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ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Ḥad̲jd̲j̲ād̲j̲

(311 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAbd al-Malik , Umayyad general. He was a faithful partisan of his cousin Yazīd III and one of his ¶ most eminent assistants. Already in al-Walīd II’s reign he helped Yazīd, who headed the malcontents, to enlist troops against the caliph. When they had succeeded in getting together an army in Damascus, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz received the supreme command and marched against al-Walīd. Yazīd’s brother ʿAbbās, who was about to go to the caliph’s assistance, was attacked and forced to pay homage to Yazīd. Shortly afterwards ʿ…

Rabīb al-Dawla

(242 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
Abū Manṣūr b. Abī S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusayn , vizier of the ʿAbbāsids and Sald̲j̲ūḳs. When the vizier Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad al-Rūd̲h̲rāwarī [ q.v.] made the pilgrimage to Mecca in 481/1089, he appointed his son Rabīb al-Dawla and the naḳīb al-nuḳabāʾ Ṭirād b. Muḥammad al-Zaynabī his deputies, and in 507/1113-14, on the death of Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAlī b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Muḥammad b. D̲j̲ahīr [see d̲j̲ahīr , banū ], Rabīb al-Dawla was appointed vizier of the caliph al-Mustaẓhir [ q.v.]. In D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 511/April 1118 the fourteen-year old Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad [ q.v.] succeed…

D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla

(730 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Ṭāhir b. Bahā ʾal-Dawla , a Būyid, born in 383/993-4. When Sulṭān al-Dawla, after the death of his father Bahāʾ al-Dawla in 403/1012, was named amīr al-umarāʾ , he entrusted his brother D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla with the office of governor of Baṣra. The latter stayed there for several years without becoming involved in the private quarrels of the Būyids. In 415/1024-5 Sulṭān al-Dawla died and his brother Mus̲h̲arrif al-Dawla died in the following year. D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla was then proclaimed amīr al-umarāʾ, but, as he did not appear at Bag̲h̲dād to take possession of his new dig…

Hibat Allāh b. Muḥammad

(94 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Muṭṭalib mad̲j̲d al-Dīn abu ’l-Maʿālī , vizier of the caliph al-Mustaẓhir. Hibat Allāh was appointed vizier in Muḥarram 501/August-September 1107, but he was dismissed in Ramaḍān under pressure from the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Muḥammad b. Maliks̲h̲āh. It is true that the caliph soon restored him to office, forbidding him to employ any d̲h̲immīs [ q.v.], but in 502/1108-9 or 503/1109-10 Hibat Allāh was once again dismissed and he and his family were forced to seek the protection of the sultan. (K.V. Zetterstéen) Bibliography Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x, 305, 309, 318, 330, 335.

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Marwān

(239 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, son of the caliph Marwān I and father of ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz was appointed governor of Egypt by his father, and the appointment was confirmed by ʿAbd al-Malik, when he ascended the throne. During his twenty years’ sojourn in Egypt, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz proved himself a capable governor, who really had the welfare of his province at heart. When in the year 69/689, ʿAbd al-Malik, after the assasination of his rebellious lieutenant ʿAmr b. Saʿīd, intended to have the latter’s relatives…

al-Rāḍī Bi ’llāh

(790 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ( Muḥammad ) b. al-Muḳtadir , the twentieth ʿAbbāsid caliph. He was born in Rabīʿ II 297/December 909; his mother was a slave named Ẓalūm. He was proposed for the caliphate immediately after the assassination of his father al-Muḳtadir [ q.v.], but the choice fell upon al-Ḳāhir [ q.v.]. The latter had him thrown into prison; after the fall of al-Ḳāhir, he was released and put upon the throne (D̲j̲umādā I 322/April 934). As his adviser in this difficult period, al-Rāḍī chose al-Muḳtadir’s vizier ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā [ q.v.] who asked, however, to be excused on account of hi…

al-Mustaḍī

(308 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
bi-Amr ’llāh , Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan , ʿAbbāsid caliph (566-75/1170-80), born on 23 S̲h̲aʿbān 536/23 March 1142, son of al-Mustand̲j̲id [ q.v.] and an Armenian slave named G̲h̲aḍḍa. After his father’s death on 9 Rabīʿ II 566/20 December 1170, al-Mustaḍīʾ succeeded him, and at the beginning of the following year was formally recognised as caliph in Egypt also, which passed into the hands of the Ayyūbids at this time [see fāṭimids ]. The assassins of al-Mustand̲j̲id soon quarrelled among themselves. ʿAḍud al-Dīn [ q.v.], whom al-Mustaḍīʾ had been forced to make vizier, was dismi…

al-Walīd b. al-Mug̲h̲īra

(502 words)

Author(s): Zettersteen, K.V.
b. ʿAbd Allāh , member of the powerful and numerous clan of Mak̲h̲zūm [ q.v.] in pre-Islamic Mecca, opponent of the Prophet Muḥammad and uncle of another opponent, Abū D̲j̲ahl [ q.v.] ʿAmr b. His̲h̲ām b. al-Mug̲h̲īra, d. just after the Hid̲j̲ra. Little is known of his life, but he clearly represented the aristocratic interests of his clan and was himself prosperous, seen in the fact that he is said to have owned a garden in Ṭāʾif which he planted for pleasure only and never gathered the fruit in it (Sprenger, i, 359). According to the c…

Muḥammad b. Yāḳūt

(580 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Bakr , a chief of police ( ṣāḥib al-s̲h̲urṭa ) in Bag̲h̲dād. In 318/930 Muḥammad, whose father was chief chamberlain or ḥād̲j̲ib to the caliph al-Muḳtadir, was appointed chief of police. The maintenance of order in the capital at this time was much neglected, and the Turkish guards conducted a regular reign of terror. In a fracas between infantry and cavalry, Muḥammad intervened on behalf of the latter; their opponents ¶ were cut down, some driven from the city and only a small contingent of negroes, who at once surrendered, remained unscathed (Muḥarram 318/Fe…

ʿAbbād b. Ziyād

(139 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Abī Sufyān , Abū Ḥarb , Umayyad general. Muʿāwiya appointed him governor of Sid̲j̲istān, where he stayed seven years; in the course of his expeditions to the East, he conquered Ḳandahār. In 61/680-1 he was dismissed by Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya who appointed in his place his brother Salm b. Ziyād to be governor of Sid̲j̲istān and Ḵh̲urāsān. In 64/684, he joined in the battle of Mard̲j̲ Rāhiṭ [ q.v.], at the head of a contingent formed by his own gens . Afterwards he wished to retire to Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal, but he was obliged to combat a lieutenant of al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Abī ʿUbayd [ q.v.]. The date of his de…

al-Muḳallad

(346 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Musaiyib, Ḥusām al-Dawla Abū Ḥassān, an ʿUḳailid. After the death in 386 (996) or 387 (997) of the ʿUḳailid emīr Abu ’l-Ḏh̲awwād Muḥammad b. al-Musaiyib [cf. bahāʾ al-dawla], a quarrel arose between his brothers, ʿAlī and al-Muḳallad, each of whom claimed power. ʿAlī was the elder; but al-Muḳallad wrote to Bahāʾ al-Dawla and promised him an annual tribute and then told his brother that Bahāʾ al-Dawla had appointed him governor of al-Mawṣil and asked ʿAlī’s help to take the town. Bahāʾ al-Dawla’s general in al-Mawṣil, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, ¶ took to flight and the tw…

