentioned: I. Abu ’l-Muʿīn Maimūn b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad ... b. Makḥūl ... al-Ḥanafī al-Makḥūlī (d. 508 = 1114), one of the mutakallimūn [q. v.] whose scholastic position is between that of the early period as represented by ʿAbd al-Ḳāhir al-Bag̲h̲dādī [q. v.], who is still endeavouring to find a convenient arrangement and an adequate formulation of the contents of kalām, and the younger mutakallims who have at hand the necessary formulas for ready use. Of his works the following are known to me: 1. Tamhīd li-Ḳawāʿid…

K̲h̲uṭba

(2,038 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), sermon, address by the k̲h̲aṭīb [ q.v.]. The k̲h̲uṭba has a fixed place in Islamic ritual, viz. in the Friday-service, in the celebration of the two festivals, in services held at particular occasions such as an eclipse or excessive drought. On the Friday it precedes the ṣalāt , in all the other services the ṣalāt comes first. A short description of the rules for the k̲h̲uṭba according to al-S̲h̲īrāzī ( Tanbīh , ed. Juynboll, 40), one of the early S̲h̲āfiʿī doctors [ q.v.], may be given here. (a.) One of the conditions for the validity of the Friday service is that it must be…

Ṣabr

(2,521 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), usually rendered "patience, endurance". The significance of this conception can hardly be conveyed in a West European language by a single word, as may be seen from the following. According to the Arabic lexicographers, the root ṣ-b-r , of which ṣabr is the nomen actionis, means to restrain or bind; thence ḳatalahu ṣabr an “to bind and then slay someone”. The slayer and the slain in this case are called ṣābir and maṣbūr respectively. The expression is applied, for example, to martyrs and prisoners of war put to death; in the Ḥadīt̲h̲ often to animals that— c…

Tasnīm

(319 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.). 1. The name of a fountain in Paradise, occurring in the Ḳurʾān, LXXXIII, 27, where it is said that its water will be drunk by the muḳarrabūn “those who are admitted to the divine presence” and that it will be mixed with the drink of the mass of the inhabitants of Paradise. The commentaries are uncertain whether tasnīm is a proper name— which, according to the Lisān al-ʿArab , is inconsistent with its being a diptote—or a derivative from the root s-n-m, a root conveying the meaning of “being high” (cf. sanām “camel’s hump”). In the latte…

Muṭlaḳ

(484 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), passive participle of form IV verb ṭ-l-ḳ , “to loose the bond ( ḳayd ) of an animal, so as to let it free” (e.g. Muslim, D̲j̲ihād , trad. 46; Abū Dāwūd, D̲j̲ihād, bāb 100). The term is also applied to the loosening of the bowstring (al-Buk̲h̲ārī, D̲j̲ihād, bāb 170), of the garments, the hair, etc. Thence the common meaning absolute, as opposed to restricted ( muḳayyad ), and further the accusative muṭlaḳ an “absolutely”. The use of the term is so widely diffused that a few examples only can be given. In grammar, the term mafʿūl muṭlaḳ denotes the absolute object (…

Mawḳif

(236 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), nomen loci from w-ḳ-f “to stand” hence “place of standing”. Of the technical meanings of the term, three may be mentioned here: (a) The place where the wuḳūf [ q.v.] is held during the pilgrimage, viz. ʿArafāt [ q.v.] and Muzdalifa [ q.v.] or D̲j̲amʿ. In well-known traditions, Muḥammad declares that all ʿ Arafāt and all Muzdalifa is mawḳif (Muslim, Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ , trad. 149; Abū Dāwūd, Manāsik , bāb 56, 64, etc.; cf. Wensinck, Handbook of early Muhammadan tradition, s.v. ʿArafa). Snouck Hurgronje ( Het mekkaansche feest , 150 = Verspreide Geschriften , i, 99) ha…

Sutra

(797 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), covering, protection, shelter, especially at the ṣalāt , where sutra means the object which the worshipper places in front of himself or lays in the direction of the ḳibla , whereby he shuts himself off in an imaginary area within which he is not disturbed by human or demoniacal influences. “The fictitious fencing off of an open place of prayer, the sutra, seems to have had among other objectives that of warding off demons” (Wellhausen, Reste 2, 158). In one tradition, the man who deliberately penetrates into this imaginary area is actually called a s̲h̲ayṭān (al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Ṣalāt , bāb

Ḥawḍ

(477 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, the basin at which on the day of the resurrection Muḥammad will meet his community. This idea is not found in the Ḳurʾān, but in Tradition, which supplies a great variety of details of which the following are the more important. Muḥammad is called the precursor ( faraṭ ) of his community On the day of the resurrection the latter, in the first place the poor who have not known the pleasures of life, will join him near the basin. So far as one can judge, the question is one of admittance: Muḥammad pleads with Allāh for hi…

al-Nasāʾī

(356 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. S̲h̲uʿayb b. Baḥr b. Sinān , author of one of the six canonical collections of traditions [see Ḥadīt̲h̲ ], b. 215/830, d. 303/915. Very little is known about him. He is said to have made extensive travels in order to hear traditions, to have settled in Egypt, afterwards in Damascus, and to have died in consequence of ill-treatment to which he was exposed at Damascus or, according to others, at Ramla, in consequence of his feelings in favour of ʿAlī and against t…

K̲h̲abar

(270 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), plural ak̲h̲bār , ak̲h̲ābir , report, piece of information. The word is not used in any special context in the Ḳurʾān. In the ḥadīt̲h̲ it occurs among other passages in the tradition which describes how the d̲j̲inn by eavesdropping obtain information from heaven ( k̲h̲abar min al-samaʾ ) and how they are pelted with fiery meteors to prevent them from doing so (al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Ad̲h̲ān , bāb 105; Muslim, Ṣalāt , tr. 149); al-Tirmid̲h̲ī, Tafsīr , Sūra Ixxii, trad. 1). In his collection al-Buk̲h̲āri has a chapter entitled Ak̲h̲bār al-āḥād , which, as the tard̲j̲ama

Ḥawārī

(459 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, apostle. The word is borrowed from Ethiopie, in which language ḥawāryā has the same meaning (see Nöldeke, Beiträge z . sem . Sprachwissenschaft , 48). The suggested derivations from Arabic, attributing to it the meaning “one who wears white clothing” etc., are incorrect. Tradition delights to endow the earliest Islamic pioneers with foreign bynames which were familiar to the “people of the Book”. Abū Bakr is called al-Ṣiddīḳ , ʿUmar al-Fārūḳ , al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām al-Ḥawārī Moreover, the collective term al-Ḥawāriyyūn occurs, denoting twelve persons …

