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Ṣayraf

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Banking (Modern Period) Norman A. Stillman

Muqaddam

(850 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
The Arabic title muqaddam (lit. person placed at the head, i.e., appointee) was used in various parts of the Islamic world from the Middle Ages up to early modern times for the designated head of the Jewish community in a city or country. The functions of the office differed with time and place. Originally, it included religious and temporal leadership, but in later times it was exclusively temporal. In the Maghreb, it was often synonymous with the titles nagid, shaykh al-yahūd, and qāʾid al-Yahūd. 1.    Middle Ages In the documents from the Cairo Geniza, the term muqaddam is fluid and app…

Duwayk, Avraham Ezra

(16 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Duwayk (Dweck, Dwek, Duek, Douek, Doweck, Dowek) Family Norman A. Stillman

Sidi Rahhal

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains Norman A. Stillman

Prostitution

(1,773 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Although prostitution has existed in every age, prostitution was apparently a rare phenomenon among the Jews of the Islamic world prior to modern times except in periods of great socioeconomic decline and the breakdown of communal discipline. 1. The Middle Ages References to prostitution are extremely rare in the Cairo Geniza documents and in most medieval sources, and in many cases it is impossible to distinguish whether the reference is to professional prostitution or to licentious behavior, since Heb. zenut/Ar. z inā' refer to illicit sex in general. In more than one inst…

London

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Great Britain Norman A. Stillman

Editorial Board

(1,617 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Stillman, Norman A. is the Schusterman/Josey Professor of Judaic History at the University of Oklahoma, and is an internationally recognized authority on the history and culture of the Islamic world and on Sephardi and Oriental Jewry. Professor Stillman received his BA (magna cum laude) and PhD in Oriental Studies from the University of Pennsylvania and was a post-doctoral fellow at the Jewish Theological Seminary. He is the author of seven books and numerous articles in several languages. His next…

Aït Bougmez

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains Norman A. Stillman

Qāʾid al-Yahūd

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Tunisia Norman A. Stillman

Babovitch, Tuvia

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Karaism Norman A. Stillman

Muḥammad Riḍā('ῑ) “Jadῑd al-Islam”

(14 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Iqāmat al-Shuhūd fῑ Radd al-Yahūd Norman A. Stillman

Muslim writers on Judaism

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Polemics (general) Norman A. Stillman

Forced Conversion

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Conversion Norman A. Stillman

Aït Bou Oulli

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains Norman A. Stillman

Forasteros

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Toshavim Norman A. Stillman

Manchester

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Great Britain Norman A. Stillman

Tinghir

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Todghra Norman A. Stillman

Ibn Yuli, Elijah ha-Levi

(490 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Elijah ha-Levi, born in the late 1730s or early 1740s, belonged to a distinguished Moroccan family of merchants, scholars and court Jews, and he himself was one of the most powerful Jewish retainers (Ar. aṣḥāb al-sulṭān) of the Alawid sultan Sīdī Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh (r. 1757–1790). His father,  Judah, was a prosperous merchant in Rabat-Salé and shaykh (nagid) of its Jewish community. Like his father, Elijah was one of the so-called sultan's merchants (Ar. tujjār al-sulṭān), not only conducting business on the ruler’s behalf, but also acting as an intermediary with foreign consuls…

Massa

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Sous Norman A. Stillman

Cohen

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Kohen and Hacohen Norman A. Stillman

Madrid

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Spain Norman A. Stillman

Skikda

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Philippeville (Skikda) Norman A. Stillman

Ibn Luṭf, Bābāī

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bābāī ben Luṭf Norman A. Stillman

Anti-Judaism and Judaism in medieval Islam

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Polemics (general) Norman A. Stillman

Filibe

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Plovdiv (Filibe) Norman A. Stillman

Bitola

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Monastir (Bitola, Manastir) Norman A. Stillman

Yunus Nadi

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Nadi, Yunus Norman A. Stillman

Cave Sect

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Maghāriyya, al- (The Cave Sect) Norman A. Stillman

Pallache, Samuel b. Isaac I

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Pallache Family Norman A. Stillman

El Fassia, Zohra

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Music Norman A. Stillman

Club National Israélite (Beirut and Damascus)

(236 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Although preceded by a number of Jewish cultural and youth organizations with a modern Hebrew and Zionist orientation in the cities of Greater Syria (e.g., the Maccabee League, the Kadima Club, and the Hebrew National Schools for Boys and Girls), the Club National Israélite (Ar. al-Nādī al-Qawmī al-Isrā'īlī) was the first self-described Syro-Lebanese Zionist organization. It was founded on June 3, 1924 by Toufic (Tawfīq) Mizrahi, a journalist and advertising agent, in cooperation with former chief rabbi Salomon Tagger in Beirut and seven provisionary committee members in…