Nūr al-Dīn

(2,598 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Maḥmūd b. ʿImād al-Dīn Zengī, called al-Malik al-ʿĀdil, atābeg of Ḥalab and Damascus. Nūr al-Dīn was born in S̲h̲awwāl 511 (Febr. 1118) and took part ¶ under his father in the siege of Ḳalʿat Ḏj̲aʿbar where the latter was murdered in Rabīʿ II 541 (Sept. 1146). His kingdom was then divided between his two sons, Saif al-Dīn G̲h̲āzī [q. v.] who took possession of al-Mawṣil, and Nūr al-Dīn who established himself in Ḥalab. Scarely had the news of ʿImād al-Dīn’s death reached Joscelin II who lived in Tell Bās̲h̲ir…

al-Faḍl

(499 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Rabīʿ, al-Amīn’s vizier. A descendant of a Syrian slave manumitted by the Caliph Ot̲h̲mān, al-Faḍl proved himself thoroughly Arab in his attitude and constantly championed the Arab spirit in opposition to the numerous Iranian elements in the ʿAbbāsid empire. His father al-Rabīʿ b. Yūnus had played a part in history as vizier to the two Caliphs al-Manṣūr and al-Mahdī. When Hārūn on his accession gave the Barmecides preferment, al-Faḍl felt himself slighted and became filled with hatred and j…

al-Rūd̲h̲rāwarī

(340 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Ẓahīr al-Dīn Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusain b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibrāhīm, an ʿAbbāsid vizier. Al-Rūd̲h̲rāwarī was born in al-Ahwāz in 437 (1045—1046); his father Abū Yaʿlā al-Ḥusain, who had died just as he was about to take over the vizierate to which he had been appointed by the Caliph al-Ḳāʾim [q. v.] (460 = 1067—1068), was a native of Rūd̲h̲rāwar, a little town near Hamad̲h̲ān. He studied in Bag̲h̲dād under the direction of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Isḥāḳ al-S̲h̲īrāzī and in 471 (1078—1079) was appoi…

al-Mustakfī

(259 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
bi ’llāh, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAbd Allāh, ʿ Abbāsid caliph, son of al-Muktafī and a slave-girl. After the Amīr al-Umarāʾ Tuzun had deposed the caliph al-Muttaḳī, he chose al-Mustakfī as his successor on the same day in Ṣafar 333 (Sept.-Oct. 944). The new caliph was only a tool in the hands of Tuzun and his successor Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar b. S̲h̲īrzād. Bag̲h̲dād began to suffer from a constant famine and neither food nor money could be raised for the troops. When the Būyid Aḥmad b. Abī S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʾ approached [cf. muʿizz al-dawla], the caliph had to declare himself ready to recognise the Būyids as t…

Ḏj̲alāl al-Dawla

(19 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Further Bibliography: Bowen, The last Buwayhids (J. R. A. 5., 1929, p. 225—245). (K. V. Zetterstéen)

Ibrāhīm

(354 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Mahdī, an ʿAbbāsid, born at the end of 162= July 779. His father was the Caliph Muḥammad al-Mahdī, his mother a negress named S̲h̲ikla. When the Caliph al-Maʾmūn, who was then in Marw, appointed the ʿAlid ʿAlī al-Riḍā successor on the end of Ramaḍān = 24th March 817, disturbances broke out among the ¶ followers of the ʿAbbāsids. At the end of Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a = July 817 they proclaimed al-Maʾmūn’s uncle, Ibrāhīm, Caliph under the name al-Mubārak (“the blessed”) and on the 5th Muḥarram 202 = 24th July 817 he publicly appeared in the mosque as ruler. His reign did not last …

Nūr al-Dīn

(1,156 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Abu ’l-Ḥārit̲h̲ Arslān S̲h̲āh b. Masʿūd b. Mawdūd b. Zangī, called al-Malik al-ʿĀdil, lord of al-Mawṣil. After the death of his father [q. v.] in S̲h̲aʿbān 589 (Aug. 1193) Nūr al-Dīn succeeded him; the real ruler however in the early years of his tenure of office was the governor of the citadel, the eunuch Mud̲j̲āhid al-Dīn Ḳaimaz al-Zainī, who is described not only as a pious and learned man but as an official much concerned with the welfare of the people. He died in Rabīʿ I 595 (Jan. 1199) or, according t…

Hārūn

(996 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
al-Ras̲h̲id, the most celebrated of the ʿAbbāsid Caliphs, born in al-Raiy in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 145 = March 763 or, according to another, in itself more probable authority, in Muḥarram 149 = February 766. His father was the Caliph Muḥammad al-Mahdī, his mother a slave named Ḵh̲aizurān, whom Mahdī set free and married in 159 = 775-776. After Hārūn ascended the throne in Rabīʿ I 170 = Sept. 786, he appointed the Barmakid Yaḥyā b. Ḵh̲ālid as vizier with unlimited power, and during the following se…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(232 words)

Author(s): Zettersteen,, K. V.
b. Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAlī, a cousin of the caliphs Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ and Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr. In Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd’s reign ʿAbd al-Malik undertook several expeditions against the Byzantines. Such campaigns took place under his command in the years 174 (790-791) and 181 (797-798), according to some authorities also in 175 (791-792), whilst others state that in the latter year not ʿAbd al-Malik himself, but his son ʿAbd al-Raḥmān held the command. Besides this he was governor of Medina for some time …

ʿAbbāsids

(471 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
The theory, generally accepted by European historians, of the solemn transfer of the caliphate by al-Mutawakkil, the last Egyptian ʿAbbāsid, to the Ottoman Sulṭān Selīm is devoid of any foundation and has been definitely relegated to the realm of legend by Barthold ( M. I., St. Petersburg 1912, i. 203—226, 345—400; see also Becker, Barthold’s Studien fiber Kalif und Sulṭān, in Isl., vi. 250—412) It owes its dissemination to a Stambul Armenian in Swedish service, Mouradgea d’Ohsson, who published it in his Tableau général de l’Empire Othoman, Paris 1788—1824, i. 232 and 269 sq.; cf. also…

Ibn ʿAbbād

(216 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ismāʿīl b. ʿAbbād b. al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbbād b. Aḥmad b. Idrīs al-Ṭālaḳānī, vizier of the two Būyids Muʾaiyid al-Dawla and Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla, born in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 326 (September 938). His father had been Rukn al-Dawla’s vizier; he himselff received the name ‘al-Ṣāḥib’ (the companion) on account of his relations with Abu ’l-Faḍl b. al-ʿAmīd [v. ibn al-ʿamīd] or Muʾaiyid al-Dawla, who appointed him his secretary. After the fall of Abu ’l-Fatḥ b. al-ʿAmīd [v. ibn al-ʿamīd] he was raised to the rank of vizier and when Muʾaiyid al-Dawla died in 373 (984) and the pow…

al-Muʿtaṣim

(807 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
bi ’llāh, Abu Isḥaḳ Muḥammad, an ʿAbbāsid caliph, born in 179(795—796) or 180 (796—7), the son of Hārūn al-Rag̲h̲īd and a slave-girl named Mārida. In the reign of his brother al-Maʾmūn [q. v.] he took part in the fighting against the Byzantines in Asia Minor and received the governorship of Egypt. After the death of al-Maʾmūn in Rad̲j̲ab 218 (Aug. 833) he ascended the throne and was soon afterwards acknowledged even by his nephew al-ʿAbbās b. al-Maʾmūn [q. v.] whom the troops had proclaimed caliph a…