Miswāk

(764 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), a term denoting the toothbrush as well as the tooth-pick. The more usual word is siwāk (plural suwuk ) which denotes also the act of cleansing the teeth. Neither of the two terms occurs in the Ḳurʾān. In Ḥadīt̲h̲ , miswāk is not used, siwāk, on the other hand, frequently. In order to understand its use, it is necessary to know that the instrument consists of a piece of smooth wood, the end of which is incised so as to make it similar to a brush to some extent. The piece of wood used as a tooth-pick must have been smaller and thinner,…

ʿIzrāʾīl

(1,086 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(in European literature one also finds ʿAzrāʾīl), the name of the an gel of death, one of the four archangels (next to D̲j̲ibrīl, Mīk̲h̲āʾīl, Isrāfīl). Like Isrāfīl, whose office of trumpet-blower at the last judgment is sometimes given to him, he is of cosmic magnitude; if the water of all the seas and rivers were poured on his head, not a drop would reach the earth. He has a seat ( sarīr ) of light in the fourth or seventh heaven, on which one of his feet rests; the other stands on the bridge between paradise and hell. He is however also said to have 70,000 feet. The description of his appearance a…

al-Masd̲j̲id al-Ḥarām

(1,213 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, the name of the Mosque of Mecca. The name is already found in the pre-Islamic period (Horovitz, Koranische Studien , 140-1) in Ḳays b. al-K̲h̲aṭīm, ed. Kowalski, v. 14: “By Allāh, the Lord of the Holy Masd̲j̲id and of that which is covered with Yemen stuffs, which are embroidered with hempen thread” (?). It would be very improbable if a Medinan poet meant by these references anything other than the Meccan sanctuary. The expression is also fairly frequent in the Ḳurʾān after the second Meccan period (Horovitz, op. cit.) and in various connections; it is a grave sin on the part ¶ of the polythei…

Ḳawm

(470 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), plural aḳwām , aḳāwim , aḳāyim , people. The word occurs also in Nabataean, Palmyrene and Ṣafaitic inscriptions in the name of the deity S̲h̲ayʿ al-Ḳawm “support of the people”, see Lidzbarski, Ephemeris für semitische Epigraphik , i, Index s.v. According to some lexicographers, the word applies in the first place to men; evidence for this opinion is afforded by passages from literature where Ḳawm is used in opposition to nisāʾ (women). The term does not primarily suggest the meaning of nation. A man’s Ḳawm are his s̲h̲ī ʿa and his ʿas̲h̲īra . In this limited…

Ṣafar

(210 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, name of the second month of the Islamic year, also called Ṣ al-k̲h̲ayr or Ṣ al-muẓaffar because of its being considered to be unlucky (C. Snouck Hurgronje, The Atchehnese , i, 206; idem, Mekka , ii, 56). The Muslim Tigrē tribes pronounce the name S̲h̲afar, the Achehnese Thapa. According to Wellhausen, in the old Arabian year, Ṣafar comprised a period of two months in which al-Muḥarram (which name, according to this scholar is a Muslim innovation) was included. As a matter of fact, tradition reports that the early Arabians called al-Muḥarram Ṣafar and considered an ʿumra

Witr

(855 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), also watr , a term found in ḥadīt̲h̲ and fiḳh in connection with performance of the ṣalāt or worship and concerned with the odd number of rakʿa s which are performed at night. Witr does not occur in this sense in the Ḳurʾān, but frequendy in ḥadīt̲h̲, which in this case also discloses to us a part of the history of the institution in three stages, itself probably a continuation of the history of the fixing of the daily ṣalāts, as the traditions on witr presuppose the five daily ṣalāts, Some traditions even go so far as to call witr an additional ṣalāt of an obligatory nature (see also below…

Āṣāf b. Barak̲h̲yā

(156 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(Hebrew Āsāf b. Bērek̲h̲yā), name of the alleged wazīr of King Solomon. According to the legend he was Solomon’s confidant, and always had access to him. When the royal consort Ḏj̲arāda was worshipping idols Āṣāf delivered a public address in which he praised the apoştles of God, Solomon among them, but only for the excellent qualities he had manifested in his youth. Solomon in anger at this took him to task, but was reproved for the introduction of idol-worship at the court. This was then done away with and the consort punished; the king became repentant. (A.J. Wensinck) Bibliography Ṭabarī,…

Kunya

(1,146 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), patronymic, an onomastic element composed of Abū (m.) “father” or Umm (f.) “mother” plus a name. We have here a metonymic designation corresponding to a general tendency among primitive peoples to consider an individual’s name as taboo and not to pronounce it unless exceptionally (see J. G. Frazer, The golden bough, ch. xxii). The kunya was therefore accordingly the name which should be used, but in historical times, the original intention here was forgotten, and al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ (see JA [1967], 70, 82), far from seeing here any ¶ connection with sympathetic magic, counts the kunya

S̲h̲awwāl

(284 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, the name of the tenth month of the Muslim lunar year. In the Ḳurʾān (sūra X, 2), four months are mentioned during which, in the year 9/630-1, the Arabs could move in their country without exposing themselves to attacks (cf. “the sacred months” in v. 5). These four months were, according to the commentaries, S̲h̲awwāl, D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda, D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a and Muḥarram. In Ḥadīt̲h̲ , S̲h̲awwāl is therefore among “the months of pilgrimage mentioned in Allāh’s Book” (al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ , bāb 33, 37). In pre-Islamic times, S̲h̲awwāl was considered ill-omened for the conclus…

Nāfīʿ b. al-Azraḳ

(521 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
al-Ḥanafī al-Ḥanẓalī, Abū Rās̲h̲id (said to be the son of a freedman of Greek origin who was a blacksmith; al-Balād̲h̲urī. Futūḥ , 56), K̲h̲arid̲j̲ite who played quite a considerable role in Islamic history as leader of an extremist fraction of that sect known after him as the Azāriḳa [ q.v.] or Azraḳīs, which lived on substantially after his death; he is furthermore said to have laid down their doctrines. The sequence of events in which he was involved is difficult to establish, since there is a certain confusion in the narratives involving him. From them one le…

al-K̲h̲aḍir (al-K̲h̲iḍr)

