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Wed̲j̲īhī

(358 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ottoman historian and poet (1031?-1071/1620?-1661). He was born in Bag̲h̲če Sarāy [ q.v.], capital of the k̲h̲ānate of the Crimea, the son of a certain ʿAbd Allāh ʿĀrif al-Rūmī. According to Ottoman sources, his given name was Ḥasan (though Ḥüseyin sometimes occurs in later European works). His date of birth is calculated as around 1031/1620, based on a statement in his poetic dīwān that he was entering his fortieth year in 1070/1659. In 1624-5 his family moved to Istanbul, where he received a good secretarial and literary education. Taken into the household of the ḳapudan-i deryā [ q.v.] …

Ṭurk̲h̲ān Sulṭān

(337 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ṭurk̲h̲ān K̲h̲ādid̲j̲e Sulṭān ( ca. 1626-83), mother of the Ottoman sultan Meḥemmed IV [ q.v.]. Ṭurk̲h̲ān Sulṭān entered the Ottoman imperial harem as a slave of the wālide sulṭān Kösem Sulṭān [ q.v.], mother of Murād IV (1623-40) and Ibrāhīm (1640-8) [ q.vv.]. Nothing is known of her background, except that she had a brother, Yūsuf Ag̲h̲a, who died in Istanbul in 1100/1689. She gave birth to sultan Ibrāhīm’s eldest son Meḥemmed in 1641; there may also have been a daughter, Fāṭima Sulṭān, 1642-57. On Ibrāhīm’s deposition in 1648 and he…

Meḥmed Ṭāhir, Bursali̊

(400 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(1861-1925), Ottoman biographer and bibliographer. Meḥmed Ṭāhir was born in Bursa in northwestern Turkey on 22 November 1861, the son of Rifʿat Bey, clerk to the city council, and grandson of Üsküdarli̊ Seyyid Meḥmed Ṭāhir Pas̲h̲a, formerly a commander in sultan ʿAbd ül-Med̲j̲īd’s imperial guard. He studied at the Bursa military academy from 1875 and at the élite Ḥarbiy̲y̲e̲ (War) academy in Istanbul from 1880. Graduating in 1883 he spent the next twenty years teaching geography…

Seyfī

(539 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(d. probably after 998/1590), Ottoman historian. Practically nothing is known about Seyfī aside from the fact that he compiled a unique historiogeographical work on the rulers of Asia and China contemporary with Murād III, and the possibility that he may have been a defterdār in the Ottoman bureaucracy. Neither he nor his work is mentioned in the standard Ottoman bio-bibliographical sources. Seyfī’s history has been published by J. Matuz, L’ouvrage de Seyfī Čelebī : historien ottoman du XVI e siècle; édition critique, traduction et commentaires, Paris 1966. Its title, added pos…

Selīm II

(1,407 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, the eleventh Ottoman sultan (r. 974-82/1566-74), the third son and the fourth of the six children of Ḳānūnī Süleymān I and K̲h̲ürrem Sulṭān [ q.vv.]. He was born in Istanbul on 26 Rad̲j̲ab 930/30 May 1524, during the festivities accompanying the marriage of Süleymān’s Grand Vizier Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Together with his elder half-brother Muṣṭafa and his elder brother Meḥmed, Selīm was one of the three princes in whose honour was held the sünnet dügünü (circumcision feast) of 1530, one of the major dynastic spectacles of Süleymān’s reign. He r…

Ṭūrsūn Beg

(378 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, 9th/15th-century Ottoman historian. What little is known about Ṭūrsūn Beg derives mainly from incidental references in his History . He was born probably in Bursa in the mid-1420s, to an already prominent ümerāʾ family. His uncle D̲j̲übbe ʿAlī had served as governor in Bursa, and his grandfather Fīrūz Beg in Iznik. Ṭūrsūn Beg was, while relatively young, the holder of a tīmār [ q.v.], probably inherited from his father Ḥamza Beg (cf. Tursun Bey, Târîh-i Ebü’l-feth , ed. M. Tulum, Istanbul 1977, pp. xi-xii; H. İnalcik and R. Murphey, The history of Mehmed the Conqueror by Tursun Beg