S̲h̲abīb

(780 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Yazīd b. Nuʿaim al-S̲h̲aibānī, a Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ī leader. He belonged to the region of al-Mawṣil, to which his family had migrated from the oasis of al-Laṣaf in the Kūfa desert, and was born in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 25 (Sept./Oct. 646) or 26 (Sept./Oct. 647). In the beginning of 76 (695) he joined Ṣāliḥ b. Musarraḥ, the leader of the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲īs in Dārā between Naṣībīn and Mārdīn and when the latter was slain on 17th Ḏj̲umādā I (2 Sept. 695) in battle against the troops of al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ [q. v.] under al-Ḥārit̲h̲. b. ʿUmaira al-Hamdānī at the village of al-Mudabbad…

al-Barāʾ

(161 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿāzib b. al-ḥārit̲h̲ al-awsī al-anṣārī , a Companion of the Prophet. He was too young to take part in the Battle of Badr, but he accompanied Muḥammad on numerous other expeditions and later took part in the wars of conquest; he brought Rayy and Ḳazwīn under Muslim dominion. He later espoused the cause of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib and fought under his banner at the Battle of the Camel [see al-d̲j̲amal], at Ṣiffīn [ q.v.], and at al-Nahrawān [ q.v.]; the famous ḥadīt̲h̲ of G̲h̲adīr Ḵh̲umm [ q.v.] was related on his authority. After his retirement to Kūfa, he lost his sight towards the end…

ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās

(239 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
was the ancestor of the ʿAbbāsids. According to Muslim tradition, ʿAlī was born in the year 40/661, the very same night in which the caliph ʿAlī was assassinated; but there are also other statements concerning the year of his birth. His mother was called Zurʿa bint Mis̲h̲raḥ. His grandfather al-ʿAbbās was the uncle of the Prophet, and on account of his high birth and his personal gifts ʿAlī attained to great distinction. He was looked upon as the handsomest and most pious Ḳurays̲h̲ite of his tim…

al-ʿAbbās b. al-Maʾmūn

(286 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, pretender to the throne under al-Muʿtaṣim. His father, the caliph al-Maʾmūn, appointed him in 213/828-9 a governor of al-Ḏj̲azīra and the neighbouring frontier district, and he then showed great bravery in fighting the Byzantines. On the death of al-Maʾmūn in 218/833, his brother, Abū Isḥāḳ Muḥammad al-Muʿtaṣim bi-’llāh, by choice of the deceased, ascended the throne of the ʿAbbāsids. The army which al-Maʾmūn had collected against the Greeks, however, proclaimed al-ʿAbbās caliph, although he h…

ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(280 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, son of the caliph ʿUmar II. In the year 126/744 ʿAbd Allāh was appointed governor of ʿIrāḳ by Yazīd III, but in a short time aroused the discontent of the Syrian chiefs in that place, who felt that they were unfavorably treated by the new governor compared with the inhabitants of ʿIrāḳ. After the accession of Marwān II, ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya [ q.v.], a descendant of ʿAlī’s brother Ḏj̲aʿfar, rebelled in Kūfa in Muḥarram 127/Oct. 744, but was expelled by ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar, whereupon he transferred his propaganda to other parts. When Marwān transferred to …

al-Barāʾ

(241 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. maʿrūr , a Companion of the Prophet. Among the seventy-five proselytes who appeared at the ʿAḳaba in the summer of 622 at the pilgrims’ festival to enter into alliance with the Prophet, the aged S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Barāʾ b. Maʿrūr of Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ was one of the most important, and when Muḥammad declared he wished to make a compact with them that they should protect him as they would their wives and children, al-Barāʾ seized his hand, promised him protection in the name of all pre…

Abān b. ʿUt̲h̲mān

(203 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAffān , governor, son of the third caliph. His mother was called Umm ʿAmr bint Ḏj̲undab b. ʿAmr al-Dawsiyya. Abān accompanied ʿĀʾis̲h̲a at the battle of the Camel in Ḏj̲umāda I 36/Nov. 656; on the battle terminating otherwise than was expected, he was one of the first to run away. On the whole, he does not seem to have been of any political importance. The caliph ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān appointed him as governor of Madīna. He occupied this position for seven years; he was then dismissed and his place was taken by His̲h̲ām b. Ismāʿīl. Abān owes his celebrity not so ¶ much to his activity as an…

Pahlawān

(340 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Muḥammad b. Ilden̄iz , Nuṣrat al-Dīn , Atābeg of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān in the later 6th/12th century. His father Ildeñiz [ q.v.] had in course of time risen to be the real ruler in the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire; the widow of Sultan Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l [ q.v.] was Pahlawān’s mother and Arslān b. Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l [ q.v.] his step-brother. In the fighting between Ildeñiz and the lord of Marāg̲h̲a, Ibn Aḳsunḳur al-Aḥmadīlī, Pahlawān played a prominent part [see marāg̲h̲a ]. From his father he inherited in 568/1172-3 Arrān, Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, al-D̲j̲ibāl, Hamad̲h̲ān, Iṣfahān and…

Ṣadaḳa

(838 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Manṣūr b. Dubays b. ʿAlī b. Mazyad , Sayf al-Dawla Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Asadī , ruler of al-Ḥilla of the Arab line of Mazyadids [see mazyad , banū ]. After the death of his father in 479/1086-7, Ṣadaḳa was recognised by the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Malik S̲h̲āh as lord of the territory on the left bank of the Tigris. During the fighting between sultan Berk-yaruḳ and his brother Muḥammad, Ṣadaḳa was at first on the side of the former, but when Berkyaruḳ’s vizier, al-Aʿazz Abu ’l-Maḥāsin al-Dihistānī, demanded a large sum of money fro…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḏj̲aʿfar

(313 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Abī Ṭālib , nephew of the caliph ʿAlī. ʿAbd Allāh’s father had gone over to Islam very early, and took part in the emigration of the first believers to Abyssinia, where, according to the common belief, ʿAbd Allāh was born. On his mother’s side he was a brother of Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr; the mother’s name was Asmāʾ bint ʿUmays al-Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿamiyya. After some years the father returned to Medīna taking his son with him. ʿAbd Allāh became known chiefly on account of his great generosity, and received the honorific surname of Baḥr al-Ḏj̲ūd , "the Ocean of Generosity". He…

Muḥammad b. Marwān

(404 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Ḥakam , Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, son of the first Marwānid caliph by a slave mother, hence half-brother to the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik [ q.v.], Umayyad commander and governor. In 65/684-5, he was sent by his father to al-D̲j̲azīra, probably with the aim of securing Armenia once more, and in the battle of Dayr al-D̲j̲āt̲h̲alīḳ in 72/691 in which ʿAbd al-Malik defeated Muṣʿab b. al-Zubayr, he commanded the advanced guard of the Syrian army. In the following year, ʿAbd al-Malik gave him the governorship of al-D̲j̲azīra and Armen…

ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥasan

(419 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Ḥasan , chief of the ʿAlids. ʿAbd Allāh was treated with great favour by the caliphs of the Umayyad dynasty, and when he visited the first ʿAbbāsid caliph Abu ʿl-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ at Anbār, the latter received him with great distinction. Thence he returned to Medīna, where he soon fell under the suspicion of the successor of al-Saffāḥ, al-Manṣūr. Yet ʿAbd Allāh owed his misfortune not so much to himself as to his two sons Mụḥammad and Ibrāhīm. Al-Manṣūr began to suspect them in 136/754, when …

al-ʿAbbās b. Muḥammad

(180 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh , brother of the caliphs Abu l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ and Abū Ḏj̲āʿfar al-Manṣūr. ʿAbbās helped to retake Malaṭya in 139/756, and three years later was appointed by al-Manṣūr as governor of al-Ḏj̲azīra and the neighbouring frontier district. He was dismissed in 155/772, but his name continues to figure frequently in the history of the following years, however little important his political part may have been. He especially and often distinguished himself in the wars against the Byzant…

al-Mustaʿṣim Bi ’llāh

(388 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Aḥmad ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Mustanṣir , the last ʿAbbāsid caliph of Bag̲h̲dād (640-56/1247-58), born in 609/1212-13. After the death of his father in D̲j̲umādā I or II 640/November-December 1242, he was raised to the caliphal throne, but he had neither the talent nor the strength to avert the catastrophe threatening from the Mongols; he allowed himself to be guided by bad counsellors who were not agreed among themselves but working against one another. In 683/1255-6, the Mongol K̲h̲ān Hūlagū [ q.v.] demanded that the Muslim rulers should make war on the Ismāʿīlīs of Alamūt. …