(4,132 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, the name of a popular figure, who plays a prominent part in legend and story. Al-K̲h̲aḍir is properly an epithet (“the green man”); this was in time forgotten and this explains the secondary form K̲h̲iḍr (approximately “the green”), which in many places has displaced the primary form. (i) In the Ḳurʾān and in oriental legend Legends and stories regarding al-K̲h̲aḍir are primarily associated with the Ḳurʾānic story in Sūra XVIII, 59-81, the outline of which is as follows. Mūsā goes on a journey with his servant ( fatā ), the goal of which is the mad̲j̲maʿ al-baḥrayn . …

Tarāwīḥ

(409 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), pl. of tarwīḥa , the term for ṣalāt s which are performed in the nights of the month of Ramaḍān. Tradition says that Muḥammad held these prayers in high esteem, with the precaution, however, that their performance should not become obligatory (al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Tarāwīḥ , trad. 3). ʿUmar is said to have been the first to assemble behind one ḳāriʾ those who performed their prayers in the mosque of Medina singly or in groups ( loc. cit., trad. 2); he is also said to have preferred the first part of the night for these pious exercises. The religious law recommends the performance of the tarāwīḥ

Āsiya

(253 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
This is the name given by the commentators to Pharaoh’s wife, who is twice (xxviii, 9 and lxvi, 11) mentioned in the Ḳurʾān. She plays the same part as Pharaoh’s daughter in the Bible, so that there is obviously confusion. In the second passage these words are put into her mouth: "My Lord, build me a house with thee in Paradise, and deliver me from Pharaoh and his doings and deliver me from the wicked". In connexion with this passage it is related that Āsiya endured many cruelties at the hands o…

Bāḥīra

(312 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
a she-camel or a ewe with slit ears. The Ḳurʾān and ancient poetry (cf. Ibn His̲h̲ām, 58) show that the ancient Arabs used to carry out certain religions cérémonies with respect to their cattle, which consisted firstly in letting the animal go about loose without making any use of it whatever, and secondly in limiting to males permission to eat its flesh (after it had died). In the varions cases the animais bore special names ( Baḥīra , Sāʾiba , Waṣīla , Ḥāmī ; on these names cf. Wellhausen as cited below). The lexicographers are not quite agreed on the p…

Niyya

(829 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), intention. The acts prescribed by the Islamic s̲h̲arīʿa , obligatory or not, require to be preceded by a declaration by the performer, that he intends to perform such an act. This declaration, pronounced ¶ audibly or mentally, is called niyya . Without it, the act would be bāṭil [ q.v.]. The niyya is required before the performance of the ʿibādāt , such as washing, bathing, prayer, alms, fasting, retreat, pilgrimage, sacrifice. “Ceremonial acts without niyya are not valid”, says al-G̲h̲azālī ( Iḥyāʾ , Cairo 1282, iv, 316). Yet a survey of the opinions of the lawyers regarding the niyya

Isrāfīl

(385 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, the name of an archangel, which is probably to be traced to the Hebrew Serāfīm as is ¶ indicated by the variants Sarāfīl and Sarāfīn ( Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs , vii, 375) The change of liquids is not unusual in such eudings. His size is astounding; while his feet are under the seventh earth, his head reaches up to the pillars of the divine throne. He has four wings: one in the west, one in the east, one with which he covers his body and one as a protection against the majesty of God. He is covered with hair,…

S̲h̲aʿbān

(578 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, name of the eighth month of the Islamic lunar year. In classical ḥadīt̲h̲ it has already its place after Rad̲j̲ab Muḍar. In Indian Islam it has the name of S̲h̲ab-i barāt (see below), the Atchehnese call it Kandūri bu and among the Tigrē tribes of Eritrea it is called Maddagēn , i.e. who follows upon Rad̲j̲ab. In early Arabia, the month of S̲h̲aʿbān (the name may mean “interval”) seems to have corresponded, as to its significance, to Ramaḍān. According to the ḥadīt̲h̲, Muḥammad practised superogatory fasting by preference in S̲h̲aʿbān (al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Ṣawm , bāb 52; Muslim, Ṣiyām

ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Maẓʿūn

(405 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
b. Ḥabīb, Abu ’l-Sāʾib , of the Ḳurays̲h̲ clan of D̲j̲umaḥ, one of the earliest Companions of Muḥammad, the thirteenth man to adopt Islam and brother-in-law of the second caliph ʿUmar b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb. He took part in the hid̲j̲ra to Abyssinia, returned, like some other refugees, on the false news of a reconciliation between Muḥammad and his pagan enemies, and became for some time the client of al-Walīd b. al-Mug̲h̲īra. Soon he renounced this privilege, because he preferred to bear his share in the insults offered to his co-religionists ¶ in Mecca. On a quarrel between ʿUt̲h̲mān and …

ʿAmr

(204 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
b. al-Ahtam al-Tamīmī al-Minkarī, a member of a poetically gifted family; and himself fond of using metre and rhyme. He must have been born shortly before the Hid̲j̲ra; for in the year 9 (630) when he came to Medīna with the embassy of his tribe, he is said to have been a youth. In the year 11 (632) he followed the prophetess Sad̲j̲āḥ, but was later converted to Islām and took part in the wars of conquest. He informed ʿOmar in verse of the capture of Rās̲h̲ahr. — Little of his poetry is preserved; …

Idrīs

(983 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, the name of a man, who is twice mentioned in the Ḳurʾān. Sūra xix. 57 sq.: “Mention Idrīs in the book. Verily he was an upright man, a prophet and we raised him to a high place”. And Sūra xxi. 85, mentions him alorig with Ismāʿīl and Ḏh̲u ’l-Kifl as one of the patient ( ṣābirūn) ones. These passages are not calculated to give any explanation of this character. Even the name was for long a puzzle to orientalists till Nöldeke pointed out that it probably concealed the name Andreas ( Zeitschr. für Assyr., xvii. 84 sq.). That this Andreas who was raised to a high place, is Alexander’s cook wh…

Rabb

(163 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), lord, God, master of a slave. Pre-Islāmic Arabia probably applied this term to its gods or to some of them. In this sense the word corresponds to the terms like Baʿal, Adon in the Semitic languages of the north where rabb means “much, great”. — In one of the oldest sūras (cvi. 3) Allāh is called the “lord of the temple”. Similarly al-Lāt bore the epithet al-Rabba, especially at Ṭāʾif where she was worshipped in the image of a stone or of a rock. — In the Ḳurʾān rabb (especially with the po…

