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Sabk̲h̲a

(379 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(a.), pl. sibāk̲h̲ , the term used by the mediaeval Arabic geographers for salt marshes or lagoons and for the salt flats left by the evaporation of the water from such areas. Thus they employ it for describing the salt flats characteristic of parts of the Great Desert of central and eastern Persia (the present Das̲h̲t-i Kawīr and Das̲h̲t-i Lūṭ) and of the adjacent province of Sīstān (Ibn Ḥawḳal, ed. Kramers, 407, 415, tr. Kramers-Wiet, 397, 404; al-Muḳaddasī, 488; cf. A. Miquel, La géographie humaine du monde musulman jusqu’au milieu du 11 e siècle . iii . Le milieu naturelle, Paris-The Hagu…

Awdag̲h̲ost

(422 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(or Awdag̲h̲os̲h̲t) African town, now no longer extant. According to al-Bakrī, it was situated between the country of the Blacks and Sid̲j̲ilmāssa, at about 51 days’ march from this oasis and 15 from G̲h̲āna. Barth thinks that it must have been situated between long. 10°-11° W. and lat. 18°-19° N., not far from Ḳṣār and Barka, that is to say to the South-West of the post of Tid̲j̲ikja in French Mauritania. Little is known about this town, which seems to have been at the outset a trading colony established by the Zenāga (Ṣanhād̲j̲a) on the Northern border of the Kin…

Isly

(145 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, in Berber Isli (the betrothed), a riverin North Africa. It rises in western Morocco in the S. W. of Ud̲j̲da, runs from S. W. to N. E. through the land of the Angad, passing near Ud̲j̲da, then under the name of Wēd Bū Nuʿaim joins the Muila, a tributary on the left bank of the Tafna. Several battles have been fought on the banks of the Isly. The ʿAbdalwādī Sulṭān Yag̲h̲morāsen was defeated there by the Marīnids in 648 (1250) and 670 (1271). On Aug. 14, 1844 Marshal Bugeaud won a decisive victory there over the Moroccan troops commanded by Mūlāy Muḥam…

Bougie

(1,804 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Arabic: Bid̲j̲āya, Kabylian: Bogait̲h̲), a town on the coast of Algeria (department Constantine), Long 5° 9’ (Greenwich), Lat. 36° 49’ N., Population in 1906: 5528. The town is built in an amphitheatre formed by the outermost spurs of the Ḏj̲ebel Gūrāya (2000 feet) around a bay, well sheltered from the winds from the open sea by high cliffs. The temperature is remarkably mild in winter and as the rainfall is very abundant, the vegetation is luxurious (olives, holm-oaks, cork-trees etc.). ¶ Of the history of Bougie for the first three centuries after the Muḥammadan invasion …

Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a

(894 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, Beylerbey of Algiers. He was the son of Ḵh̲air al-Dīn [q. v.] and a Mooress. His father’s influence with the Porte obtained him the office of Pas̲h̲a of Algiers in 1544 and he was entrusted with the task of restoring Turkish power in western Algeria where it had been considerably weakened. In 1546, Ḥasan conducted a campaign against the Spaniards in the Tlemcen district, but just as he had come face to face with the Christian troops near Arbal he had to return to Algiers as his father had died…

Bilma

(673 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, an oasis of the Sahara on the caravan route from the Lake of Chad to Tripoli at a height of 1016 feet, belongs to the group of oases, called Kawār by the Arabs, and Henneri Tug̲h̲e by the Tebbu (= Rocky Valley according to Nachtigal). Kawār occupies the centre of a sandstone basin of the cretaceous period beneath which impermeable schists collect, not far from the surface, the water which filters down from the mountains of Tibesti. It is a valley running from north to south, about 60 miles lon…

Sahara

(2,429 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(al-Ṣaḥrāʾ), an African desert. Ṣaḥrāʾ is the feminine of the adjective aṣḥar, “of a fawn colour”. The word is applied by some writers to a combination of stony soil, steppes and sands (cf. al-Idrīsī, ed. de Goeje, p. 37 note), while the word mud̲j̲diba, is more particularly applied to areas covered with moving sands and absolutely devoid of water (cf. Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, Taḳwīm al-Buldān, ed. Reinaud and de Slane, p. 137; transl. Reinaud, it. 190). Leo African us uses it as a synonym for desert in general (Schefer I, i. 5). The Sahara lies between Barbary, Tripolitania, Cyrenaica and Marma…

al-Mag̲h̲rib

(798 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, the name given by Arab writers to that part of Africa which Europeans have called Barbary or Africa Minor and then North Africa, and which includes Tripolitania, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. The word mag̲h̲rib means the west, the setting sun, in opposition to mas̲h̲riḳ , the east, the rising sun (Levant), but as Ibn K̲h̲aldūn remarks, the general denomination was applied to a particular region. The extent of this area, moreover, varies according to different authors. Some oriental writers (e.g. al-Muḳaddasī) includ…

al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr

(955 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, Alcazarquívir, a town in Northern Morocco, about 50 miles south of Tangier on the right bank of the Wādī Lukkus; at one time, this ran through it, but the course of the stream was diverted to prevent inundations. Lying in a vast plain commanded on the east by heights, it is divided into two parts, al-S̲h̲arīʿa in the north and Bāb al-Wād on the south, between which lies the market-place. The only buildings of any importance are the great mosque which is pre-Almohad, the mosque of Sīdī al-Azmīrī and the Djāmiʿ al-Sayda, finished in 1100/1689. Within and around the town are many ḳubbas

Awrās

(1,262 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Aurès; Αύράοɩον ὄρος in Procopius, De bello vand., i, 8, ii, 12-13. 19-20) mountain massif of Algeria, forming part of the Eastern Saharan Atlas. So far it has not been possible to discover the meaning of the word Awrās. The Awrās is a compact massif 8,000 sq. km. in area, which extends from the depression leading from Batna to Biskra as far, Khenchela and the valley of the Wādi ’l-ʿArab, between the high plains of southern Constantino. (Sbāk̲h̲) and the Saharan depression of the Zibān. Its summits (Ḏj̲ibāl Chélia, 2,327 m., and Kef…

al-Ḳaṣr al-Ṣag̲h̲īr

(675 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town in Morocco, ow in ruins. It lay on the south bank of the Straits of Gibraltar, 14 miles W. of Ceuta, 23 miles ¶ E. of Tangier, at the head of a bay sheltered by a spur of the Ḏj̲ebel G̲h̲omāri at the mouth of a navigable river. In ancient times this site was perhaps occupied by a Phoenician factory and then by a Roman town (Lissa or Exilissa of Ptolemy). A fortress was erected there quite early in the period of Muslim occupation, in 90/708-9, according to al-Ziyānī, in Archives Marocaines , vi, 494, on the territory of the Maṣmūda, whence the name of Ḳaṣr Maṣmūda (cf. Ibn K̲h̲aldūn, Hist , des Berb…

al-Madiyya

(706 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, al-Madya , Lemdiya , in French Médéa , a town of Algeria situated about 100 km./60 miles to the south of Algiers (in lat. 36° 15′ 50′′ N., long. 2° 45′ E.), at an altitude of 920 m./3,018 ft. and on the northern border of the mountainous massif which divides the high plateau from the Mittīd̲j̲a. Down to the French occupation, it could only be reached by a bridle-path over the Muzāya pass (979 m./3,270 ft.). The bui…

al-Muʿaskar

(694 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Mʿaskar in the local pronunciation; in French, Mascara ), Arabic “military encampment”, a town of Algeria, situated in lat. ¶ 35°26′ N. and long. 4°32′ W. at a distance of 60 miles/96 km. to the south-east of Oran (Wahrān). It lies on the southern slope of the Beni Chougran (Banū S̲h̲uḳrān) range (which rise to 3,054 feet/900 m.), called by the local people S̲h̲āreb errīḥ “drinker of the wind”, and is built on the edge of a ravine at the bottom of which flows the Wādī Sīdī Tūd̲j̲imān and on the other side of which…