Muḥammad b. Ṭāhir

(346 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Ṭāhir D̲h̲i ’l-Yamīnayn , last Ṭāhirid governor of K̲h̲urāsān. After the death of his father, Muḥammad received the governorship of K̲h̲urāsān (Rad̲j̲ab 248/September 862). In 250/864-5 the ʿAlid al-Ḥasan b. Zayd rebelled in Ṭabaristān, which led to a long and serious struggle [see muḥammad b. ʿabd allāh ]. When ʿAbd Allāh al-Sid̲j̲zī rebelled against Yaʿḳūb b. al-Layt̲h̲ al-Ṣaffār of Sīstān, and appealed for help to Muḥammad, who appointed him governor of al-Ṭabasayn and Ḳuhistān, Yaʿḳūb found a welcome pretext to invade K̲h̲ur…

ʿAmr b. Saʿīd b. al-ʿĀṣ b. Umayya al-Umawī, known as al-As̲h̲dak

(365 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Umayyad governor and general. Governor of Mecca when Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya came to the throne (60/680), he was the same year appointed governor of Medina. On Yazīd’s orders, he sent an army to Mecca to subdue the anti-Caliph ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr, and entrusted the command to a brother of the latter, ʿAmr; but ʿAmr was taken prisoner and, with his brother’s consent, flogged to death by his personal enemies. At the end of the following year, al-As̲h̲daḳ was dismissed. Later he went with the Calip…

S̲h̲ams al-Dawla

(488 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Ṭāhir b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Ḥasan, Būyid prince and ruler in Hamad̲h̲ān [ q.v.] 387-412/997-1021. After the death of Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla [ q.v.], the amīr s proclaimed as his successor in Rayy his four-year-old son Mad̲j̲d al-Dawla [ q.v.] under the guardianship of his mother Sayyida and gave the governorship of Hamad̲h̲ān and Kirmāns̲h̲āhān to S̲h̲ams al-Dawla, who was also a minor. When Mad̲j̲d al-Dawla grew up, he sought to overthrow his mother and with this object made an arrangement with the vizier al-K̲h̲aṭīr Abū ʿAlī b. ʿAlī …

al-Muḳallad

(373 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Musayyib, Ḥusām al-Dawla Abū Ḥassān , member of the Arab ʿUḳaylid dynasty of ʿIrāḳ and al-D̲j̲azīra (d. 391/1000). After the death in 386/996 or 387/997 of the ʿUḳaylid amīr Abu ’l-D̲h̲awwād Muḥammad b. al-Musayyib, a quarrel arose between his brothers, ʿAlī and al-Muḳallad, each of whom claimed power. ʿAlī was the elder, but al-Muḳallad wrote to the Būyid amīr Bahāʾ al-Dawla [ q.v. in Suppl.] and promised him an annual tribute, and then told his brother that Bahāʾ al-Dawla had appointed him governor of al-Mawṣil and asked ʿAlī’s help to take the town…

al-Muḳtafī

(423 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
li-amr allāh , abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad , ʿAbbāsid caliph (reigned 530-55/1136-60), born on 12 Rabīʿ II 489/9 April 1096, the son of al-Mustaẓhir [ q.v.] and a slave girl. After the deposition of his nephew al-Rās̲h̲id [ q.v.], al-Muḳtafī was acknowledged as caliph on 8 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 530/17 September 1136. While the Sald̲j̲ūḳs were fighting among themselves, he did his best not only to maintain his independence but also to extend his rule, and one district after the other in ʿIrāḳ fell into his hands. In 543/1148 a number of amīrs denounced their allegiance…

al-Ḳāsim

(314 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿĪsā al-ʿId̲j̲lī, usually called Abū Dulaf, a Muslim general. When in 195 (811) the Caliph al-Amīn sent an army under ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā b. Māhān against al-Maʾmūn’s general Ṭāhir b. al-Ḥusain, Abū Dulaf went with him. When Ibn Māhān had fallen, Abū Dulaf came back to the neighbourhood of Hamad̲h̲ān and, although he declined to pay homage to al-Maʾmūn, Ṭāhir left him in peace in al-Karad̲j̲. In 214 (829/830), when al-Maʾmūn came to Raiy, he sent for him. His friends advised him not to go, but he went…

ʿAṭāʾ

(137 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Abī Rabāḥ, Arab jurist and traditionist. A native of Yemen he was reared in Mekka; he was of humble origin and is commonly referred to as Mawlā of the family of Abū Maisara b. Abī Ḵh̲ut̲h̲aim al-Fihrī. Among his masters ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿOmar and ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbbās and many others are mentioned. As Muftī in Mekka he attained extraordinary repute and was regarded as one of the most eminent authorities in jurisprudence and Muḥammadan tradition generally. Especially was he considered to be an unsur…

ʿImād al-Dawla

(78 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Buwaih, first ruler of the Buyid dynasty. With the help of his two brothers ʿImād al-Dawla in 322 (934) conquered S̲h̲īrāz and thus became ruler of Fārs where he reigned till his death. He died in S̲h̲īrāz on Ḏj̲umādā I 16, 338 (Nov. II, 949) aged 57. According to another statement (Ibn Ḵh̲allikān, ed. Wüstenfeld, N°. 491), he did not die till 339 [cf. the article būyids.] (K. V. Zetterstéen)

ʿAbd Allāh

(431 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥasan, chief of the ʿAlides. ʿAbd Allāh was treated with great favor by the caliphs of the Umaiyad dynasty, and when he visited the first ʿAbbāside caliph Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ at Anbār, the latter received him with great distinction. Thence he returned to Medina, where he soon fell under the suspicion of the successor of al-Saffāḥ, al-Manṣūr. Yet ʿAbd Allāh owed his misfortune not so much to himself as to his two sons Muḥammed and Ibrāhīm. As early as the year 136 (754), when al-Manṣūr ¶ led the pilgrimage, the latter’s suspicions were aroused, because they did…

al-Muntaṣir

(213 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
(also called Mustanṣir) bi ’llāh, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar, ʿAbbāsid caliph, son of al-Mutawakkil by a Greek slave. After his father had been murdered in S̲h̲awwāl 247 (Dec. 861) by conspirators, among whom was al-Muntaṣir, the latter ascended the throne, aged 25 According to the usual statement. As a ruler he was only a tool in the hands of the vizier Aḥmad b. al-Ḵh̲aṣīb and the Turkish generals. His brothers al-Muʿtazz and al-Muʾaiyad were forced to renounce their claims to the throne and Waṣī…

ʿAbd Allāh

(431 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿAlī, uncle of the caliphs Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ and Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr. ʿAbd Allāh was one of the most active participators in the battle of the ʿAbbāsides against the last Umaiyad caliph, Marwān II. He was commander-in-chief in the decisive battle at the Greater Zāb, where Marwān lost his crown, and when the latter took to flight, ʿAbd Allāh pursued him, soon after conquered Damascus and marched on to Palestine, whence he had the fugitive caliph pursued to Egypt. Even more im placably …