Kaʿba

(8,757 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, the palladium of Islām, situated almost in the centre of the great mosque in Mecca. I. The Kaʿba and its immediate neighbourhood. The name, not originally a proper name, is connected with the cube-like appearance of the building. It is however only like a cube at the first impression; in reality the plan is that of an irreguiar rectangle. The wall facing northeast, in which the door is (the front of the Kaʿba) and the opposite wall (back) are 40 feet long: the two other are about 35 feet long. The height is 50 feet. The Kaʿba is built of layers of the grey stone produced by the hills sur…

Tas̲h̲ahhud

(290 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), infintive V of s̲h̲-h-d, the recitation of the s̲h̲ahāda [q.v.], especially in the ṣalāt. It must, however, be kept in mind that in this case s̲h̲ahāda comprises not only the kalimatāni, but l°. the following formula: “To Allāh belong the blessed salutations and the good prayers”; 2°. the formula: “Hail upon thee, O Prophet, and Allāh’s mercy and His blessing; hail ¶ upon us and upon Allāh’s pious servants”; 3°. the s̲h̲ahāda proper, consisting of the kalimatāni. The above form of tas̲h̲ahhud is in keeping with a tradition on the authority of Ibn ʿAbbās, beginning t…

al-Nasāʾī

(286 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Aḥmad b. S̲h̲uʿaib b. ʿAlī b. Baḥr b. Sinān, author of one of the six canonical collections of traditions [cf. ḥadīt̲h̲], d. 303 (915). Very little is known about him. He is said to have made extensive travels in order to hear traditions, to have settled in Egypt, afterwards in Damascus, and to have died in consequence of ill-treatment to which he was exposed at Damascus or, according to others, at Ramla, in consequence of his feelings in favour of ʿAlī and against the Umaiyads. On account of this u…

Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲

(5,437 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), the pilgrimage to Mecca, ʿArafāt and Minā, the last of the five “pillars” of Islām. I. The islāmic Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲. a. The journey to Mecca. According to the law every adult Muslim, of either sex, has to perform the Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ at least once in the course of his life, provided he is able to do so (cf. Sūra iii. 91). The fulfilment of the last proviso depends on various circumstances. Lunatics and slaves are exempted from the obligation; likewise women who have not a husband or a relative ( d̲h̲ū maḥram) to accompany them. The want of the necessary means of subsistence, the inability …

Ostād̲h̲

(97 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(P.), master, teacher, artisan. This word has passed into Arabic, with the plural ostād̲h̲ūn, asātid̲h̲a. It also means eunuch, musician, merchant’s ledger, in the modern language particularly teacher. Combined with dār the form ostādār, “master of the house”, major-domo, was applied to one of the great dignitaries of the Mamlūk sulṭāns [q. v.]. We also find the abbreviated forms ostā, osṭā, ōsṭā, plural ostawāt, osṭawāt, ōstawāt, which in Cairo is applied to coachmen. (A. J. Wensinck) Bibliography the lexicons of Vullers, Lane, Dozy C. A. Nallino, Varabo parlato in Egitto, second e…

Tayammum

(702 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), the recommendation, or permission to perform the ritual ablution with sand instead of water in certain cases, is based on two passages in the Ḳurʾān, Sūra iv. 46 and v. 9. The latter passage runs as follows: “And if ye be impure, wash yourselves. But if ye be sick, or on a journey or if ye come from the privy or ye have touched women and ye find no water, take fine clean sand and rub your faces and hands with it. Allāh will not put a difficulty upon you but He will make you pure and comple…

Mīlād

(73 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.). According to some Arabie lexicographers the meaning of this term is time of birth in contra-distinction to mawlid which may denote also “place of birth”. The latter is the usual term for birthday, especially in connection with the birthday of Muḥammad and Muslim saints [cf. the art. mawlid]; mīlād denotes also Christmas. For other special meanings cf. Dozy, Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes, s. v. (A. J. Wensinck) Bibliography the Arabic lexicons.

Ḳiyās

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), infinitive III of ḳāsa, deduction by analogy. The term is used with a multitude of meanings; cf. the lexicons, especially Dozy, Supplément, s. v. Here we shall confine ourselves to ḳiyās as one of the “roots” of the fiḳh, i. e. the deduction of legal prescriptions from the Ḳurʾān and the sunna by reasoning by analogy. — The death of Muḥammad deprived the community of the means of obtaining revelations and at the same time of its guide in matters political and religious. At first they relied on the book of Allāh and the example of the Prophet. The Ḳurʾān and the sunna naturally became the gu…

Naṣṣ

(253 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), etymologically: what is apparent to the eye, as a technical term: text. In this sense the word does not occur in the Ḳurʾān nor in the Ḥadīt̲h̲. Al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, on the other hand, appears to be acquainted with it. In his Risāla he uses it chiefly in the sense of naṣṣu kitābin (p. 7, 16, 30, 41) or naṣṣu ḥukmin (p. 5) “what has been laid down in the Ḳurʾān”. In other passages naṣṣ al-kitāb is distinguished from sunna (p. 21, 4, infra, 24, 7, paen., 30, 21, 63, 31). The combination naṣṣ sunna occurs, however, also (p. 50, 14, 66, 2). From these passages it may also appear that al-S̲h̲…

Yād̲j̲ūd̲j̲ wa-Mād̲j̲ūd̲j̲

(931 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(the forms Yaʾd̲j̲ūd̲j̲ and Maʾd̲j̲ūd̲j̲ occur also), Gog and Magog (cf. Gen. x. 2; Ez. xxxviii., xxxix), two peoples who belong to the outstanding figures of Biblical and Muslim eschatology. Magog in Gen. x. is reckoned among the offspring of Japheth; this notion is also found in Arabic sources (e. g. Baiḍāwī on sūra xviii. 93, where also different traditions are mentioned); this much only may be said here, that the Bible as well the Arabic sources connect these peoples with the North-East of the ancient world, the dwelling-p…