Silāḥdār, Fi̊ndi̊ḳli̊li̊ Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a

(417 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, (1068-1139/1658-1726-7), Ottoman historian. The palace official Silāḥdār Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a was born on 12 Rabīʿ I 1068/8 December 1658 in the Fi̊ndi̊ḳli̊ district of Istanbul. A protégé of the bas̲h̲ muṣāḥib S̲h̲āhīn Ag̲h̲a, he was educated in the sarāy and entered the palace bostānd̲j̲i̊ [ q.v.] corps in 1084/1674. In 1089/1678 he became a zülflü baltad̲j̲i̊ [ q.v.] and in 1090/1679, was promoted to the seferli odasi̊ . In this capacity he took part in the 1683 Vienna campaign led by Ḳara Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. In 1099/1688 he entered the k̲h̲āṣṣ oda [ q.v.] and was promoted successively to d…

Rūznāmed̲j̲i

(301 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(p.-Tkish.), the Ottoman term for the keeper of a daybook ( rūznāme or rūznāmče ), referring principally to the official in charge of the register of daily income and expenditure of the central treasury, k̲h̲azīne . From the diminutive form rūznāmče, this official was known alternatively as rūznāmčed̲j̲i , a title often contracted to rūznāmče and identical with the name of the daybook itself. The rūznāmed̲j̲i and his scribal staff formed part of the financial bureaucracy headed by the bas̲h̲ defterdār [ q.v.]. The late-15th century ḳānūnnāme of Mehmed II ass…

Oḳču-Zāde

(341 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, meḥmed s̲h̲āh beg (970-1039/1562-1630), Ottoman nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ and prose stylist. Oḳču-zāde Meḥmed S̲h̲āh (or S̲h̲āhī) Beg was born in 970/1562, the son of a long-serving Ottoman chancery official, later beglerbegi [ q.v.] Oḳču-zāde Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a (d. ca. 995/1587). His own chancery career spanned 44 years. Appointed kātib of the dīwān-i hümāyūn [ q.v.] (988/1580), he held office as reʾīs ül-küttāb (1005/1596), defter emīni (1006/1597), and nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ [ q.vv.] (1007-10/1599-1601). He then served as defterdār [ q.v.] of Egypt with the rank of sālyāne begi

Sinān Pas̲h̲a, K̲h̲ādi̊m

(289 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(? - 922/1517), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Selīm I. Sinān al-Dīn Yūsuf Pas̲h̲a was of Christian, probably Bosnian, origin, recruited into Ottoman service through the dews̲h̲irme [ q.v.] system. Promoted from amongst the white eunuchs of the Palace to the rank of vizier, he served as beg of Bosnia, and then in 920/1514, at the beginning of the eastern campaign against S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl, was appointed beglerbegi [ q.v.] of Anatolia. Commanding the right wing of Selīm I’s army at the battle of Čaldiran [ q.v.] (August 1514), he played a decisive role in the Ottoman victory and was im…

Nes̲h̲rī

(670 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(d. before 926/1520), Ottoman historian. Nes̲h̲rī’s one, partially-surviving, historical work, the D̲j̲ihān-nümā , marks a pivotal point in both the development and the study of Ottoman historiography. However, very little is known with certainty about its author, aside from his mak̲h̲laṣ Nes̲h̲rī, which occurs at the end of the history in a ḳaṣīda addressed to the reigning sultan Bāyezīd II [ q.v.]. From scanty and largely unreliable references by later Ottoman writers such as Laṭīfī, ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳ Čelebi, ʿĀlī and Kātib Čelebi [ q.vv.], it was long thought that his given name w…

Naʿīmā

(996 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(1065-1128/1655-1716) Ottoman historian. Muṣṭafā Naʿīm, known by the mak̲h̲laṣ Naʿīmā, was born in Aleppo, probably in 1065/1655, the son of a Janissary commander. As a young man he entered, ca. 1100/1688-9, the palace corps of balṭad̲j̲i̊lar [ q.v.] in Istanbul and received a thorough scribal education, developing particular interests in literature, history and astrology. He may also have attended classes at the Beyazīd mosque. Graduating from the balṭad̲j̲i̊ ¶ corps, he was apprenticed to the kātib s of the dīwān-i hümāyūn , and appointed secretary to…