Djidjelli

(1,239 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Gegel in Leo Atricanus; Zizeri, Zigeri-Gigerry, Gigeri in western writers), a coastal town in Algeria, 70 km. west of Bougie and 50 km. east of Collo. Geographical position 36° 49′ 54″ N. 5° 44′ 38″ E. Population 21,200 inhabitants (1955). The ancient town of Djidjelli stood high up, where the citadel still stands, on a rocky peninsula which juts out between two bays, one to the west, small and very sheltered, the other lying to the east in a deep basin divided from the open sea by a line of reefs. The present town was built after th…

Kanem

(1,714 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(a. Kānim), today the name of a prefecture (capital Mao) in the republic of Chad. It is bounded in the north by Borkou, in the east by Batha, in the south by Chari-Baguirmi, in the southwest by the department of Lac and in the west by the republic of Nigeria (population 170,000). Its borders do not correspond exactly to those of the region which was one of the most ancient kingdoms of Africa and stretched, according to the most widely. accepted view, as far as the caravan route from Kawar [ q.v] to Lake Chad in the west, to Baḥr al ¶ G̲h̲azal [ q.v.] in the south, to the depression of the Egueї in…

Ḏj̲ijelli

(1,342 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Gegel in Leo Africanus; the Zi-zeri, Zigeri-Gigerry, Gigeri of western writers) a town on the Algerian coast, 50 miles west of Bougie and 30 east of Collo in 36° 49′ 54″ N. Lat. and 5° 44′ 23″ E. Long. (Greenwich) with 6300 inhabitants including 1300 Europeans. The old town of Ḏj̲ijelli was built on a rocky peninsula where the citadel still stands, extending between two bays, one on the west, small and well sheltered, and the eastern, wind-swept, separated from the open sea by a ridge of rock. The mod…

Ḏj̲enne

(1,121 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town in the French Sūdān, 200 miles S. W. of Timbuktu and 100 N. E. of Segu Sikoro, in Lat. 13° 35’ N. and Long 9° E. (of Greenw.). From the name Ḏj̲enne, pronounced Ḏj̲inni or Ginni, is probably derived the name Guinea given by the Portuguese in the xvith century to West Africa. The first European to reach Ḏj̲enne was the Frenchman René Caillié (11th March 1828). Ḏj̲enne lies at some distance from the left bank of the Bani, a tributary of the Niger on a rocky plateau in the midst of a wide plain which is covered with water in the rainy season. This remarkable…

ʿAmūr

(1,074 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Ḏj̲ebel), a mountain massif of Southern Algeria, situated between the Ḳṣūr mountains in the S. W. and the mountains of the Awlād Nail in the N. E. [see algeria, atlas]. It is an elevation stretching from N. E. to S. W. at a length of about 62 and a breadth of about 37 miles, and covers an area of about 2700 square miles. Its height is only from 650 to 975 feet above the plateaux from which it rises in gentle slopes; towards the Sahara, however, it slopes down fairly abruptly. The structure of the massif is rather irregular…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(1,183 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
b. His̲h̲ām, emperor of Morocco, born in 1778. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was the son of Mūlāi His̲h̲ām, governor of Mogador, brother of the sultan Mūlāi Sulaimān. His uncle nominated him on two occasions as his successor. On the death of Mūlāi Sulaimān on the 4th Rabīʿ I 1238 (22d Nov. 1822), ʿAbd al-Raḥmān had little difficulty in having himself proclaimed sultan. The Bok̲h̲arī handed over to him the 40000 piastres accumulated by his predecessor; two claimants, Ibrāhīm b. Yazīd and Sulaimān, his own cousin, who was proclaimed sultan by the people of T…

Gafsa

(1,063 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Ḳafṣa), a town in Tunisia, 146 miles S. of Ḳairawān, 26 miles from Tunis and 130 from Sfax, with which it is connected by a railroad built to serve the phosphate deposits of Metlawī, 26 miles E. of Gafsa; it lies in 36° 24′ 32″ N. Lat. and 8° 40′ E. Long (Greenw.). It has a population of about 5000 including 360 Europeans and 379 Jews. Gafsa occupies a remarkable geographical and strategic position. The town, built on a rounded eminence 1150 feet high, commands the ravine of the Wādī Bāʾis̲h̲, between the mountainous massif of the Ḏj̲ebel Orbata in the S. E.,…

Bizerta

(928 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, in the Arab authors: Benzert, a town on the northern coast of Tunisia, about 40 miles to the N. E. of Tunis; 9° 53’ East Long. (Greenwich) and 37° 17’ N. Lat., Population 35,000. Bizerta lies between the sea and a lake which runs 11 miles inland and covers an area of 35 square miles. The location of Bizerta, commanding the strait between Sicily and the African coast, renders its position of the highest strategic importance. Bizerta occupies the site of the Phoenician town of Hippo-Diarrhytus (It. Hippone Zarito, Ar. Benzert). It became a Carthaginian possession, was ne…

S̲h̲oṭṭ

(271 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, Arabie S̲h̲aṭṭ [q. v.]. The principal S̲h̲oṭṭ are, on the high plateaus, the Tigri S̲h̲oṭṭ in Moroccan territory; the S̲h̲oṭṭ G̲h̲arbī formed by two basins, the S̲h̲oṭṭ of the Hamyan to the East and the S̲h̲oṭṭ of Mahaia to the West, and the S̲h̲oṭṭ S̲h̲erḳī situated to the South of Saida. In the central district between the Tell Atlas and the mountains of the Ūled Naʾil, the Ẓahr al-S̲h̲erḳī and the Ẓahr al-G̲h̲arbī; more to the East the S̲h̲oṭṭ of the Hodna occupies the centre of the depressio…

Benīḳa

(136 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, the government offices of the Mak̲h̲zen in Marocco. The Benīḳa are large rooms in one of the courts of the Dār al-Mak̲h̲zen in Fās (Fez) or wherever the Sulṭān is for the time. The viziers reside there with their secretaries and see that business is dispatched. The following nine officials are each entitled to a “benīḳa”: the Wazīr (Minister for the Interior), the Wazīr al-Baḥr (Foreign Minister), the Amīn al-Umanāʾ (Minister of Finance), the Amīn al-Dak̲h̲al (in charge of the revenues), the Amīn al-S̲h̲kāra (entrusted with the expenditure), the Amīn al-Ḥisāb (Accountant-General), t…

Ḳalʿat Banī ʿAbbās

(645 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town in Algeria (department of Constantine) 24 miles N.E. of Burd̲j̲ Bū ʿArrarīd̲j̲. Ḳalʿa occupies at the height of 3,500 feet a natural fortress formed by a plateau surrounded on three sides by rugged and deep ravines, 1800 to 2000 feet high and joined to the adjoining country by a narrow tongue with precipices on either side. The town is divided into four quarters, which formerly were frequently fighting with one another and one of which is now almost in ruins. It is the most important ce…