Muṣḥaf

(412 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), Ethiopie loanword (cf. Nöldeke, Neue Beilräge, p. 49 sq.; the forms miṣḥaf and maṣḥaf occur also; According to some grammarians they are less correct, especially the latter), codex, or, according to the definition of Arabic lexicographers, leaves ( ṣuḥuf plural of ṣaḥifa), when they are bound together between two covers. In the tradition on the redaction of the Ḳurʾān [q. v.] by Hud̲h̲aifa b. al-Yamān during ʿUt̲h̲mān’s caliphate, it is said indeed, that the collection of leaves that had been made by Zaid b. T̲h̲ābit at ʿUmar’s instigation, was copied and arranged into maṣāḥif. The…

Amīr al-Muʾminīn

(215 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, i. e. lord of the faithful. ʿOmar was the first to bear this title. In the East the Umaiyad and ʿAbbāsid caliphs followed his example, as did those of their opponents who thought themselves entitled to claim the Caliphate (ʿAlids, Ḳarmaṭes, Fāṭimids). It was not till the fall of Bag̲h̲dād (656 = 1258) ¶ that the smaller rulers in the East also styled themselves Amīr al-Muʾminīn. In the West the title occurs more frequently: it was borne by the Rostemids, Ag̲h̲labids, Zīrids, Ḥammādids, the Umaiyads after 316 (928) and some of the petty Spanish kings. On the o…

Tasnīm

(268 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, 1. name of a fountain in Paradise, occurring in the Ḳurʾān, Sūra lxxxiii. 27, where it is said, that its water will be drunk by the muḳarrabūn, “those who are admitted to the divine presence”, and that it will be mixed with the drink of the mass of the inhabitants of Paradise. The commentaries are uncertain, whether tasnīm is a proper name — which, according to the Lisān is inconsistent with its being a diptote — or a derivative from the root s-n-m, a root conveying the meaning of “being high”. In the latter case the meaning of the verse would be: “and it (viz. the drink of …

K̲h̲aṭīʾa

(2,684 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(plur. k̲h̲aṭāyā and k̲h̲aṭīʾāt), sin, synonymous with d̲h̲anb. The root k̲h̲-ṭ-ʾ has the meaning of stumbling (in Hebrew: Proverbs, xix. 2), committing an error ( ak̲h̲ṭaʾa is said e.g. of the bowman whose arrow misses the aim); see the art. k̲h̲aṭaʾ. The definition of k̲h̲aṭīʾa is “a sin committed on purpose”; that of k̲h̲iṭʾ (see Sūra xvii. 33) simply “a sin”, whereas it̲h̲m is applied to heavy sins. Probably these theological distinctions belong to the Islāmic period only; it seems doubtful whether the pagan Arabs were acquainted with the term k̲h̲aṭīʾa at all. It occurs in the dīwān of…

Iram Ḏh̲āt al-ʿImād

(866 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
occurs in the Ḳurʾān only in Sūra 89, 6: “(5) Hast thou not seen how thy Lord dealt with ʿĀd, (6) Iram d̲h̲āt al-Imād, the like whereof hath not been created in the lands”. — The connection between ʿĀd and Iram in these verses may be interpreted in various ways, as the commentaries explain at length. If Iram is taken in contrast to ʿĀd, it is intelligible why Iram also has been taken as a tribal name; Imād could then be taken in the sense of “tent-pole”. According to others, the poles are a description of the giant figure of the Iram, which is thus particularly emphasised. If Iram stands in iḍāfa to ʿĀd,…

al-Ṣalīb

(483 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a., plural Ṣulub, Ṣulbān), the cross. This general meaning occurs in several special applications, e. g. to the wasm branded in the skin of camels in the form of a cross etc. In the sense of the chief Christian symbol the word may have been taken over from Aramaic where it has the same form. It does not occur in the Ḳorʾān. In Ḥadīt̲h̲ it is used in eschatological descriptions. ʿĪsā (Jesus) will reappear in the last days, combat the Antichrist (al-Dad̲j̲d̲j̲āl), kill the swine and break the cross into pieces (al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Anbiyāʾ, bāb 49; Muslim, Īmān, Trad. 242, 243; Ibn Mād̲j̲a, Fitan, bāb 3…

Talbiya

(363 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), infinitive of form II of the verb labbā, which is formed from the term labbaika to mean “to pronounce the formula labbaika” etc. Labbaika is connected — and probably rightly — by the Arab lexicographers with labb un which means “offering devoted service” as labbaika does “at your service”. According to the native grammarians labbai is a „frequentative” dual. It is difficult to say what is the significance of the element ai in this and similar forms like saʿdaika. The explanation from the Hebrew proposed by Dozy ( De Isrdëliten te Mekka, Haarlem 1864, p. 120) may be said to be now…

Wāw

(144 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, 27th or 26th (when it precedes hāʾ; this is the sequence in some dictionaries), letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value of 6. For its palaeographical pedigree, see ababia, plate i. — It belongs to the group of the labials ( al-ḥurūf al-s̲h̲afawīya) as well as to that of the soft letters ( ḥurūf al-līn). It is pronounced like English w. In the north-Semitic languages and sometimes in Ethiopie, its place at the beginning of words is taken by y. In a few cases it corresponds with m (cf. urd̲j̲uwān “purple” with Aramaic and Hebrew ). (A. J. Wensinck) Bibliography W. Wright, Comparativ…

ʿOkāẓ

(366 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, name of an oasis situated between Ṭāʾif and Nak̲h̲la. The Arab philologists derive the name from the root meaning ‘to retain’, in the middle forms’to assemble’or from the meaning of ‘concourse’. Both interpretations are based on the fact that ʿOkāẓ was primarily celebrated for its annual fair, which was held on the 1st—20th Ḏh̲u’l-Ḳaʿda and was at the same time an official occasion of mufāk̲h̲ara, i. e. a gathering of tribes or rather of groups and individuals belonging to the same tribe where individuals competed for honours and for the honour of their tribe. These assemblies to which …

Aṣḥāb al-Kahf

(1,426 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, “the people of the cave”. This is the term used in the Ḳorʾān to denote the youths who in the West are commonly called “the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus”. This is the story almost as Muḥammad tells it (Sūra 18, 8 et seq.): Some youths in a pagan town are loyal to the one God; they conceal themselves in a cave, whose entrance is on the north side. There God puts them and their dog to sleep. “And if you had come upon them you would have fled thence and been filled with terror.” After 309 years the sleepers awake and send one of their number…