Waḳʿa-Nüwīs

(628 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, the title of the late Ottoman official historian. The post of official historian, weḳāyi’-nüwīs , later waḳʿa-nüwīs (“events/event-writer”), in the Ottoman empire dates from the early 18th century. It was a position attached to the Ottoman central administration, which provided for a series of officially-appointed writers to compile a continuous, approved narrative of recent Ottoman history as a formal historical record, to be routinely printed and made available. The post continued in existence for two hundred years, until 1922, virtually the end of the Ottoman empire. The term w…

Rās̲h̲id

(388 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Meḥmed (?-1148/1735), Ottoman historian and poet. He was born in Istanbul, the son of ḳāḍī Muṣṭafā Efendi from Malaṭya. From 1116/1704 he held a regular series of posts as a müderris culminating in appointment to the Süleymāniyye in 1130/1718, the latter held concurrently with the post of Ḥaremeyn müfettis̲h̲i , inspector of the awḳāf of Mecca and Medina. He then served as ḳāḍī of Aleppo 1135-7/1723-4. His career thereafter was irregular by comparison, and much influenced by political considerations, in particular by his closeness to the Grand Vizier News̲h̲ehirli Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.…

S̲h̲āriḥ ül-Menār-Zāde

(357 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Aḥmed (P-1067/?1657), Ottoman historian. The son of the Ottoman ʿālim ʿAbd ül-Ḥalīm (d. 1051/1641-2), he was born probably in Amasya and himself followed an ʿulemā career, rising to be a middle-ranking müderris in Istanbul. His father being the author of an Ottoman commentary on an Arabic work on jurisprudence, Manār al-anwār , the son became generally known by the laḳab S̲h̲āriḥ ül-Menārzāde. He died in Istanbul in S̲h̲aʿbān 1067/May-June 1657 (HJ. Kissling (éd.), ʿUšâqě-zâde’s Lebensbeschreibungen berühmter Gelehrter und Gottesmänner des Osmanischen Reiches im 17. Jahrhunder…

Urud̲j̲

(331 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
b. ʿĀdil ( fl. late 15th-early 16th century), Ottoman historian and author of one of the ¶ earliest histories in Turkish of the Ottoman dynasty. Urud̲j̲ b. ʿĀdil el-Ḳazzāz was the son of a silk merchant, lived in Edirne and was a kātib [ q.v.] by profession. His only known work, the Tewārīk̲h̲-i āl-i ʿOt̲h̲mān , was composed most probably during the reign of Bāyezīd II [ q.v.]. No other biographical details about him are known. For early Ottoman history, Urud̲j̲’s history was based largely on royal calendars, taḳwīm s, and on various menāḳi̊b-nāme s, including that by Yak̲h̲s̲h̲ī Faḳīh [ q.v.],…

T̲h̲üreyyā

(335 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Meḥmed , Ottoman biographer (1261-1326/1845-1909). Meḥmed T̲h̲üreyyā was born in Istanbul, the son of Meḥmed Ḥüsnü Bey, an Ottoman civil servant. In 1863 he joined the translation office of the Bāb-i̊ ʿĀlī, and for some time was also on the staff of the newspaper Ḏj̲erīde-yi Ḥawādīt̲h̲ . He was appointed in 1886 to the Council of Education, where he served until his death in 1909. He was buried in the Ḳarad̲j̲a Aḥmed cemetery at Üsküdar (Ö.F. Akün, art. Süreyya , in İA , ix, 247). He wrote or compiled more than forty volumes, said to include a multi-part Arabic-Persian-Ottoman-…

Nergisī

(797 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Nergisī-zāde Meḥmed Efendi (d. 1044/1635), pre-eminent Ottoman prose stylist. He was born in Sarajevo, probably around 994/1586, son of the ḳāḍī Nergis Aḥmed Efendi, and completed his education in Istanbul, becoming a protégé of Ḳāf-zāde Fayḍ Allāh Efendi (d. 1020/1611), from whom (and not, as in some accounts, from his son Kāf-zāde ʿAbd al-Ḥayy Fāʾiḍī Efendi) he received his mülāzemet [ q.v.]. He may have served briefly as a müderris , but his principal employment was as ḳāḍī in various posts in Rūmeli, mainly in Bosnia. Following early appointments (during the period ca, 1022-27 /ca. …