Bagirmi

(2,076 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Baḳīrmī or Bakīrmī), a country in the Central Sudan, to the south of Lake Chad. Bagirmi was for a long time unknown to Europeans. Denham visited the northern part in 1824, being the first European to do so. Barth, setting out from Bornū, reached Massenya and gathered important historical information on his journey (5 March—22 August 1852). Nachtigal, in 1872, ascended the S̲h̲āri as far as Baing̲h̲anné, but could not penetrate into the interior on account of the troubled state of the country. To …

al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr

(1,012 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(ḳṣar al-kebīr), a town in Northern Morocco, about 50 miles south of Tangier on the right bank of the Wādī Lukkos, which at one time ran through it, but the course of the stream was diverted to prevent inundations. Lying in a vast plain commanded on the east by heights it is divided into two parts, al-S̲h̲ariʿa in the north and Bāb al-Wād on the south, between which lies the sūḳ or market-place. The only buildings of any importance are the great mosque which is pre-Almohad, the mosque of Sīdī al-Azmīrī and the Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-Saida, finished in 1689. Within and around the town are many ḳubba’s dedicated…

ʿArūd̲j̲

(1,406 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, famous Turkish Corsair, co-founder of the Algerian-Turkish state. Christian authors often give him the name Barbarossa, which however rather belongs to his brother Ḵh̲air al-Dīn [q.v.] His origin has been much disputed. Some take him to be the son of a Turkish captain, others that of a Greek or Albanian renegade or even of a nobleman of Saintonge. The most probable view is that his father was a potter of the island Metelino (the ancient Lesbos). From earliest youth along with his two brothers Ḵh̲air al-Dīn, Elias and Is…

Tenes

(760 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town in Algeria on the coast, 125 miles from Algiers, 100 miles E. of Mostaganem and 35 N. of Orleans, a town in the valley of the Chelif; its position is 36° 30’ 50” N. Lat. 1° 18’ E. Long (Greenwich). The town is built on a rocky plateau commanding the sea; the harbour lies below in a bay sheltered from the east winds by the bulk of Cape Tenes, but unprotected against the north and west which makes the anchorage unsafe in spite of the considerable work done to secure the protection of ship…

K̲h̲air al-Dīn

(2,260 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Barbarossa), the famous Turkish corsair and Beylerbey of Algiers and brother of ʿArūd̲j̲ [q. v.]. In spite of the statement to the contrary by Haëdo, it is he who is referred to by the epithet Barberousse (Barbarossa, Aenobarbus) in the diplomatic correspondence of the French court. Born at Metellin about 888 (1483) he was at first a pirate under the command of his brother and acquired a great reputation for skill and bravery. When ʿArūd̲j̲ set out on his expedition against Tlemcen he gave his …

al-Hodh

(274 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Ḥōḍ), a semi-desert region in Western Africa. It is a plain, lying to the east of Timbuktu between the Sahel on the south and the Tagant on the north, stretching over a distance of about 200 miles. A zone of steppes called Mrāya (mirror) separates the Hodh from that part of the western Sahara known by the name of al-Ḏj̲ūf. Three well-defined divisions may be distinguished in the Hodh. In the south is a region of sand and thorny brushwood, fairly rich in wells and sustaining quite a numerous pop…

Ḥasan Ag̲h̲a

(399 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, Ḵh̲alīfa of Ḵh̲air al-Dīn in Algiers. He was born in Sardinia and had been taken prisoner by Ḵh̲air al-Dīn on a raid and enrolled among his eunuchs. He soon won the confidence of his master who made him kiaya (major-domo) and entrusted him with the government of Algiers during his campaign against Tunis [see k̲h̲air al-dīn]. When Ḵh̲air al-Dīn was recalled to Turkey in 1636, he left the government in his hands and Ḥasan filled his office to the general satisfaction. “To this day”, writes Haedo, “many of those who knew him say that there never was a more just Pas̲h̲a”. Charles V’s attack on Alg…

Ceuta

(2,399 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a maritime town in Morocco on the Strait of Gibraltar, 10 miles south of Gibraltar, 40 north-west of Tetwān and 140 north of Fas (Fez), with 9694 inhabitants; Lat. 35° 54′ N. Long. 5° 18′ W. (Greenw.). It is fortified and is the most important of the Spanish presidios. Ceuta is built on a peninsula running from west to east terminating in a rocky mass (Ḏj̲ebel al-Mīna) surmounted by a lighthouse. The peninsula itself is dominated in the centre by the Monte del Hacho which rises to a height of 600 feet. The town is divided into two parts, the …

Ḳerḳina

(432 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Kerkenna), a group of islands off the eastern coast of Tunisia on a level with Sfax in 34° 35′—34° 50′ N. Lat. An arm of the sea about 25 miles broad and full of shallows which make navigation impossible for ships of large tonnage separates them from the coast. The islands are two in number — S̲h̲arḳī (Charki; the Cercina of the ancients) to the N. E. and G̲h̲arbī (Cercinitis) to the S. E. The first is 15 miles long and 4½ miles broad on an average. The coast is much indented and fringed on the…

Awrās

(3,984 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Aurès; in the sixth century Αὐράσιον ὄροΣ in Procopius, De bell. Vandal., i. 8, ii. 12— 13, 19—20) a mountainmass in Algeria in the Sahara Atlas [see Algeria, Atlas]. The meaning of the word Awrās has not yet been ascertained. It is probably a word of Berber origin that appears in several mountainnames. Possibly the Ḏj̲ebel Awrās to the South of Ḵh̲ens̲h̲ela hats given its name to the whole system. The Awrās forms a quadrangle which from ¶ North to South and from East to West measures about 65 miles and in the south of the province of Constantine covers an area of about…

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(2,418 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
b. Muhyi’l-Dīn al-Ḥasanī, the Emīr, born in 1223 (1808) near al-Maʿaskar (Mascara). His family was one of the most influential in the Hās̲h̲im tribe, which, after having resided for a longtime in Morocco, removed and established itself in the 18th century in the beylic of Oran. In addition to the prestige derived by this family from its princely source was added the reputation for holiness gained by Muṣṭafā b. Muḥammed b. Muk̲h̲tār, the grandfather of ʿAbd al-Ḳādir, and above all by Muḥyi’l-Dīn, his father. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir, then, grew …

Tabarka

(876 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town on the Tunisian coast, 75 miles W.N.W. of Tunis and 10 miles E. of the Algerian frontier. It is built on a sandy bay surrounded by hills at the mouth of a rather narrow fertile valley watered by the Wād al-Kabīr, which descends from the mountains of Ain-Draham (Ḵh̲umiria). Three quarters of a mile from the shore lies a rocky islet, 2,000 yards long and 500 broad. A roadstead lies between this island and the mainland accessible on the east side to ships of medium tonnage but only possibl…

Ig̲h̲arghar

(518 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, the valley of a river of the Quaternian epoch in the Sahara, which has now disappeared and is reduced to a subterranean sheet of water. The Ig̲h̲arg̲h̲ar, according to Duveyrier, rises near Azakān-n-Akūr, in ¶ the massif of the Haggar at a height of about 6000 feet. It ends near the oasis of Gūg, in the south of Tuggūrt, after a course of about 800 miles (900, if one includes the Wād G̲h̲ir, which is its continuation). Its basin extends from the. crests of Tademayt in the west to the oasis of G̲h̲āt in the east and from the Haggar to the S̲h̲ott Melg̲h̲ir, i. e. from the 23rd to the 34th degree of North…