ʿAnaza

(276 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), staff, spear (see Lisān vii. 257). In the Muslim ritual the ʿanaza first appears in the year 2 (624). When Muḥammad for the first time celebrated the festival of Breaking the Fast, Bilāl carried a spear before him on his way to the muṣallā; during the service this spear was planted in the ground and served as sutra [q. v.]. Precisely the same thing was done on the occasion of the other festival (10th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a). — The custom of carrying a spear or staff was observed and expanded by Muḥammad’s successors. It has become the rule for the preacher to hold …

Āsiya

(210 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
This is the name given by the commentators to Pharaoh’s wife, who is twice (28, 8; 66, 11) mentioned in the Ḳorʾān. She plays the same part as Pharaoh’s daughter in the Bible, so that there is obviously confiusion. In the last mentioned passage these words are put into her mouth: “My lord, build me a house with thee in Paradise, and deliver me from Pharaoh and his doings and deliver me from the wicked”. In connection with this passage it is related that Āsiya endured many cruelties at the hands…

Nūn

(117 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, the twenty-fifth letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value of 50, belonging to the group of liquids ( al-ḥurūf al-d̲h̲alḳīya), and as such subject to numerous changes and assimilations; cf. the Bibliography, ¶ On the palaeographic history of the character, cf. arabia, plate i. (A. J. Wensinck) Bibliography W. Wright, Lectures on the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages, Cambridge 1890, p. 67 H. Zimmern, Vergl. Grammatik der sem. Sprachen, Leipzig 1898, p. 31—32 Brockelmann, Précis de linguistique sémitique, transl. by W. Marçais and M. Cohen, Paris 19…

ʿOtba b. Rabīʿa

(232 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams b. ʿAbd Manāf Abu ’l-Walīd, one of the chiefs of the tribe of Ḳurais̲h̲, who refused to follow Muḥammad. He met his death in the battle of Badr. His daughter Hind was the wife of Abū Sufyān [q. v.]. Shocked by the number of adherents of Muḥammad, ʿOtba having consulted the other chiefs of the Ḳurais̲h̲, went to the Prophet to offer him anything he would care to ask if he would only abandon his propaganda. According to the traditional story, Muḥammad in reply only repeated a part of Sūra XLI, which made such an impression…

Samūm

(496 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, the name of a hot wind in several Arabic speaking countries. The word occurs in three passages of the Ḳurʾān, where it is, however, not especially applied to the wind. Sūra 15, 27 it is said that the Ḏj̲ānn were created from the fire of Samūm. Sūra 52, 27 the punishment of the Samūm is mentioned; and according to Sūra 50, 41 the “people of the left” were dwelling in Samūm wa-Ḥamīm. Apparently Muḥammad applies the term to infernal heat. The Ḥadīt̲h̲ uses the word in the same sense; yet the meaning “hot wind” is here coming to the front. It is said that Hell takes breath two…

ʿAmr

(967 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
b. al-ʿĀṣ (al-ʿĀṣī) al-Sahmī, a contemporary of Muḥammed of Ḳurais̲h̲ite birth. The part which he played in islāmic history begins with his conversion in the year 8 (629/630). At that time he must already have been of middle age, for at his death which took place circa 42 = 663 he was over ninety years old. He passed for one of the most wily politicians of his time, and we must endorse this verdict. The more clear-sighted inhabitants of Mekka already foresaw shortly after the unsuccessful siege of …

Ṣūra

(2,495 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), image, form, shape, e.g. ṣūrat al-ard, “the shape of the earth”, ṣūrat ḥimār, “the form of an ass” (Muslim, Ṣalāt, trad. 115) or face, countenance (see below). Taṣāwīr are rather pictures. Ṣūra and taṣwīra are therefore in the same relation to one another as the Hebrew demūt and ṣelem. The Biblical idea according to which man was created in God’s selem (Gen., i. 27) has most probably passed into Ḥadīt̲h̲. It occurs, so far as I am aware, in three passages in classical Ḥadīt̲h̲; the exegesis is uncertain and in general unwilling to adopt interpretati…

Wāṣil b. ʿAṭāʾ

(757 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, Abū Ḥud̲h̲aifa al-G̲h̲azzāl, the chief of the Muʿtazila [q. v.]. Biographical facts concerning this personality are meagre, especially from early sources, yet without considerable divergencies. Born in Madīna in 80 (699-700), where he was a client of the Banū Ḍabba, or of the Banū Mak̲h̲zūm, he migrated to Baṣra, where he belonged to the circle of Ḥasan al-Baṣrī [cf. al-ḥasan b. abi ’l-ḥasan al-baṣrī], and entered into friendly relations with notable personalities such as Ḏj̲ahm b. Ṣafwān [q. v.] and Bas̲h̲s̲h̲ār b. Burd [q. v.]. With none of these three m…

Ḳainuḳāʿ

(665 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(Banū), one of the three Jewish tribes of Yat̲h̲rib. The name differs from the usual forms of Arabic proper names but at the same time has nothing Hebrew about its type. Nothing certain is known regarding their immigration into Yat̲h̲rib. They possessed no land there but lived by trading. That their personal names known to us are for the most part Arabic says as little regarding their origin as the occurrence of Biblical names among them. But there seem to be no valid reasons for doubting their Jewish origin. In Yat̲h̲rib they lived in the south-west part of the town, near the Muṣallā and close …

al-Ṭayālisī

(456 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
Sulaimān b. Dāwūd b. al-Ḏj̲ārūd Abū Dāwūd, a collector of traditions and author of a Musnad. The nisba is derived from al-ṭayālisa, the plural of ṭailasān, a piece of clothing that covers the head-dress and sometimes also the shoulders (see Dozy, Dictionnaire détaillé des noms des vêtements chez les arabes, p. 278 sqq.). Al-Ṭayālisī was born at Baṣra in 133 (750-751) and died in 203 (818—819). It is also said that he reached the age of 72 years. He has handed down traditions on the authority of S̲h̲uʿba, Sufyān al-T̲h̲awrī and other well known tra…

Miswāk

(747 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), a term denoting the toothbrush as well as the tooth-pick. The more usual term is siwāk (plural suwuk) which means also the act of cleansing the teeth. Neither of the two terms occurs in the Ḳurʾān. In Ḥadīt̲h̲ miswāk is not used, siwāk, on the other hand, frequently. In order to understand its use, it is necessary to know that the instrument consists of a piece of smooth wood, the end of which is incised so as to make it similar to a brush to some extent. The piece of wood used as a tooth-pick must have been smaller and thinner, ¶ as appears e.g. from the tradition in which it is related t…