S̲h̲ehzāde

(262 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(p., T.), a title of Ottoman princes. The term s̲h̲ehzāde (or s̲h̲āhzāde , from Pers. s̲h̲āh “king” + zāda “born of”), “prince”, was one of the titles used for the male children born to a reigning Ottoman sultan. It is said to have been introduced by Meḥemmed I (816-24/1413-21) for his own sons, and over subsequent decades gradually superseded the earlier term čelebi . S̲h̲ehzāde came into use around the same time as the tide pādis̲h̲āh [ q.v.], as part of the general elevation of Ottoman political and cultural pretensions following Meḥemmed I’s reunification of the stat…

Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faḳīh

(237 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ottoman historian, d. after 816/1413. Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faḳīh is the earliest known compiler of menāḳib [see manāḳib ] or exemplary tales of the Ottoman ¶ dynasty in Ottoman Turkish. However, his compilation has not survived as an independent work, and the only reference to it is that made by ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳpas̲h̲azāde [ q.v.]. The latter records that in 816/1413, while accompanying Meḥemmed I’s army on campaign, he fell ill and “remained behind at Geyve, in the house of Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faqīh, the son of Ork̲h̲ān Beg’s imām ... it is on the authority of the son of the imām that I relate the menāqib

ʿUs̲h̲s̲h̲āḳī-Zāde

(319 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ibrāhīm b. al-Seyyid ʿAbd ül-Bāḳī (1075-1136/1664-1724), Ottoman scholar and biographer. He stemmed from a prominent family of ʿulemāʾ : his father was ḳāḍī of Mecca, his maternal grandfather was naḳīb ül-es̲h̲rāf and his younger brother ʿAbdullāh (d. 1139/1726-7 became ḳāḍī-ʿasker of Rūmeli. Ibrāhīm followed a middle-ranking career as a müderris , later rising to the posts of ḳāḍī of Medina (1119/1707) and of Izmir (1125-6/1713-14). He died in Istanbul and was buried at the Keskin Dede cemetery near the Mosque of Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ Pas̲h̲a (Sālim, Ted̲h̲kere

Ṣolaḳ-Zāde

(363 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Meḥmed Hemdemī (?-1068/1658), Ottoman historian and musical composer. Very little is known about the life and career of Ṣolaḳ-zāde. Described as “old” at the time of his death, he was perhaps born sometime around the year 1000/1592. He died in Istanbul in 1068/1658. His father may have been a retired ṣolaḳ-bas̲h̲i̊ , whose connections gave his son an early entrée into the Ottoman imperial household, with which he remained closely associated. The mak̲h̲las Hemdemī reflected his status as “constant companion” to Murād IV (1…

Rüstem Pas̲h̲a

(945 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(906?-968/1500?-1561) Ottoman Grand Vizier. Born ca. 1500 in a village near Sarajevo, Rüstem Pas̲h̲a came of a family most probably of Bosnian origin (though some sources mention Croatian or possibly Albanian ancestry), whose pre-Muslim surname had been either Opukovič or Čigalič (cf. Albèri, Relazioni degli ambasciatori veneti al senato , ser. iii, vol. iii, 89; C. Truhelka, Bosnische Post , Sarajevo 1912, no. 80). A register from the ḳāḍī ’s [ q.v.] court at Sarajevo, dated 974/1557, records the sale of a house by Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī ʿAlī Beg b. K̲h̲ayr al-Dīn, mütewellī of Rüstem Pas̲h̲a’s be…

S̲h̲āhnāmed̲j̲i

(497 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(or S̲h̲ehnāmed̲j̲i ) (t.), the term for an Ottoman writer of literary-historical works in a style inspired by the S̲h̲āh-nāma of the Persian poet Firdawsī [ q.v.], i.e. works composed in Persian, in the mat̲h̲nawī form of rhymed couplets in the mutaḳārib metre, describing in fulsome terms the military exploits of the reigning sultan. The first Ottoman compositions in the s̲h̲ehnāme genre date from the mid-9th/15th century, as occasional works written for presentation to Meḥemmed II (1451-81). An official, salaried post of s̲h̲ehnāmed̲j̲i “writer of s̲h̲ehnāmes