Suḳmān

(675 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
(Sukmān) b. Ortoḳ, Mūʿīn al-Dawla, lord of Ḥiṣn Kaifā. After the death of his father Ortoḳ in 484 (1091/1092) Suḳmān, jointly with his brother Īlg̲h̲āzī [q. v.] received the city of Jerusalem as a fief from the Sald̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭān Tutus̲h̲ b. Alp Arslān. But by S̲h̲aʿbān 489 (July-Aug. 1096) or, according to another less reliable statement, in 491 (1098), it was taken from them by the Fāṭimids. The two brothers then went first to Damascus from which Īlg̲h̲azī went to al-ʿIrāḳ and Suḳmān sought refuge i…

Saʿīd b. al-ʿĀṣ

(626 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Saʿīd b. al-ʿĀṣ b. Umaiya b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams b. ʿAbd Manāf b Ḳuṣaiy, governor of Kūfa and Medīna. At the death of Muḥammad, Saʿīd was about nine years old; his father had fallen among the unbelievers at Badr. Saʿīd was a member of one of the most prominent families of the Ḳurais̲h̲ and was especially noted for his liberality and eloquence. He was held in high respect by ʿOt̲h̲mān and when the latter had decided to establish a definite text for the Ḳorʾān, Saʿīd was nominated to the committee appointed for th…

al-Mutawakkil

(855 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
ʿala ’llāh, Abu ’l-Faḍl Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Muḥammad, an ʿAbbāsid Caliph, born in S̲h̲awwāl 206 (Feb.-March 822), son of the caliph al-Muʾtaṣim and a slave-girl from Ḵh̲wārizm named S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ. He ascended the throne in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 232 (Aug. 847) on the death of his brother al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ. His old opponent, the vizier Ibn al-Zaiyāt, soon fell a victim to the cruelty of the new caliph and a similar fate befell the Turkish general Ītāk̲h̲, although the latter along with Waṣīf had helped him to the throne. The caliph dreaded…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(1,643 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Marwān, Umaiyad caliph. According to general report he was born in the year 26 (646-647). His father was Caliph Marwān ¶ I; his mother’s name was ʿĀʾis̲h̲a bint Muʿāwiya. As a boy of ten he was an eyewitness of the storming of the palace of ʿOt̲h̲mān, and at the age of 16 he was appointend President of the Dlwan of Medina by Caliph Muʿāwiya. Here he remained till the outbreak of the rebellion against Muʿāwiya’s son, Yazīd I, in 63 (682). When the Umaiyads were expelled by the rebels, ʿAbd al-Malik had to leave th…

ʿAbd Allāh

(316 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Abī Ṭālib, nephew of the caliph ʿAlī. ʿAbd Allāh’s father had gone over to Islām very early, and took part in the emigration of the first believers to Abyssinia, where, according to the common belief, ʿAbd Allāh was born. On his mother’s side he was a brother of Muḥammed b. Abī Bekr; the mother’s name was Asmāʾ bint ʿUmais al-Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿamīya. After some years the father returned to Medina taking his son with him. ʿAbd Allāh became known chiefly on account of his great generosity, and received the honorific surname of Baḥr al-Ḏj̲ūd, „the Ocean of Generosity“. He appears to h…

Ibrāhīm

(290 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās, brother of the two first ʿAbbāsid Sulṭāns, al-Saffāḥ and al-Manṣūr, born in 82 = 701-702. His father who, according to the usual statement, died in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 125 = August 743, was the founder of the secret ʿAbbāsid propaganda and shortly before his death made over to his son Ibrähīm his right to the ʿAbbāsid imāmate. In the following year the latter sent Bukair b. Māhān [q. v.] to Marw where he informed the Ḵh̲orāsānians of Muḥammad’s death and proclai…

al-Malik al-Ẓāhir

(576 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
G̲h̲āzī, an Aiyūbid, second son of Saladin [q. v.]. Born in 568 (1172-1173) he was installed as nominal governor of Ḥalab immediately after its conquest by Saladin at the beginning of 579 (1183), but a few months later Saladin handed over the town to his brother al-ʿĀdil [q. v.]. Three years later al-Ẓāhir ¶ was definitely given Ḥalab and several other towns so that his rule extended northwards to the frontier of Armenia, eastwards as far as the Euphrates (at Manbid̲j̲) and southwards to near Ḥamāt. He therefore had the task of defending the north…

al-Walīd

(631 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Mug̲h̲īra b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿOmar b. Mak̲h̲zūm, an opponent of Muḥammad. Little is known of his life but it is certain that he was one of the most powerful men in Mecca and one of the most ardent opponents of ¶ he Prophet. As head of the numerous and prominent family of the Mak̲h̲zūm he naturally represented the aristocratic interests in the city of Muḥammad’s birth and that he was himself very prosperous is evident from the fact that, according to traditionists, he owned a garden in Ṭāʾif which he planted for pleasure only and nev…

Yaḥyā b. K̲h̲ālid

(475 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, a Barmakid. In the ʿAbbāsid caliphate we find Yaḥyā already prominent in the reign of al-Manṣūr, who in 158 (774—775) appointed him governor of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān or, according to another account, Armenia. Three years later, the caliph al-Mahdī appointed him tutor to his son, the young Hārūn, and in 163 (779—780) the latter was appointed governor of the western half of the empire, i. e. of all the provinces west of the Euphrates, with the addition of Armenia and Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān, and Yaḥyā was p…

Aḥmed

(345 words)

Author(s): Zettersteen, K. V.
b. Abī Ḵh̲ālid al-Aḥwal, a vizier. He began his political career as a secretary and shortly after the accession of al-Maʾmūn was made vizier. He exerted soon great influence over the caliph; it was he that urged to confer the governorship of Ḵh̲orāsān in 205 (821) upon Ṭāhir b. al-Ḥusain, then governor of Bagdad. Al-Maʾmūn had already appointed G̲h̲assān b. ʿAbbād governor of that province, but when Aḥmed pointed out to him that G̲h̲assān was unequal to such a difficult task and stood security for …

ʿOmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(2,271 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Marwān b. al-Ḥakam, Abū Ḥafṣ al-As̲h̲ad̲j̲d̲j̲, Umaiyad caliph. He was born in Medīna in the year 63 (682—683). His father ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz [q. v.] had been for many years governor of Egypt; through his mother he was descended from ʿOmar I. She was Umm ʿĀṣim bint Āṣim b. ʿOmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb. He spent the greater part of his life in Medīna. He was sent there by his father from Egypt to receive a fitting education in the city of the Prophet and remained there till the death of his father in 85 (704). H…

Marwānids

(576 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, a Muḥammadan dynasty in Diyār Bakr, founded by the Kurd chief Bād̲h̲, who had begun his career as a shepherd and then took to brigandage. With the help of a body of men similarly inclined, he seized the town of Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲ in Armenia with other strongholds on the Armenian frontier. After the death of the Būyid ʿAḍud al-Dawla (372 = 983), he invaded the province of Diyār Bakr and captured Amid, Maiyāfāriḳīn and Naṣībīn. The armies, which Samsām al-Dawla sent against him, were defeated and al-Ma…

al-Amīn

(82 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Further Bibliography: Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, Paris, vi. 317, 320 sqq.; ix. 45, 51; do., al-Tanbīh wa ’l-Is̲h̲rāf, p. 346—349; Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, p. 146, 168, 185, 297, 311; Ibn al-Ṭiḳṭaḳā, al-Fak̲h̲rī, ed. Derenbourg, p. 291—297; Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, see Guidi, Tables alphabétiques; Gabrieli, Documenti relativi al califfato di al-Amīn in aṭ-Ṭabarī, in R.R.A.L., ser. vi., vol. iii., p. 191-220; do., La successione di Hārūn ar-Rašīd e la guerra fra al-Amīn e al-Maʾmūn, in R. S. O., xi. 341—397. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