Tūbū

(1,120 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a people of the Eastern Sahara. The Tūbū are distributed over an immense territory lying between the Libyan desert on the east and the Haggar on the west, Fezzan in the north and the region of Tchad in the south. In Fezzan, they constitute the greater part of the district of Gatrūn; they are found in Kūfra; they occupy Tibesti, Borkū, Bodele, the northern port of Wadai, the valley of the Baḥr al-G̲h̲azal; they are very numerous in Kanem and in the oasis of Kawar. The name Tūbū or Tibbū was giv…

Kaarta

(969 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, the region of the French Sudan between the upper waters of the Senegal and the Sahara. The boundaries of Kaarta are in the north the land of the Dowais̲h̲ Moors and the Hōd̲h̲ [q. v.], in the east Bakhunu, in the south Beledugu and Fuladugu, and in the west the Senegal from the western branch of the Kulu pool to the confluence with the Baulé. It is a vast schistose plateau inclining towards the S. E. so that the majority of its rivers run towards the Senegal. The climate is that of the Sahelia…

Bardo

(413 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, residence of the Beys of Tunis, lying 1¼ miles to the southwest of it. The site of Bardo, famous for its coolness in summer, appears to have been early visited by rich citizens who had gardens and country houses here. Here was the park of Abū Fahr laid out by the Ḥafṣid Emīr al-Mustanṣir (1249—1277) with its groves of rare trees, its lake watered by the aqueduct of Zag̲h̲wān, which was large enough to be sailed on by the ladies of the Ḥarem in boats, its summerhouses inlaid with mosaic and decorated with woodcarvings (see Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, Histoire des Berbers, transl, de Slane, ii. 339). In the xvith c…

al-Ḥusain

(811 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
b. al-Ḥusain, last Dey of Algiers (1818—1830). Born in Smyrna about 1765, Ḥusain was filling the office of Ḵh̲ōd̲j̲a al-Ḵh̲ail when the Dey ʿAlī struck down by the plague appointed him his successor. Ḥusain was proclaimed without opposition. He was a well educated man, moderate in his views, who did not desire power and only accepted it with reluctance. He was considered benevolent and just, and hastened to inaugurate his reign by an amnesty and the abolition of various violent measures taken by his predecessors. …

Miliana

(622 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town in Algeria (department of Algiers), 60 miles S. W. of Algiers. It is built on a plateau at a height of 2,400 feet on the flank of the Zaccar G̲h̲arbī (5,270 feet) and commands on the east and south the valley of the S̲h̲elif. Owing to the comparative mildness of the climate and the abundance of running water it is surrounded by gardens and vineyards tilled by natives, while European colonists have created on the adjoining slopes a vine-growing district whose produce is famous. It is an …

Zāb

(1,014 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a region of Algeria. The name Zāb (plur. Zibān) is given to the area around Biskra measuring about 125 miles from W. to E. and 30 to 40 from N. to S. It is a rather flat plain shading in the south into the Sahara and bordered on the north by the southern slopes of the Saharan Atlas, but having easy communication with the depression of the Hodna and the plateaus of Constantine through a wide gap which opens up between the hills of Zāb and the Awrās. Being subject to desert influences Zāb has only rare a…

Atlas

(3,244 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
The collective designation of the whole mountain system which forms the skeleton of North Africa and stretches from the Atlantic Ocean through Morocco, Algeria and Tunis to the Gulf of Tunis. The name, which was already in use among the Greeks, seems to be a corruption of the Berber word Adrār (“mountain”). Although North Africa was a Roman possession the ancients appear to have had only very indistinct notions of the Atlas, ¶ Strabo (Book xvii) identifies the Atlas of the Greeks with the mountain called Dyrin (Berber: Deren) by the natives, which lay in the extreme west of Maureta…

al-Kef

(940 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(), a town in Tunisia, 110 miles S. W. of Tunis and about 20 from the Algerian frontier, situated in 36° 11′ N. Lat. and 8° 30′E. Long. The population in 1911 was 6,312, including 1,200 Europeans and 800 Jews. Many of the latter are descended from the jews who used to live among the Beduins, whose customs and dress they had adopted. The word kef means “rock”. It is. given on account of the situation of the town on a spur of the Ḏj̲abal Dyr at a height varying from 2,486 feet in the S.W. to 2,853 in the N.E. Before the establishment of the French protectorate,…

Ḥammādids

(912 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a Berber dynasty in Central Mag̲h̲rib, which was founded in 405 (1014) ¶ by Ḥammād b. Bulukkīn [q. v.] and overthrown in 547 (1152) by the Almohads. They had to wage continual warfare on the Zenāta, who threatened them from the west, the Zīrīds, the former lords of the central Mag̲h̲rib and lastly from the second half of the xith century onwards against the Hilālī Arabs also. Al-Ḳāʾid, Ḥammād’s successor (419—446 = 1028—1154-1055), defeated Ḥammāma, son of Muʿizz b. Zīrī b. ʿAṭīya and forced his cousin, the Zīrīd al-Muʿizz b. Bādīs, the ruler of Ḳairaw…

al-Ḥasan

(435 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
b. ʿAlī, the last Zīrīd ruler of Mahdīya (515—543 = 1121-1122—1148-1149). He was still a child when his father ʿAlī died and had to leave the administration to his freemen. They were particularly occupied with warding off the attacks of the Normans of Sicily. In 1122 Admiral George of Antioch seized the island of Cossira (Pantellaria) and the castle of Cape Dimas and began to lay siege to Mahdīya, but was forced to return to his ships after severe fighting in which he lost heavily. In 1135 the Ch…

Tūzer

(765 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town in Southern Tunisia, 230 miles S.S.W. of Tunis and 120 W. of Gabes in 33° 54′ 48″ N. Lat. and 8° 8′ E. Long. (Greenwich). Tūzer is the most important place in al-Ḏj̲arīd [cf. bilād al-d̲j̲arīd]. Situated on the isthmus which separates the S̲h̲oṭṭ G̲h̲arsa in the N. from the S̲h̲oṭṭ al-Ḏj̲arīd in the S. and in the immediate neighbourhood of the latter; it consists of a town and a few scattered villages in the oasis which runs southwards over an area of about four sq. miles. The principal town is quite regularly ¶ built; the majority of the houses are built of bricks arranged in geo…

K̲h̲orāsān

(481 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Banū), a Tunisian dynasty. The establishment of the Banū Ḵh̲orāsān in Tunis was a consequence of the Ḥilālī invasion. Irritated because the Zīrid Sulṭān al-Muʿizz did not protect them against the brigandage of the Arabs, the inhabitants of Tunis in 451 (1059) asked the Ḥammādid sovereign of al-Ḳalʿa to send them a governor. This prince chose for this office ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Ḵh̲orāsān, a personage originally from Tunis according to certain authors, but belonging, according to Ibn…

Iraten

(551 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, Berber Ait Iraten (cf. Ait), Arabic Banū Raten, a tribe of Great Kabylia, whose territory is bounded on the north by the Sebau, in the west by the Wādi Aisi, which separates them from the Banū Yenni, in the south by the district of the Ait Yaḥyā and in the east by that of the Ait Frausen, and forms a hilly country from 3000 ¶ to. 3500 feet in height, yielding olives and figs and some corn. The inhabitants are settled in several villages, of which the most important are ʿAdeni, Tawrirt Amoḳrān, Usammör, and Agemun. To-day the Banū Raten form a single dwār community (cf. dawār at the end) of 9781 sou…