Dades

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains Norman A. Stillman

Florida

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see United States of America Norman A. Stillman

Assaka

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Sous Norman A. Stillman

Judaism, History of, Part V.B: Modern Times. The Muslim World

(10,641 words)

Author(s): Stillman, Norman A.
The expulsion of the Jews from Christian Spain in 1492 in a very real sense marked the beginning of modern times for the Jews of the Muslim world. Many of the exiles sought refuge in the Islamic kingdoms of the Maghreb, in Mamluk Egypt and the Levant, and in the expanding Ottoman Empire, which within a generation would take over all of the Middle East and North Africa between the borders of Persia and Morocco. These Sephardic refugees infused new vitality—demographically, culturally, and spiritu…

Judaism, History of, Part IV.B: Medieval Times. Islam

(10,626 words)

Author(s): Stillman, Norman A.
It is virtually impossible to know what was normative Judaism and Jewish practice during the first two hundred years of the Muslim Caliphate, in the seventh through ninth centuries. The great Islamic Arab conquests of the seventh and early eighth centuries brought the majority of world Jewry living at that time from Spain to Persia and Central Asia under the rule of a single empire, the Dar al-Islam (“the Domain of Islam”). The two hundred years immediately preceding the Islamic conquests and fo…

Abū ʾl-Barakāt al-Baghdādī

(2,228 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman | Shlomo Pines
1. Life Abū ʾl-Barakāt Hibat Allāh ibn Malkā al-Baghdādī al-Baladī was a physician and philosopher in twelfth-century Iraq. His contemporaries dubbed him “the Singular One of the Age” (Ar. awḥad al-zamān), and some claimed that as a philosopher he had attained the level of Aristotle himself. Born in Balad, near Mosul, around 1077, Abūʾl-Barakāt was one of the foremost Jewish intellectuals of his time. Under his Hebrew name, Baruch ben Melekh, he wrote Bible and Talmud commentaries in Judeo-Arabic, including commentaries on the Book of Ecclesiastes and on tractate Soṭ…

Alexandria

(2,461 words)

Author(s): Miriam Frenkel | Norman A. Stillman | Tomer Levi
1. Medieval Alexandria (Ar. al-Iskandariyya), on the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the western edge of the Nile Delta, is the principal port city of Egypt and was the capital until the Arab conquest, when it was replaced by Fustat.  There was a substantial Jewish community in the city from the third century B.C.E.  (According to Josephus, Jews already settled there at the time of Alexander's founding of the city.)  Alexandria became the principal center of Hellenistic Jewish culture in Antiquity.  It was there that the Bible was translated into Greek (the…

Proverbs

(2,754 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman | Galit Hasan-Rokem | Ora Schwarzwald
1. Judeo-Arabic As in many traditional cultures, Arabic-speaking Jews drew upon a rich lexicon of proverbs, maxims, and aphorisms in both oral and written expression. These gnomic expressions, in addition to being original creations, derived from a variety of sources. The specifically Jewish sources included biblical and rabbinic literature, and the principal non-Jewish source was the local Arab milieu. Specifically Muslim dicta from the Qur’an and ḥadīth rarely entered Judeo-Arabic usage. Rather,…
Date: 2015-09-03

Interfaith Relations

(4,378 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman | Maurits H. van den Boogert
1.   Medieval Period It would be anachronistic to think in contemporary post-Enlightenment terms of interfaith relations in the medieval Islamic world. The modern virtues of social, religious, and political equality would have been totally incomprehensible to anyone living in the Dār al-Islām (Domain of Islam)—or in Byzantium and Latin Christendom, for that matter. Muslims, Christians, and Jews all believed that they had been granted the most perfect of divine dispensations and, whether they had been given te…

Zionism Among Sephardi/Mizraḥi Jewry

(13,800 words)

Author(s): Avi Davidi | Norman A. Stillman | Jacob M. Landau | Zvi Yehuda | Aksel Erbahar
1. General introduction The mainstream modern Zionist movement was founded and developed by Ashkenazi Jews in Eastern and Central Europe, and institutions such as the World Zionist Organization and the Zionist Congresses were dominated by Ashkenazi European Jews. The majority of the pioneer settlers (Heb. ḥaluṣim; usually rendered in English as halutzim) who created the new Yishuv and its institutions in Palestine were also Ashkenazim, and they became the principal founders of the State of Israel. Not surprisingly, therefore, most of the s…
Date: 2015-09-03
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