Miṣr

(899 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, a. a.proper name denoting the eponym of Egypt, the ancestor of the Berbers and the Copts. In accordance with the Biblical genealogy (Genesis x. 1 sqq.) Miṣr is called the son of Ḥām, the son of Nūḥ. The Biblical origin of the pedigree appears clearly in the form Miṣrāʾim or Miṣrām (cf. Hebrew Miṣraim) which is found side by side with Miṣr. In some genealogies between Ḥām and Miṣr there is inserted Baisar, a name of which the origin is unknown to me. There exists, however, also quite a different genealogy, according to which Miṣrām is a son of Tablīl, one of the early heroes ( d̲j̲abābira), who rule…

Saʿāda

(314 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.) felicity, good fortune. The root s-ʿ-d and some of its derivatives is associated in various connections with pre-Islāmic Arab conceptions. Its general meaning is given as “auspicious, fortunate ( y-m-n, opposite n-ḥ-s). The proper name Saʿd (feminine Su’ād, see the article saʿd) may therefore be synonymous with Hebrew names like Benjamin and Gad. Saʿd is also found as the name of a god; Wellhausen ( Reste arabischen Heidentums 2, p. 65) suggests that al-Saʿīda (a house round which the Arabs used to run) was originally an epithet of al-ʿUzzā. Saʿd followed by…

Sutra

(759 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, covering, protection, shelter, especially at the ṣalāt, where sutra means the object, which the worshipper places in front of him or lays in the direction of the ḳibla whereby he shuts himself off in an imaginary area within which he is not disturbed by human or demoniacal influences. “The fictitious fencing off of an open place of prayer, the sutra, seems to have had among other objects that of warding off demons” (Wellhausen, Reste 2, p. 158). In one tradition the man who deliberately penetrates into this imaginary area is actually called a s̲h̲aiṭān (Buk̲h̲ārī, Ṣalāt, bāb too; cf. Aḥm…

Tahad̲j̲d̲j̲ud

(763 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), infinitive V from the root h-d̲j̲-d which is one of the roots with opposed meanings ( aḍdād), as it signifies “sleep” and also “to be awake”, “to keep a vigil”, “to perform the night ṣalāt or the nightly recitation of the Ḳurʾān”. The latter two meanings have become the usual ones in Islām. The word occurs only once in the Ḳurʾān, Sūra xvii. 81: “And in a part of the night, perform a ṣalāt as a voluntary effort” etc., but the thing itself is often referred to. We are told of the pious (li. 17) that they sl…

Baḳīʿ al-G̲h̲arḳad

(250 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(also briefly called al-Baḳīʿ), the cemetery of Medīna. The name denotes a field, which was originally covered with a kind of high growing black berry; there were several such Baḳīʿ’s in Medīna. The place was and is situated at the south-east end of the town, outside the modern town-wall through which a gateway, Bāb al-Baḳīʿ, gives admittance to the cemetery (see the map of Medīna in Caetani, Annali, ii. 1, p. 73). The first to be buried in al-Baḳī was ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Maẓʿūn, the ascetic companion of the Prophet; the latter’s daughters, the little Ibrāhīm, and his…

Ziyāra

(133 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), visit, in the religious sense the visit to a holy place or to the tomb of a saint, especially to Muḥammad’s tomb in the mosque of al-Madīna, which even under the Wahhābī rule is paid by those who perform the ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ [q. v.]. The ziyāra paid to the tombs of the saints was among the bidaʾwhich were combated by Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb [cf. wahhābīya]. For details cf. W. R. van Diflelen, De leer der Wahhabieten, doctoral dissertation, Leyden 1927. That the Wahhābīs were not the first in Islām to question the legality of visiting tombs, and of the practices conne…

al-Tirmid̲h̲ī

(698 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, Abū ʿĪsā Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā b. Sawra b. S̲h̲ahdād, the author ofone of the canonical or semi-canonical collections of traditions. The nisba al-Tirmid̲h̲ī connects him with Tirmid̲h̲, a place on the upper Āmū Daryā, at a distance of 6 leagues from Balk̲h̲ (about 37° Lat. N. and 67° Long. E. from Greenwich; cf. Ḳazwīnī, Nuzhat al-Ḳulūb, ed. and transl. Le Strange, G. M. S., xxiii., index, s. v.; Le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, p. 440 sq. and map ix., facing p. 433), where he is said to have died in 279 (892—893); according to other reports, he died at Būg̲h̲,…

ʿAmr

(286 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
b. Hind, son of the Lak̲h̲mid prince al-Mund̲h̲ir and of Hind, a woman of the tribe of Kinda. After his father’s death he became “king” at al-Ḥira (554—570 A. D.). He was a warlike ruler and, like his house, very cruel. It is well-known how he sent the poets al-Mutalammis and Ṭarafa to his governor in Baḥrain, with letters ordering their death. By reason of his harsh character, he bore the surname of Muḍarriṭ al-Ḥid̲j̲āra (“he who makes stones crack”). He was also called Muḥarriḳ (“burning”). As …

Rātib

(109 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a., plur. rawātib), a word meaning what is fixed and hence applied to certain nonobligatory ṣalāts or certain litanies. The term is not found in the Ḳurʾān nor as a technical term in Ḥadīt̲h̲. On the first meaning see the article nāfila, p. 826a. As to the second, it is applied to the d̲h̲ikr which one recites alone, as well as to those which are recited in groups. We owe to M. Snouck Hurgronje a detailed description of the rawātib practised in Atchin. (A. J. Wensinck) Bibliography C. Snouck Hurgronje, De Atjèhers, Batavia—Leyden 1893—1894, ii. 220 sqq. English transl, by O’Sullivan, The Acheh…

Iram

(171 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, the name of an individual ortribe which occupies the same position in Muslim genealogy as Aram in Biblical, as may be seen from a comparison of the Muslim series ʿŪṣ b. Iram b. Sām b. Nūḥ with the Biblical ʿŪṣ b. Aram b. Shem b. Noah. The Muslim line probably, like many others, entered historiography under Jewish influence and therefore gives us no new information regarding the dissemination of Aramaeans in Arabia. The name is identified with that of the Iram Ḏh̲āt al-ʿImād discussed below, th…