Dar al-Bēḍā

(822 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Baiḍāʾ), called Casablanca in Europe, a town on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, about 200 miles S. E. of Tangier and 200 N. W. of Mogador, in 33° 37’ N. Lat. and 12° 15’ W. Long. (Greenw.), with 30,000 inhabitants, including 4000—5000 Jews and 500—600 Europeans (Spaniards, French, English, German and Portuguese). The town is surrounded by walls crowned with towers and pierced by four gates. It is divided into three sections: the Madīna with houses built of stone in the Moorish style but with outer windows, traversed by broad irregular streets; the Mallāḥ or Jewish quarter; the Tnākar, a quar…

Gabes

(1,684 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Ḳābis), a town in Southern Tunisia, in 33° 52′ 58″ N. Lat., 10° 4′ 6″ E. Long. (Greenw.), 80 miles south of Sfax and 250 south of Tunis, on the west coast of the Gulf of Gabes or Lesser Syrtis, on the side of a rocky isthmus, which separates the sea from S̲h̲oṭṭ al-Fed̲j̲ed̲j̲. It is the capital of the district of Arad. Gabes includes three settlements; the town of Gabes, a European suburb with 1200 inhabitants of whom 500 are French, and the native villages of Ḏj̲ara (4000 inh.), Chenini (1000) and Menzel (3500). The European town lies on the right bank o…

ʿAreg

(896 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, plural of the Arabic word ʿirḳ (literally ‘vein’). As a geographical term this word, or more frequently the singular ʿerg, is used as a name of the vast stretches covered with dunes, which form about one ninth of the area of the Sahara [q. v.]. In the Berber dialects they are called ig’idi or edeïen. The most important of these ‘seas of sand’ are the Libyan desert between the Egyptian oases and Tibesti, — the edeïen of the Touareg country between the Ḥamada of Ting̲h̲ert, the Ḥamada al-Ḥamrāʾ, the Tassili and the Ḥamada of Murzuk, — the Mag̲h̲ter …

Ḏj̲ag̲h̲būb

(347 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a Zāwiya of the Senūsī in the Oasis of Faredg̲h̲a on the frontier between Tripolitania and Egypt, fifteen days’ journey S.E. of Beng̲h̲āzī and two S. W. of the Oasis of Sīwa: Lat. 29° 47′ N., Long. 24° 20′ E. (Greenw.). This place was uninhabited when S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Sīdī Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Senūsī, founder of the Senūsīya order, settled there on his return from Mecca and Cairo in 1855. He built a Zāwiya on a rocky spur commanding the oasis, dug a spring out of the rocks and planted gardens and a palm-grove. He died and was buried there in 1859; beside him lies one of his sons Sīdī Muḥammad S̲h̲arīf, (d. 27t…

Medea

(606 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town in Algeria (department of Algiers), 60 miles S. of Algiers, in 36° 15′ 50″ N. Lat. and 2° 45′ E. Long. (Greenwich). Medea lies at an altitude of 3,070 feet on the northern border of the mountainous massif which divides the high plateaus from the Mitid̲j̲a. Down to the French occupation, it could only be reached by a bridle-path over the Muzaia pass (3,270 feet). The building of a road through the gorges of the Chiffa, alongside of which a railway now runs, has made access to it easier. …

Barḳa

(1,209 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, the district of Barḳa, a part of the Turkish Wilāyet Beng̲h̲azi [q. v.], the ancient Cyrenaïca, is a wide chalk plateau from 1200— 1600 feet high and about 100 miles broad. In the north its steep and rugged slopes fall abruptly towards the Mediterranean from which it is separated only by a narrow strip of lowland, while in the south it sinks very slowly down into the Libyan desert. The edge of the plateau is formed by a line of heights which under the names of Ḏj̲ebel Erkula and Ḏj̲ebel al-Dak…

Hausas

(1,899 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a negro people in the Sūdān. They occupy the zone included between the Sahara on the north, Bornu on the east, the bend of the Niger on the west and the coast countries ¶ of the Gulf of Guinea (Togo, Dahomey, Benin and the Cameroons) on the south. It is one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa; according to Robinson it numbers about 15,000,000 souls. The Hausas are very clearly distinguished in physique from other black races. As a rule they are tall; their hands and feet are small, their features regular and their physiognomy intelligent. They are active a…

al-Goléa

(453 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(al-Ḳulaiʿa), a ḳṣar and oasis in the Algerian Sahara, 166 miles south of G̲h̲ardaya, 240 southwest of Wārglā and 245 north of ʿĪn Ṣālaḥ, 30° 31′ 12″ N. Lat., 3° 7′ 30″ E. (Greenw.), population 2500. Al-Goléa, the name of which means “the little fortress”, called in Berber Taurirt, consists of two parts, the ḳṣar proper built on the northern flank of a “garat” which serves as storehouses for the nomads and a lower part occupied by the settled population. The latter is composed of Zenāga, who came from Gurāra and of manumitted negroes ¶ who cultivate the gardens of the oasis. A subterrane…

Air

(2,265 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(or Asben) is a mountainous district of the Sahara between Lat. 20° and 16° N. Air is 280 miles in length from north to south, and 60 in breadth from east to west in its central part. Its area may be estimated at 5800 square miles, the population at a number varying between 60 000 and 100 000 inhabitants. This country is at present one of the least known regions of Africa. Barth explored it in 1850, and it was afterwards visited by E. de Bary, who was prevented by the hostility of the natives fro…

Awd̲j̲ila

(379 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a Tripolitan oasis situated 150 miles south-southwest of the coast of the Gulf of Gabes and 152 miles east-north-east of Murzuk and distant about 60 hours journey from Beng̲h̲āzī. Ibn Ḥawḳal describes it as a small town which had just shortly before been incorporated in the province of Barka and makes particular mention of its richness in date-palms (Ibn Ḥawḳal, transl. by de Slane, yourn. As., Series 3, xiii. 163). A century later it is mentioned by al-Bakrī as a thickly populated town with bazaars and several mosques and he adds that Awd̲j̲ila is really th…

Ḥafṣids

(1,962 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a Berber dynasty of northern Africa, which ruled Ifrīḳīya for over three centuries (626—981 = 1228—1574). It took its name from S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Ḥafṣ ʿOmar, chief of the Hintāta, one of the first disciples of Ibn Tūmart and one of ʿAbd al-Muʾmin’s most faithful lieutenants. [Cf. the article almohads, i. 317b]. His descendants enjoyed such esteem that, according to Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, they alternated with the descendants of ʿAbd al-Muʾmin as governors of Spain, the Mag̲h̲rib and Ifrīḳīya. It thus came about that Abū Muḥammad ¶ b. Abī Ḥafṣ was appointed governor of Ifrīḳīya by the Calip…

Kabylia

(6,482 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a mountainous country in the Algerian Tell. The name Kabylia or land of the Kabyls (Arab. Bilād al-Ḳabāʾil) is of comparatively modern origin; it is not found in the Arab historians or geographers, nor is it usual among the natives. It seems only to have been introduced as a geographical name by European scholars since the sixteenth century. The name Kabyls is taken from the Arabic ḳabāʾil, plur. of ḳabīla, “tribe”, which some Arab writers use as a synonym for Berbers; this is found as early as the author of the Ḳirṭās, who several times (e. g. p. 217 and 238 of the Arabic text), in …