K̲h̲usraw Fīrūz

(498 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, al-Malik al-Raḥīm Abū Naṣr b. Abī Kālīd̲j̲ār, a Būyid. After the death in Ḏj̲umādā I 440 (Oct. 1048) of Abū Kālīd̲j̲ār [q. v.] Ḵh̲usraw Fīrūz (var. Ḵh̲orra Fīrūz) was recognised as Amīr of the ʿIrāḳ while his brother Abū Manṣūr Fūlād̲h̲ Sutūn seized the town of S̲h̲īrāz. Soon afterwards Ḵh̲usraw Fīrūz sent an army under Abū Saʿd Ḵh̲usraw S̲h̲āh, who was also his brother, against S̲h̲īrāz; the town had to surrender and Abū Manṣūr was taken prisoner (S̲h̲awwāl 440 = March-April 1049) but released after…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad

(128 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
P. 27a, l. 14. On the part which in spite of his cruelty, he played in the history of Spain as precursor of his celebrated grandson ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III, see the article umaiyads, vi. 1006 sq.— l. 51. As Seybold, G. G. A., 1920, p. 182 observes the article in al-ʿAd̲h̲ārī should be omitted; we also find (al-ʿId̲h̲ārī) “addito semper articulo”; see Gildemeister, Catalogus librorum manu scriptorum or. qui in Bibl. Acad. Bonnensi servantur, p. 13 and Brockelmann, G. A. L., i. 337. — According to Seybold, to the Bibl. should be added: Ibn al-ʿAbbār, al-Ḥulla al-siyarāʾ, in Dozy, Notices sur quelque…

Bis̲h̲r

(225 words)

Author(s): Zettersteen, K. V.
b. al-Barāʾ, one of Muḥammad’s Companions. In the year 622, Bis̲h̲r took part in the second ʿAḳaba where his father, al-Barāʾ b. Maʿrūr took part. He was famous for his skill as a bowman and took part in the battles of Badr and Uḥud, the “Battle of the Ditch”, the campaign to Ḥudaibiya and the conquest of Ḵh̲aibar. After the capitulation of the Jewish population of Ḵh̲aibar in the year 7 (628), Bis̲h̲r was poisoned by a Jewess named Zainab bint al-Ḥārit̲h̲, because she had lost all her male relatives in the war and wish…

al-Ṭāʾiʿ

(333 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
li-Amr Allāh (or li ’llāh) ʿAbd al-Karīm b. al-Faḍl, ʿAbbāsid Caliph, born in 317 (929—930). His father was the caliph al-Muṭīʿ after whose deposition on 13th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 363 (Aug. 5, 974) he was proclaimed Commander of the Faithful. His mother, who survived him, was called ʿUtb. As Ibn al-At̲h̲īr justly observes (ix. 56), al-Ṭāʾiʿ during his reign had not sufficient authority to be able to associate himself with any enterprises worthy of mention. He is only mentioned in history, one may safely say, in connection with…

Ḳizil Arslān

(470 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Īldegiz, an Atābeg of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. His father, the Atābeg Īldegiz [q. v.], had been the real ruler in the whole Seld̲j̲ūḳ empire. Ḳizil Arslān”s mother was the widow of Sulṭān Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l I and mother of Sulṭān Arslān b. Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l [q. v.]. When Īldegiz died in 568 (1172), he was succeeded by his son Muḥammad Pahlawān; in 570 (1174—1175) the latter besieged Marāg̲h̲a while Ḳizil Arslān advanced on Tabrīz and when the lord of these two towns, the Ḳāḍī Ṣadr al-Dīn, entered into neg…

Bas̲h̲īr

(339 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Saʿd, a companion of Muḥammad. Bas̲h̲īr was born in Mecca and was one of the few Arabs of the pre-Muḥammadan period who could write. In the year 622 he took part in the second conference at ʿAḳaba and in the following years took part in several battles under Muḥammad. By command of the prophet he undertook in S̲h̲aʿbān 7 (December 629) an expedition with 30 men to Fadak against the Banū Murra. When he came upon them, his men took to flight but Bas̲h̲īr defended himself with the greatest valour…

al-Muʿtazz

(368 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
bi ’llāh, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad (or al-Zubair) b. Ḏj̲aʿfar, an ʿAbbāsid ¶ caliph, son of al-Mutawakkil and a slave-girl named Ḳabīḥa. After al-Mustaʿīn had been forced to abdicate, al-Muʿtazz was proclaimed caliph on 4th Muḥarram 252 (Jan. 25, 866). When he wanted to get rid of the two Turkish generals Waṣīf and Bog̲h̲a the younger, they got wind of his intentions and went back to Sāmarrā. On the other hand, he succeeded in putting his brother and successor designate al-Muʾaiyad to death and throwing the third brother Abū Aḥma…

ʿAbd Allāh

(434 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Muḥammed, Umaiyad prince in Spain. ʿAbd Allāh, who ascended the throne of Cordova after the sudden death of his brother al-Mund̲h̲ir in 275 (888), has been characterized as „one of the most repulsive phenomena in the whole history of Islām,“ and in truth his twenty-four years of power were a most unhappy period for his subjects. In order to secure his life and his throne against imaginary dangers, the suspicious tyrant treated his nearest relatives in the most cruel manner possible. His brothe…

Rukn al-Dīn

(465 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Sulaimān II b. Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslān II, a Sald̲j̲ūḳ ruler in Asia Minor. His father Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslān b. Masʿūd [q. v.] in his old age divided his kingdom among his many sons. The consequence of this was that the latter set up as independent rulers and began to fight with one another so that at his death in S̲h̲aʿbān 588 (Aug. 1192) complete anarchy reigned. In the course of time however, Rukn al-Dīn brought the whole kingdom under his sway. Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Maliks̲h̲āh who had received Sīwās and Aḳṣarā, b…

ʿĪsā

(483 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Mūsā b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās, nephew of the two first ʿAbbāsid Caliphs, al-Saffāḥ and al-Manṣūr. In the last year of his reign al-Saffāḥ had homage paid to his brother Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar and after him to his nephew ʿĪsā b. Mūsā as heirs-apparent. ʿĪsā, who a few years previously had been appointed governor of Kūfa, retained this office after the accession of Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr. When the ʿAlid Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh rebelled in Medīna in 145 (762), ʿĪsā was sent with an army against…

Abān

(197 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿOt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffan, governor, son of the third caliph. His mother was called Umm ʿAmr bint Ḏj̲undab b. ʿAmr al-Dawsīya. Abān accompanied ʿĀʾis̲h̲a at the battle of the Camel in Ḏj̲umādā I 36 (November 656); on the battle terminating otherwise than was expected, he was one of the first to run away. On the whole, he does not seem to have been of any political importance. The caliph ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān appointed him as governor of Medina. He occupied this position for seven years; he was then …

al-Muḳtafī

(421 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
li-Amri ’llāh, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad, ʿAbbāsid caliph, born on 12th Rabīʿ II 489 (April 9, 1096), son of al-Mustaẓhir and a slave girl. After the deposition of his nephew al-Ras̲h̲īd, al-Muḳtafī was acknowledged as caliph on the 8th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 530 (Sept. 17, 1136). While the Sald̲j̲ūḳs were fighting among themselves, he did his best not only to maintain his independence but also to extend his, rule and one district after the other in the ʿIrāḳ fell into his hands. In 543 (1148) a number of emirs announced their allegiance…