Pečewī

(665 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Woodhead, Christine
, Ibrāhīm (982- ca. 1060/1574-ca. 1649-50), Ottoman historian. Pečewī was born in 982/1574 in Pécs in southwestern Hungary, whence his epithet Pečewī (or, alternatively, Pečuylu, from the Croatian ). His family had a long tradition of Ottoman military service. Both his great-grandfather Ḳara Dāwūd and his grandfather D̲j̲aʿfer Beg served as alay begi in Bosnia; his father (name unknown) took part in campaigns in Bosnia, and in ʿlrāḳ during the 1530s (Pečewī, Taʾrīk̲h̲ , i, 87, 102-6, 436-7, ii, 433). Pečewī’s mother was a member of the Ṣoḳollu [ q.v.] family. At the age of 14, after…

Rūḥī

(336 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Woodhead, Christine
(d. after 917/1511), Ottoman historian. There is little definite information about this historian apart from his mak̲h̲laṣ Rūḥī. From ʿĀlī’s [ q.v.] reference to him in the Künhü ’l-ak̲h̲bār as Edrenewī Mewlānā Rūḥī, it is probable that he was a member of the ʿulamāʾ and had a family or professional association with Edirne (J. Schmidt, Muṣṭafā ʿĀlī’s Künhü ’l-aḫbār and its preface according to the Leiden manuscript, Istanbul 1987, 58). Any identification with Rūḥī Fāḍi̊l Efendi (d. 927/1528), son of the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām Zenbilli ʿAlī Efendi, remains hypothetical (Babinger, GOW, 4…

Ṭas̲h̲köprüzāde

(1,113 words)

Author(s): Fleming, Barbara | Babinger, F. | Woodhead, Christine
, the name of a family of Ottoman Turkish scholars who stemmed from the village of Ṭas̲h̲ Köprü (“stone bridge”) near Ḳasṭamūnī [ q.v.] in northern Anatolia. Famous members of the family include: 1. Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Muṣṭafā , preceptor of Sultan Selīm I [ q.v.]. ¶ He was born at Ṭas̲h̲ Köprü in 857/1453, and died on 12 S̲h̲awwāl 935/19 July 1529 in Istanbul. He studied in Bursa and Istanbul under celebrated scholars, and then progressed through a series of medrese s at Bursa, Ankara, Skopje, and Edirne. Bāyezīd II [ q.v.] appointed him preceptor ( k̲h̲od̲j̲a ) of his son …

Sinān Pas̲h̲a, K̲h̲od̲j̲a

(1,834 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine | Babinger, Fr. | Dávid, G.
, the name of two Ottoman dignitaries. 1. The vizier, scholar and prose writer (845-91/1440-86). Sinān al-Dīn Yūsuf Pas̲h̲a was born probably in 845/1440, in Bursa, the son of K̲h̲i̊ḍr Beg b. Ḳāḍī D̲j̲elāl al-Dīn (d. 863/1459 [ q.v.]), the first Ottoman ḳāḍī of Istanbul. Through his mother, a daughter of Mollā Yegān (d. 878/1473), he was also descended from a second ʿulemāʾ family prominent in the early Ottoman period. After initial appointments as müderris in Edirne, he was promoted by Meḥemmed II to a teaching post at the Istanbul ṣaḥn-i themāniye [ q.v.], to be held jointly with that of k̲h̲…

Taʾrīk̲h̲

(48,480 words)

Author(s): De Blois, F.C. | Van Dalen, B. | Humphreys, R.S. | Marin, Manuela | Lambton, Ann K.S | Et al.
(a.) “date, dating, chronology, era”, then also “annals, history”. ¶ I. Dates and Eras in the Islamic World 1. In the sense of “date, dating”, etc. i. Etymology . The non-Arabic origin of this word was recognised by the mediaeval philologists, but the often-cited derivation of the participle muʾarrak̲h̲ “dated”, from a supposed Persian compound māh-rōz “month-day”, is naturally fanciful. In fact, it clearly belongs to the common Semitic root for “moon” and “month”; cf. Akkadian ( w) arḫu , Sabaic wrḫ , Ethiopic wärḫ , Mehri wark̲h̲ , or, with the usual Northwe…
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