ʿAin Draham

(142 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
is a locality in the north of Tunis, at an elevation of 2641 feet, on the very pass between the Ḏj̲ebel Fersig (2998 feet) and the Ḏj̲ebel Bir (3343 feet), through which the road runs, which leads from the valley of the Med̲j̲erda (Soukh el-Arba) to the Mediterranean (Tabarka). Consequently ʿAin Draham is the most important strategical point of Ḵh̲ūmiria, commanding the whole of that mountainous region. During the French expedition of 1881 it was occupied by the troops of General Delebecque. Si…

Ḏj̲erba

(3,030 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(the Gerbo of Leo Africanus, and Gelves of Marmol) is an island in the Mediterranean in the Gulf of Gabes. It is in the form of an irregular hexagon, measuring 26 miles from east to west and from north to south from 11 to 26 miles and having an area of 224 sq. miles. An arm of the sea about 40 miles broad separates the western side of the island from the Tunisian coast while in the south it is only separated from the mainland by the “Sea of Bugrara”, which is practically a lake as it only communicates…

Kanem

(2,974 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a country in the Central Sūdān, east and north-east of Lake Tchad. Until recent years Kanem was only known from the accounts of Barth, who visited a part of it in 1851, and Nachtigal, who crossed it in 1871 on his way to Borku. But from 1900 onwards, the work of French scientific missions, as well as the explorations of officers and officials entrusted with the administration of the “territoire militaire du Tchad”, have made it possible to rectify and complete the data furnished by these two travellers. The name Kanem, taken in the widest acceptation, is applied, according to Nach…

al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ ʿOmar

(934 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a religious fanatic and conqueror in the Sūdān, founder of the Tuculor kingdom (1797—1864). Born at Aloar in Futā in Senegal, ʿOmar Saidū Tal began his theological studies under the direction of his father, a celebrated marabout, completed them in Wabata among the Moors of Tagant and made the pilgrimage to Mecca about 1820. During his stay in the holy city he attached himself to S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥammad al-G̲h̲ālī, a pupil of Tid̲j̲ānī’s and entered the Tid̲j̲ānī order. On his return to Africa he s…

Tell

(154 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a term applied by the European geographers to the district of north Africa lying near to and along the sea-coast. It is the Arabic word tell “hill”. The Tell area is an undulating region covered with ranges of hills belonging for the most part to the Atlas system interspersed with plateaus of varying extent and height. As a result of the beneficent effect of the moist winds from the Ocean and the Mediterranean, the Tell is the best watered region in North Africa. It is the land of systematic agriculture and forests in …

Azemmūr

(566 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Fr. Azemmour), a town on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, 50 miles S.W. of Casablanca and 7 miles N. E. of Mazagan, on the left bank and near the north of the Umm al-Rabīʿa. This river is navigable even by ships of small tonnage on account of a sandbank that bars its entrance. Azemmūr therefore, though it is the natural market for the sale of goods from the ¶ Dukkala district, ranks far behind Mazagan in commercial importance. The town has some 5000 inhabitants including many Jews but no Europeans. It is for this very reason that it has preserved its native chara…

Ifren

(664 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a Berber tribe, which played an important part in Northern Africa during the first three centuries of the Hid̲j̲ira. The Ifren whom the Berber genealogists trace back to Īfrī b. Iṣlīten b. Masrā b. Zākiyā b. Ursik b. Adīdat b. Ḏj̲ānā were the most powerful of the Zenāta tribes at the time of the Arab conquest. Their various sections were scattered through the south of Ifrīḳiya (Banū Wārgū, Marand̲j̲īṣa) and on the edge of the high Algerian plateaus in the regions of Tāhart and Tlemcen. After h…

Tobna

(532 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town of Central Morocco, which no longer exists. The few traces of it, that survive, lie 3 miles south of Barika (department of Constantine) between the Wādī Barika in the north and the Wādī Bit̲h̲am in the south. The advantages of this position, which commands the passage between the Sahara and the plateaus of the Tell, the S̲h̲oṭṭ Hodna. and the mountains bordering the east of this depression, had been recognised by the Romans. They built here on this site the town of Tubuna, which became a municipium in the time of Septimius Severus, and after a fortress had been built there …

Dey

(650 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a title borne by the rulers of Algiers and Tunis. The word in Turkish signifies a maternal uncle. According to a legend reported by Venture de Paradis ( Alger au XVIIIe siècle: Rev. Africaine 1896, p. 257) the father of the Barbarossas used to enjoin his sons to obey Ḵh̲air al-Dīn, saying, “He will be your Dey”. In reality this word seems to have been originally ¶ applied to a subaltern in the Janissaries. At Tunis towards the end of the xvith century, it denoted the chief of each of the 40 sections into whom Sinān-Pas̲h̲a had divided the militia. In 1 591 these 40 deys ele…

Bornū

(7,621 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a state in Central Sūdān. Bornū is bounded on the north by the Sahara, on the west by the Hausa country, on the south by the Adamaua, in the south-east by the Bagirmi, on the east by Lake Chad. These boundaries are, as Nachtigal points out, rather indefinite in the neighbourhood of the desert, and on the other sides they have continually varied with political circumstances. During the last quarter of the xixth century Bornū might have been regarded as lying between 11° 19′ and 14° 30′ North Lat. and 9° 50′ and 16° 29′ East Long. (Greenw.). Its area may be estimated at about 80,000 square miles. The o…

Bambāra

(1,854 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Bambarra), the, a negro people in the French Sūdān. The Bambāra country is bounded on the north by the land occupied by Moors, in the south by the Mandingo country and in the east by Masina. It lies between 12° and 14° N. Lat. and 4° and 8° W. Long, of Greenwich. Its boundaries are approximately: in the north, a line drawn from Kulodugu to Tambakara; in the south, the upper course of the Senegal from Medine to Bafulabe, the Bakoy to its confluence with the Baule and lastly the Niger ¶ from Bamako to Sansanding. The Bambāra are here found sometimes in very large bodies as in Beludugu …

Adrār

(759 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(in Berber „mountain range“), name of two African regions: Adrār of the Awelimmiden [see tuareg], situated north of the Middle Niger, and Adrār Tmarr, or West Adrār, to the north of Senegal between the newly organized French territory of Mauritania and Southern Morocco. The pronunciation of the natives is, according to Barth, for the former Aderār, for the latter Aderēr. West Adrār is one of the least known parts of the Sahara. Perhaps in the beginning of the 16th century it was visited by the Portuguese settled in Arguin, who came there now and then to trafic and exploit…

G̲h̲omāra

(873 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Gumera in Leo Africanus), a Berber tribe in the western Mag̲h̲rib. Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn numbers it among the Maṣmūdī tribes and traces it back to G̲h̲omār, a son of Maṣmūd, or, according to another tradition, son of Mesṭāf b. Melīl b. Maṣmūd. The G̲h̲omāra are divided into a large number of clans (Benī Ḥamīd, Metīwa, Benī Nāl, Ag̲h̲sāwa, Benī Wazarwāl, Med̲j̲kasa etc.), names which are still to be found at the present day among a number of Rīf tribes. It is rather difficult to define exactly the terri…