Bahāʾ al-Dawla

(710 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abū Naṣr Fīrūz, a Būyid. After the death of ʿAḍud al-Dawla in S̲h̲awwāl 372 (March 983) his son Ṣamṣām al-Dawla was appointed Amīr al-Umarāʾ. The latter’s brother S̲h̲araf al-Dawla, however, refused to recognise him and a war broke out in which the third brother, the fifteen-year old Bahāʾ al-Dawla, was also embroiled. In the end Ṣamṣām al-Dawla had to submit and was thrown into prison in Ramaḍān 376 (January 987). The Caliph then appointed S̲h̲araf al-Dawla Amīr al-Umarāʾ; the latter died soon a…

Bukair

(441 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Wassād̲j̲, Governor of Ḵh̲orāsān. In the war between ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḵh̲āzim governor of Ḵh̲orāsān and the Tamīmites, Bukair is often mentioned. Ibn Ḵh̲āzim was a supporter of the rival Caliph ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubair and rose against the Umaiyads. As soon as he had made his position secure, he began to oppress the Tamīmites, who were scattered throughout Ḵh̲orāsān. When the latter appealed to his son Muḥammad in Herāt, whose mother was a Tamīmite, Ibn Ḵh̲āzim wrote to S̲h̲ammās b. Dit̲h̲ār and B…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Walīd

(21 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
He died in 110 (728—729); see Caetani and Gabrieli, Onomasticon Arabicum, ii. 183. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

al-Ḏj̲unaid

(492 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, a governor appointed by the Caliph Yazīd II. to the Muslim possessions in India; he was dismissed after a brief tenure of office. In 107 (725-726) Ḵh̲ālid b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḳasrī who was then governor of Ḵh̲orāsān, sent him back to India. When he reached the Indus, he attacked the Indian ruler Ibn Ḏh̲āhir, who had adopted Islām a long time before and been recognised by ʿOmar II. as ruler of these lands, took him prisoner and put him to death. Some authors accuse al-Ḏj̲unaid of tr…

al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ Bi ’llāh

(656 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Hārūn b. al-Muʿtaṣim, ʿAbbāsid Caliph. He was given the name Hārūn after his grandfather Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd; his mother was a Greek slave. On the day that his father al-Muʿtaṣim bi ’llāh [q. v.] died (18th Rabīʿ I 227= Jan. 5, 842), al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ was proclaimed as his successor. Before al-Muʿtaṣim’s death an alleged descendant of the Umaiyads, named Abū Ḥarb, usually called al-Mubarḳaʿ “the veiled” from the veil which he always wore, had provoked a dangerous rising in Palestine, and Rad̲j̲āʾ b. Aiyūb al-Ḥaḍārī whom al-Mu…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(125 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Ṣāliḥ. That he died in 196 is confirmed by Masʿūdī, al-Tanbīh wa ’l-Is̲h̲rāf, ed. de Goeje, B. G. A., viii. 348. Elsewhere his death is variously dated; according to Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, vi. 437 he died in 197, according to Ibn ¶ Ḵh̲allikān, transl. de Slane, i. 316 in 193, do., iii. 665, cf. iii. 667, not till 199. — See in general Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, Paris, vi. 302—305, 419 sq., 437 sq.; Guidi, Tables alphabétiques; Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, p. 132, 155, 170, 185; Brooks, Byzantines and Arabs in the Time of the early Abbasids, in The English Historical Review, xv. 728 sqq.; xvi. 84 sqq.; Waṣīyat…

Ibn Hubaira

(722 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, 1. Abu ’l-Mut̲h̲annā ʿOmar b. Hubaira al-Fazārī, governor of the ʿIrāḳ. Ibn Hubaira was a native of Ḳinnasrīn and is mentioned in the reign of Sulaimān b. ʿAbd al-Malik as one at the leaders in the war against the Byzantines. In the summer 96-97 (715) the fleet was equipped and in the autumn he attacked Byzantine territory with it, while Maslama b. ʿAbd al-Malik conducted the operations on land. Ibn Hubaira spent the winter in Asia Minor and the following summer hostilities were resumed. At the end o…

Abu ’l-ʿAbbās

(481 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
al-Saffaḥ, the first ʿAbbāside caliph. His real name was ʿAbd Allāh; but to distinguish him from his brother, the subsequent caliph Abu D̲j̲aʿfar ʿAbd Allah al-Manṣūr, he was usually called Abu’l-ʿAbbās. His father Muḥammed b. ʿAlī was a great-grandson of the Prophet’s uncle; his mother’s name was Raiṭa bint ʿUbaid Allāh b. ʿAbd Allāh. On account of their relationship to the Prophet, the ʿAbbāsides thought they had stronger claims to the caliphate than the Umaiyads, and on this account early beg…

al-ʿAbbās

(70 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Maʾmūn. For Ṭuwāna in this article, read al-Tuwana; s. Seybold, in G. G. A., 1920, p. 190. (K. V. Zetterstéen) Bibliography Add: Yaʿḳūbī, ed. Houtsma, ii. 558,567 sq., 574 sq., 581 Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, ed. Paris, vii. 102 sq., 136 sq. Fragm. Hist, Arab., ed. de Goeje and de Jong, passim Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, see Guidi, Tables alphabétiquts Bury, A History of the Eastern Roman Empire, p. 258, 473, 474.

al-ʿAbbās

(57 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Muḥammad. 186 (802) is given as the date of his death. (K. V. Zetterstéen) Bibliography Add: Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, ed. Paris, vi. 266 ix. 64 sq. Fragm. Hist. Arab., ed. de Goeje and de Jong, p. 225, 227, 265, 275, 284 Abū ’l-Maḥāsin, ed. Juynboll and Matthes, i., see index Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, see Guidi, Tables alphabetiques.

ʿAbd Allāh

(509 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Muʿāwiya, ʿAlide rebel. After the death of Abū Hās̲h̲im, a grandson of ʿAlī, claims were laid to the Imamate from several quarters. Some asserted that Abū Hās̲h̲im had formally transferred his rights to the dignity of Imām to the ʿAbbāside Muḥammed b. ʿAlī. Others thought he had spoken in favor of ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAmr al-Kindī and wanted to proclaim him Imām. As he, however, did not come up to the expectations of his followers, they turned from him and declared ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya, a great-gr…

Mawdūd

(288 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿImād al-Dīn Zangī, Ḳuṭb al-Dīn al-Aʿrad̲j̲, lord of al-Mawṣil. After the death at the end of Ḏj̲umādā II 544 (Nov. 1149) of his elder brother Saif al-Dīn G̲h̲āzī I [q. v.], Mawdūd was recognised as lord of al-Mawṣil through the influence of the powerful vizier al-Ḏj̲awād [q. v.] and of the commander-in-chief of the army Zain al-Dīn ʿAlī. A number of emīrs negotiated with the third brother, Nūr al-Dīn Maḥmūd, who lived in Ḥalab, and seized the town of Sind̲j̲ār, and Mawdūd began preparations for wa…

Būyids

(66 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Further references: de Zambaur, Manuel de généalogie et de chronologie, p. 212 sqq.; Ḵh̲alīl Edhem, Düwel-i islāmīye, p. 186 sqq.; Amedroz, Three years of Buwaihid rule in Baghdad, A.H. 389—393, in J.R.A.S., 1901, p. 501—536, 749—786; Hilāl al-Ṣābiʾ, Kitāb al-Wuzarāʾ, ed. Amedroz; Amedroz and Margoliouth, The Eclipse of the ʿAbbasid Caliphate; Bo wen, The Last Buwayhids, in J.R.A.S., 1929, p. 225—245. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

Sulaimān

(604 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Ḳutulmis̲h̲, ancestor of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs in Asia Minor. After Ḳutulmis̲h̲ had fallen in 456 (1063/1064) in battle against his relative Alp Arslān, his son Sulaimān became chief of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs of Asia Minor and in a few years succeeded in founding an independent kingdom. Malik S̲h̲āh who had succeeded his father Alp Arslān in 465 (1072) entrusted him with the conduct of the war against the Byzantines and he was given the supreme command of all the Sald̲j̲ūḳ troops in Asia Minor. Here a consid…