Abū Ḥanīfa

(485 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
has exercised a considerable influence on the dogmatics of Islām; his tradition has been kept up especially in the school of al-Māturīdī [q. v.] and its adepts in Samarḳand. The only authentic document by Abū Ḥanīfa which has come down to us is his letter to ʿUt̲h̲mān al-Battī (unedited), in which he defends his Murd̲j̲itic [cf. al-murd̲j̲iʾa] views in an urbane way. The Fiḳh Akbar (II) which is ascribed to him in the Fihrist and by later tradition, is an ʿaḳīda representing an early stage of scholastic theology, possibly composed in the first half of the tenth century a. d. This work must be…

Munkar wa-Nakīr

(956 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(the forms with the article are also found), the names of the two angels who examine and if necessary punish the dead in their tombs. To the ¶ examination in the tomb the infidels and the faithful — the righteous as well as the sinners — are liabie. They are set upright in their tombs and must state their opinion regarding Muḥammad. The righteous faithful will answer, that he is the Apostle of Allāh; thereupon they will be left alone till the Day of Resurrection. The sinners and the infidels, on the other hand, will have …

ĀṢaf

(126 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
b. Barak̲h̲yā (Hebrew Asaf b. Berekyah), name of the alleged Wazīr of King Solomon. According to the legend he was Solomon’s confidant, and always had access to him. When the royal consort Ḏj̲arāda was worshipping idols Āṣaf delivered a public address in which he praised the apostles of God, Solomon among them but only for the excellent qualities he had manifested in his youth. Solomon in anger thereat took him to task, bnt was reproved for the introduction of idol-worship at the court. This was then done away with and the consort punished; the king became repentant. (A. J. Wensinck) Bibliogra…

Saʿīd

(585 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
b. zaid b. ʿamr b. nufail ….. b. kaʿb b. luʾaiy, one of Muḥammad’s earliest companions. His mother was Fāṭima bint Baʿd̲j̲a b. Umaiya of the clan of Ḵh̲uzāʿa. His kunya is Abu ’l-Aʿwar or Abū T̲h̲awr. He was one of ʿUmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb’s cousins and at the same time his brother-in-law through his wife, who was ʿUmar’s sister, as well as through ʿUmar’s wife who was his sister. He assumed Islām before Muḥammad entered the house of Zaid b. al-Aiḳam and ʿUmar’s conversion is said to have taken place under the influence of Saʿīd and his family. His father, Zaid b. ʿAmr, was one of the ḥanīf’s; he was muc…

Hūd

(489 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, the prophet who, according to the Ḳurʾān, appeared among the ʿĀd [q. v.]. He is represented as one of their kinsmen ( ak̲h̲) and his genealogy (which is transmitted in various forms), therefore coincides in part with that of their founder ʿĀd. He is also identified with ʿĀbir (the Biblical ʿEber, the ancestor of the Hebrews); in another reference he is called the son of ʿĀbir [q. v.]. His figure is even more shadowy than the picture of his people and like every warner he is represented in the same position as Muḥamm…

Nīya

(814 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), intention. The acts of ceremonial law, obligatory or not, require to be preceded by a declaration by the performer, that he intends to perform such an act. This declaration, pronounced audibly or mentally, is called nīya. Without it, the act would be bāṭil [q. v.]. The nīya is required before the performance of the ʿibādāt, such as washing, bathing, prayer, alms, fasting, retreat, pilgrimage, sacrifice. “Ceremonial acts without nīya are not valid”, says G̲h̲azālī ( Iḥyāʾ, Cairo 1282, iv. 316). Yet a survey of the opinions of the lawyers regarding the nīya in conne…

al-Dad̲j̲d̲j̲āl

(822 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
or al-Masīḥ al-Dad̲j̲d̲j̲āl (rarely al-Kad̲h̲d̲h̲āb: Buk̲h̲ārī, Fitan, bāb 26 and al-Masīḥ al-ḍalāl: Ṭayālisī, N°. 2532), the Muslim Antichrist. The word is not found in the Ḳurʾān; it is probably an Aramaic loan-word. In Syriac it is found as an epithet of the Antichrist, e. g. in Matthew xxiv. 24 where the Pes̲h̲itta translates ψευδόχριστον by mes̲h̲īḥē daggālē. We also find in Syriac nebīyā daggālā “pseudo-prophet”, s̲h̲āhedā daggālā “false witness” etc. On the other hand, the existence in Arabic of the verb dad̲j̲ala with the meaning “to deceive”, given in the lexicons w…

Bidpai

(388 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, Bilpai or Pilpai is the form usual ¶ in the west, of the name of the author of the Kalīla wa-Dimna; this form may be traced to the Arabic Bīdbā or Bīdbāh. The Syriac version of the book (compiled from the Pahlavi) has the name Bidug or Bidwag. This form is said by Benfey to be derived from the Sanskrit vidyāpati which means “lord of knowledge”. All that we know of this (legendary) personage is given in the preface by Bahnūd b. Sahwān, alias ʿAlī b. al-S̲h̲āh al-Fārisī, to the Arabic version of the Kalīla wa-Dimna. This can only be briefly given here and the reader may be referred for oth…

T̲h̲āʾ

(110 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
the name of the fourth letter of the Arabic alphabet with the numerical value 500. Its form is a horizontal stroke, curved upwards at its ends, with three dots above it. By these three dots it is distinguished from the third letter of the alphabet, tāʾ [q. v.], which has two dots only. This similarity explains also the place of t̲h̲āʾ immediately after tāʾ. Of the other Semitic alphabets it is only the South-Arabic which has a special form for the sound t̲h̲. Etymologically t̲h̲āʾ corresponds to Canaanitic , Aramaic (early-Aramaic ), Assyrian s̲h̲, Aethiopic . In Arabian its place is some…

Ḥarba

(380 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, (plur. ḥirāb) spear. According to the Arab lexicographers, the ḥarba is smaller than the rumḥ and larger than the ʿanaza [q. v.]. It has the same function as the latter in Muslim ceremonial; we therefore find in some traditions that in Muḥammad’s time an ʿanaza, in others a ḥarba was used as sutra [q. v.] (cf. the chapter sutrat al-muṣallī in the different collections of tradition). It has been supposed that the erection of a sutra at the salāṭ had originally a protective object; in agreement with this is the fact that, according to some traditions, when the Prophet went…
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