K̲h̲omair

(1,118 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Ḵh̲umir). A people of northern Tunis. Ḵh̲umiria has as its boundaries, to the north the Mediterranean sea, to the west the Algerian frontier, to the south the Wādi G̲h̲ezala, a tributary of the Med̲j̲erda, to the east the country of the Nefza and the Chiahia. The area of this region is about 350 square miles. It is a country with a very hilly surface, occupied by a mountain mass stretching as far as Algeria. Although the average altitude hardly exceeds 3,000 feet, these heights cut by deep ravi…

Ḳalʿat Huwāra

(509 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town in Algeria (department of Oran, a mixed commune of Mina) 20 miles N.E. of Mascara, on the Wādī Ḳalʿa, one of the branches of the Hillil. Population (1911): 2072 inhabitants, of whom 2047 natives. Carpetmaking, at one time a flourishing industry here, still employs 500 workmen, although on the decline. Ḳalʿa was founded in the vith (xiith) century by Muḥammad b. Isḥāḳ, chief of the Huwāra, living in the region of Mina. He built a citadel and gathered round it his tribesmen as well as the Masrāta, a Berber clan related to the Huwāra. Isḥāḳ’s desc…

Laghuat

(1,001 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, al-Ag̲h̲wāt, a town andoasis in Southern Algeria, 250 miles south of Algiers in 2° 55’ East. Lat., 33° 48’ N. Lat., at 2,400 feet above sea-level. In 1911 it had 5,598 inhabitants of whom 595 were Europeans. Laghuat which forms part of the “Territoire” of Ghardaïa is the capital of a mixed commune and a native commune of 6,650 square miles with 19,810 inhabitants. The town and the oasis lie on the right bank of the Wēd Mzi, which comes from the Ḏj̲ebel Amūr and finally under the name of Wēd Ḏj̲edi enters the S̲h̲oṭṭ Melg̲h̲ir in the south of the province of…

Ares̲h̲gūl

(869 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, old town, no longer in existence, formerly situated at the mouth of the Tafna, opposite the island of Ras̲h̲gūn, the insula Acra of the ancients. The latter is situated at a distance of 1¼ mile from the Algerian coast under 35° 19′ 28″ N. Lat. and 3° 48′ 53″ W. Long. (Paris); it measures about 2600 feet in length and 650 feet in breadth and reaches in its northern part a height of 195 feet. The coast is very steep, except in the S. W. where it is easily accessible. Ares̲h̲gūl took the place of the Portus Sigensis, which served as harbour to Siga, the capital of the kingdom of Syphax…

al-Ḳaṣr al-Ṣag̲h̲īr

(685 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town in Morocco, now in ruins. It lay on the south bank of the Straits of Gibraltar, 14 miles W. of Ceuta, 23 miles E. of Tangier, at the head of a bay sheltered by a spur of the Ḏj̲ebel G̲h̲omāri at the mouth of a navigable river. In ancient times this site was perhaps occupied by a Phoenician factory and then by a Roman town (Lissa or Exilissa of Ptolemy). A fortress was erected there quite early in the period of Muslim occupation, in 90 (708/9), according to al-Ziyānī, Archives Marocaines, vi. 494, on the territory of the Maṣmūda whence the name of Ḳaṣr Maṣmūda (cf. Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, Hist, des Berbères,…

Ifrīḳiya

(1,318 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(according to Fleischer, Kleinere Schriften, i. 239, more exact than the spelling Ifrīḳīya used hitherto), the name given by the Arabs to the eastern part of Barbary, the name Mag̲h̲rib being reserved for the western part. Ifrīḳiya is simply a corruption of the Latin Africa, which name the Romans gave first of all to the province organised by them after the destruction of Carthage and which was then extended to Barbary ¶ and finally to the whole continent of Africa. Nevertheless the name has been given various fanciful etymologies. “Some”, writes al-Bakrī, “say tha…

Wargla

(1,260 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Ouargla), an oasis in the Algerian Sahara 100 miles S. of Tuggūrt in 31° 58′ N. Lat. and 5° 30′ East Long. (Greenw.) at a height of 320 feet above sea-level. Wargla occupies a depression above a sheet of underground water fed by the subterranean course of the wed Myia which can easily be reached by sinking wells 60 to 150 feet deep. This has enabled palmgroves to be planted there, numbering 500,000 trees all in full productivity and an almost equal number of trees which are dying but might be r…

Gogo

(1,644 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town in the Sūdān on the left bank of the Niger, about 250 miles east of Timbuktu in 16° 12′ 4″ N. Lat. and 42′ 53″ E. (Greenw.). The name Gogo () has been written in various ways by the European translators of the Arab geographers; we find the following forms, Kaogha, Caucau, Kaokao, Kaokou, and Gago in Leo Africanus. Barth writes Gao or Gogo. The etymology of the name moreover is obscure. Al-Bakrī ( Description de l’Afrique, transl. de Slane, p. 399) gives a fantastic explanation of it. “The inhabitants say that the name Kao Kao has been given to their town because t…

al-ʿArāʾis̲h̲

(1,006 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, French orthography Larache, sea-port town in Morocco situated on the Atlantic coast about 44 miles S. W. of Tangiers and 83 miles N. W. of Fās (Fez), under 35° 13’ N. Lat. and 8° 28′ 22″ W. Long. (Paris). ¶ Larache is built on the slopes of a hill dominating the left bank of the Wēd Lekkus at the spot where the river joins the ocean. The town is surrounded by an old turreted wall, which is adjoined on the land side by the Ḳaṣba and towards the sea by a fortress. It offers little that is of interest: ‘the streets are dirty, the mosque…

Aḥmed Bey

(1,177 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, bey of Tunis (1837—1855), succeeded his father Muṣṭafā, the ninth sovereign of the dynasty of the Ḥusainides. His government was notable for a persistent effort to endow Tunis with western institutions and to bring about the permeation of the country by the modern spirit. He therefore in 1841 prohibited the exportation of negroes and set free the slaves belonging to his own household. In 1846, at the instigation of France and England, he formally abolished slavery in the Regency and closed the…

Kūka

(490 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, capital of Bornū, situated in 12° 55′ N. Lat. and 13° 30′ East Long. (Greenwich). The town was founded in 1814 by the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥammad al-Kanomī, 9 miles east of Lake Chad in a sandy plain dotted with baobab’s (adausonia digitata) called kūka in Kanūri, whence the name Kaoukawa or Kikoa, “town of the kūka’s”, given it by the natives. It was visited by Denham and Clapperton (1822—1823). Sacked in 1846 by the Wadians, it was rebuilt almost immediately. It had already recovered its prosperity by the time of Barth and Vogel’s journey. R…

Tadallīs

(717 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, Tedellēs (Dellys), a town on the Algerian coast, 70 miles east of Algiers and 4 miles E. of the mouth of the Sebau, the principal river of Kabylia, from which it is separated by the mountainous mass which ends in Cape Beugut. — It lies in 55° 20′ N. Lat. and 3° 55′ E. Long (Greenwich). — The town consists of two distinct quarters: the native quarter with its narrow streets and the European quarter regularly built on a plateau about 175 feet above sea-level. Below, the harbour, sheltered against…

Alger

(7,246 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Arabic al-Ḏj̲azāʾir; English: Algiers) is a town on the northern littoral of Africa. It is the capital of Algeria, and the seat of the Governor General and the heads of the various military and civil services of the colony. Its geographical situation is 36° 47’ N. Lat., 0° 44’ E. Long. (meridian of Paris). The number of inhabitants according to the census of 1906 is 144 000. We do not know anything definite concerning Algiers previous to the establishment of the Romans in that part of Africa, except that on the place of the present town a locality was situated…