Saʿd

(594 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿUbāda b. Dulaim b. Ḥārit̲h̲a b. Abī Ḥazīma b. T̲h̲aʿlaba b. Ṭarīf al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ī, a contemporary of Muḥammad’s. The distinguished and prosperous Saʿd was one of the few people who were able to write in Arabia in his time; he was besides celebrated as a fine swimmer and archer. In the history of Islām we first meet with his name in the accounts of the second meeting at al-ʿAḳaba [q. v.] where he is mentioned among the nine Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲īs who were chosen to be guarantors ( naḳīb) of the new converts. He then fell into the hands of the Meccans and was severely handled by them; i…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Muṭīʿ

(18 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Further Bibliography in Caetani and Gabrieli, Onomasticon Arabicum, ii. 922. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

Ibn Baḳīya

(240 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Naṣīr al-Dawla Abu ’l-Ṭāhir Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Baḳīya, Bak̲h̲tiyār’s vizier. Ibn Baḳīya was born in Awānā and was of humble origin. He was first employed at Muʿizz al-Dawla’s court as master of the kitchen and in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 362 (Sept. 973) Bak̲h̲tiyār gave him the office of vizier. After the conquest of Bag̲h̲dād and the imprisonment of Bak̲h̲tiyār in 364 (975) by ʿAḍud al-Dawla, Ibn Baḳīya went over to the latter and was granted Wāsiṭ and the surrounding country. As soon as he entered th…

al-Muʿtamid

(518 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
ʿala ’llāh, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar, ʿAbbāsid caliph, son of al-Mutawakkil and a slave-girl named Fityān from Kūfa. He ascended the throne on the deposition of al-Muhtadī in Rad̲j̲ab 256 (June 870). He had no ability as a ruler, but relied on the vizier ʿUbaid Allāh b. Yaḥyā b. Ḵh̲āḳān and left most of the affairs of government in the hands of his brother Abū Aḥmad al-Muwaffaḳ. In S̲h̲awwāl 261 (July 875) he designated his son Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Mufawwiḍ as his successor and governor of the western p…

Ḏj̲aʿfar

(592 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Yaḥyā the Barmakid. The position of Ḏj̲aʿfar’s family placed him at once on intimate terms with the ruling dynasty, for his father Yaḥyā b. Ḵh̲ālid b. Barmak, as vizier and secretary of state, had long been virtual ruler of the great empire, while his brother al-Faḍl b. Yaḥyā was held in great honour by the Caliph Hārūn whose foster-brother he was and by his own personal qualities he succeeded in becoming the recognised favourite of the great ʿAbbāsid Caliph and reaching the highest summit of …

Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh

(700 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, a Ṭāhirid, governor of Bag̲h̲dād. Born in 209 (824—825) Muḥammad in 237 (851) was summoned by the Caliph to Bag̲h̲dād and appointed military governor in order to restore order in the chaos then prevailing. In spite of the great power of the Ṭāhirids, who ruled Ḵh̲urāsān as independent sovereigns in practice, although they nominally recognised the suzerainty of the Caliph, his task was by no means a light one. After al-Mustaʿīn had ascended the throne (248 = 862), he confirmed Muḥammad in his o…

al-ʿAbbās

(55 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Walīd. (K. V. Zetterstéen) Bibliography Add: Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, ed., Paris, v. 361, 454, 480, 506 vi. 71 sq. ix. 59 Fragm. Hist. Arab., ed. de Goeje and de Jong, passim Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, see Guidi, Tables al-phabétiques ¶ Wellhausen, Die Kämpfe der Araber mil den Romäern, in N. G. W. Gött., 1901, p. 436 sqq.

Ibn Mākūlā

(229 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Hibat Allāh b. ʿAlī b. Ḏj̲aʿfar al-ʿId̲j̲lī, called Ibn Mākūlā, vizier to the Būyid Ḏj̲alāl al-Dawla, born in 365 (975-6). Ḏj̲alāl al-Dawla appointed him vizier in 423 (1032) but soon afterwards dismissed him. His successor Abū Saʿd Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusain b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm only held the office a few days; as he was attacked and ill-treated by the Turkish mercenaries in the capital, he had to go into hiding. Ibn Mākūlā received the office again. In 424 (1033) Ḏj̲alāl al-Dawla had to flee to al-K…

K̲h̲ālid

(852 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Walīd b. al-Mug̲h̲īra al-Mak̲h̲zūmī, a contemporary of Muḥammad and a Muslim general. In the battle of Uḥud, ¶ where Ḵh̲ālid commanded the right wing of the Mekkan forces, and by his intervention at the right moment decided the battle in favour of the enemies of the Prophet he first displayed that brilliant talent for leadership to which in later days Islām owed so many successes. After Ḵh̲ālid had gone over to Islām with ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ at the beginning of the year 8 (629) he took part in the unsuccessful c…

Ibn Rāʾiḳ

(534 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad, Amīr al-Umarāʾ. In 317(929-930) Ibn Rāʾīḳ was appointed prefect of police in Bag̲h̲dād along with his brother ¶ Ibrāhīm. Both were dismissed in the following year but Muḥammad b. Rāʾīḳ received his office back in 319 (931-2), while Ibrāhīm was appointed at the same time high chamberlain. After the murder of al-Muḳtadir in 320 (932) the two brothers fled with others to al-Madāʾin and thence to Wāsiṭ, and after al-Rāḍī became Caliph in 322 (934) he appointed Muḥammad b. Rāʾiḳ governor of Wāsiṭ and…

al-Mustars̲h̲id

(448 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
bi ’llāh, Abū Manṣūr al-Faḍl, ʿAbbāsid caliph, born in 486 (1093—1094), son of al-Mustaẓhir and a slave-girl. Al-Mustars̲h̲id, who was proclaimed his father’s successor after the latter’s death on 16th Rabīʿ II 512 (Aug. 6, 1118), was the first caliph since the occupation of Bag̲h̲dād by the Būyids who was not content with spiritual supremacy but also endeavoured to revive the caliph’s authority in temporal matters. The Sald̲j̲ūḳ sulṭān had died before al-Mustaẓhir (Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 511 = April 1118) and his son Maḥmud […

Abū ʿAwn

(266 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
ʿAbd al-Malik b. Yazīd al-Ḵh̲orāsānī, a general in the service of the ʿAbbāsides. After the outbreak of the rebellion in Ḵh̲orāsān on the 25th Ramaḍān 129 (9th June 747) Abū ʿAwn several times took part in the war against the Umaiyads. At first he accompanied the ʿAbbāside general Ḳaḥtaba b. S̲h̲abīb; then he was sent by the latter to S̲h̲ahrazūr, where on the 20th Ḏh̲u’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 131 (10th August 749), in conjunction with Mālik b. Ṭarīf, he defeated ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Sufyān. Whilst Abū ʿAwn remained in the vicinity of Mosul, the Umaiyad caliph Marwān II marched…

Mūsā, Abū Muḥammad al-Hādī

(383 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, an ʿAbbāsid caliph. After the death of his father on Muḥarram 22, 169 (Aug. 4, 785) al-Hādī ascended the throne and at once put an end to the influence of his mother al-Ḵh̲aizurān, by forbidding her to interfere in the slightest in matters of state. When he proposed to exclude his brother Hārūn from the succession in favour of his son Ḏj̲aʿfar, he met with vigorous opposition from the Barmakid Yaḥyā b. Ḵh̲ālid [q. v.]. When the latter boldly persisted in his opposition, he was arrested; but th…
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