Kano

(1,364 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(in Hausa kanu), a town in the Central Sūdān 300 miles west of Kūka and 290 E. S. E. of Sokoto, 1200 feet above sea-level, situated in 12° 27′ N. Lat. and 8° 20′ E. Long. (Greenw.). Kano lies in the middle of a marshy plain dominated by the isolated rocky hills of Goron Duchi and Dala. The town is surrounded by a fortified wall ( birni) 20 to 25 feet high and measuring, according to Barth, nearly 20 miles in circumference. A portion of the area thus mapped out is occupied by tilled fields especially in the West and North-west. The houses are grouped in the Sou…

Mag̲h̲rib

(675 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, the name given by Arab writers to that part of Africa which modern writers on geography call Barbary or Africa Minorand which includes Tripolitania, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. The word “Mag̲h̲rib” means the West, the setting sun, in opposition to “Mas̲h̲riḳ”, the East, the rising sun (Levant), but as Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn remarks, the general denomination was applied to a particular region. The extent of this area, moreover, varies according to different authors. Some Oriental writers include in the…

Awdag̲h̲ost

(404 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(or Awdag̲h̲os̲h̲t), an ancient town in N. W. Africa which has quite disappeared from the face of the earth. According to Bakrī it was situated between the land of the negroes and Sid̲j̲ilmāssa, distant about 51 days journey from ‘ the latter oasis and 15 from G̲h̲āna: according to Barth’s hypothesis it lay between long. 10° and 11° w. of Greenwich and between 18° and 19° north., not far from Ḳṣar and Barka, that is to say S. W. of the military station of Tid̲j̲ika in French Mauretania. We have only a few scanty notices of this town; it appears to have been originally a trading set…

Tuggurt

(1,155 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town in the Algerian Sahara, 135 miles S. of Biskra with which it is now connected by railway. It lies in 32° 7′ N. lat. and 6° 2′ E. long, at a heigh of 200 feet above sea-level. — Tuggurt is the most important place in the Wād Rīr, a long narrow valley running for over 130 miles from north to south into which two Saharan rivers flow: the Wād Mya from Tidikelt and the Tg̲h̲arg̲h̲ar from the Hoggar. The presence at a slight depth of subterranean water has enabled palmgroves to flourish here,…

Ḥammād

(379 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a Berber ruler, founder of the Ḥammādid dynasty, son of the Zīrid ¶ Bulukkīn [q. v.], chief of the Ṣanhād̲j̲a and governor of the Mag̲h̲rib under the Fāṭimid Caliph al-Muʿizz, was given the governorship of As̲h̲īr [q. v., i. 482b et seq.] in 377 (987-988) by his brother al-Manṣūr, Bulukkīn’s successor. For several years he valiantly championed the cause of the Ṣanhād̲j̲a, continued the war against the Zenāta, who had invaded the central Mag̲h̲rib, with the aid of his brother Ittūweft, and in 391 (1000-1001) put down the rebellion of h…

Futā Ḏj̲allon

(2,995 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a district in West Africa, in (he N.W. of French Guinea, to which it is politically attached. It consists of a mountainous area, the most important in West Africa with an average height of 3000, 3500 feet. These highlands border in the E. on the mountains of the Mandingo territory; in the S. they slope in a series of shelving spurs to the level of the Atlantic Ocean, while in the N. they gradually slope down to Bondu. The geographical and orographical conditions of the land are only slightly k…

Adamaua

(1,601 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Adamawa), a region in Central Sudan, bounded north by Bornu, east by Baghirmi, south by Kamerun, and west by Nigeria. From a political point of view, Adamaua corresponds approximately to the territory of the Yola sultanate and the vassal States that depend upon it. It is comprised between 4° 15′ and 10° 15′ north lat. and 8° and 13° 20′ east long. Its aria is estimated at 250000 square kilometres (about 96500 square miles); its population is about 4 million inhab. (8 inhab. to a square kilometre). The principal towns: Yola (20000 inhab.), Garua, Banyo, Tibati, Ngaumdere (30000 inhab.). The n…

Kufra

(999 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a group of oases in the Eastern Sahara, halfway between Cyrenaica and Wadai. It was for long only known from the account by Rohlfs, who succeeded in reaching it in 1879. Since then it has been visited by two other Europeans, Marshal des Logis Lapierre (1918) and Mrs. Rosita Forbes (1920—1921). The group of oases to which the name Kufra is given extends from S. E. to N. E. for a length of about 120 miles between 24° and 26° N. Lat., and 31° 34° E. Long. The most southerly is about 850 miles S. E. of Tripoli and 600 miles S. of Beng̲h̲āzī. They number five, separated from one another by serir or stretches …

Dra

(807 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, the Darʿa of Arab authors, a river in Morocco, flowing into the Atlantic Ocean 40 miles southwest of Cape Nūn. The Dra is the longest river in Morocco. Its course which is not very accurately known, is perhaps over 800 miles long. The Dra is formed by the confluence of two streams from the central High Atlas, the Wēd Idermi from the west and the Wēd Dades from the east. The former is in turn formed by the union of the Wēd Tideli or Imini which drains the Ḏj̲ebel Tideli and the Wēd Werzazat (see the article atlas, p. 509b et seq.) which drains the Ḏj̲ebel Sirwa. The second rises in the country …

al-Ḥusain

(513 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
b. ʿAlī, Bey of Tunis (1705— 1735), founder of the Ḥusainī dynasty still reigning there. He was the son of a Greek renegade and at the Algerian invasion of 1705-1706 held the office of an Ag̲h̲a. After the capture of the Dey Ibrāhīm, Ḥusain was elected Bey by the Ag̲h̲as while Muḥammed Ḵh̲ōd̲j̲a was elected Dey on the 20th Rabīʿ I 1117 (10th July 1705). After Ḥusain had driven back the Algerians he rid himself of Ḵh̲ōd̲j̲a Muḥammad, who was put to death along with the ex-Dey Ibrāhīm who had been meanwhile released. When soon afterwards a son was borne to h…

Baṣra

(464 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town in Morocco which has now utterly disappeared. Baṣra (called Basât, Basia and Besara by Marmol) was situated on a plateau, commanding on the west the valley of the Wēd Mda, on the east the road to Wazzān and in the northeast the valley of the Wēd Leḳḳus, about 20 miles from Ḳṣar al-Kebīr and 80 from Fās (Fez). According to Tissot, it occupied the site of the Roman town of Tremulae and was founded about the same period as Aṣīla, that is to say at the end of the ixth century a. d., probably by Idrīs II. When Muḥammad, son of Idrīs II partitioned his kingdom Baṣra fell to the share o…

ʿAin Temus̲h̲ent

(202 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Aïn Temouchent according to the official French spelling) is a town in Algiers (district of Oran), situated at the confluence of the Wēd Temus̲h̲ent and the Wēd Senan, at a distance of 45 miles south-east from Oran, and 36 miles northnorth-east from Tlemcen. There are 7000 inhabitants, 4000 of whom are Europeans. ʿAin Temus̲h̲ent occupies the situation of the Roman town of Albula. At the time of al-Bekrī there was in that neighbourhood a locality called Ḳaṣr Ibn Sinan. It was found at a distan…
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