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Merkez

(320 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mūsā, an Ottoman S̲h̲aik̲h̲ of an Order and Saint. Merkez Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mūsā b. Muṣṭafā b. Ḳilid̲j̲ b. Ḥad̲j̲dar belonged to the village of Ṣari̊ Maḥmūdlu in the Anatolian district of Lād̲h̲ikīya. He was at first a pupil of the Mollā Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, son of Ḵh̲iḍr Beg [q. v.], and later of the famous Ḵh̲alwetī S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Sünbül Sinān Efendi, founder of the Sünbülīya, a branch of the Ḵh̲alwetīya, head of the monastery of Ḳod̲j̲a Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a in Stambul (cf. on him: Brūsali̊ Meḥemmed Ṭāhir, Ot̲h̲mānli̊ Müʾellifleri̊, i. 78 sq.). When the latter died in 936 (1529), Merke…

Mentes̲h̲e-eli

(218 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, a little principality in Anatolia. The boundaries of the territory of the Mentes̲h̲e-og̲h̲lu’s [q. v.] are given by Müned̲j̲d̲j̲im-bas̲h̲i̊ (cf. Fr. Babinger, G.O.W., p. 234 sq.) in his Ṣaḥāʾif al-Ak̲h̲bār (Stambul 1285) as marked by Mug̲h̲la, Balāṭ, Boz-Üyük, Mīlās, Bard̲j̲īn, Marīn, Čīne, Ṭawās, Bornāz, Makrī, Göd̲j̲iñiz, Foča and Mermere. They thus correspond approximately to those of the ancient Caria. The origin of the name is uncertain, but it can confidently be asserted that the opinion, presumably first put forward by F. Meninski ( Lexicon, iv. 737) and till quite rec…

Merzifūn

(514 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, also called Mārsiwān, a town in the Anatolian wilāyet of Siwas [q. v.] and in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Amasia [q. v.] at the beginning of the fertile plain of Ṣulu Owa, with 11,334 inhabitants (in 1927), of whom the Armenians have had to migrate, which produces a good deal of wine and makes some cotton. Merzifūn before the World War was the centre of activity of the Protestant missions in this region and contained the Anatolia College. The town most probably occupies the site of the ancient Phazemon (Φαζημών) in the district of Phazemonitis; the name is probably a development of Φαζημών. Ibn Bībī (cf. Rec…

Mersīna

(154 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Anatolian sea-port on the south coast of Asia Minor. Mersīna, the port and capital of the former sand̲j̲aḳ of the same name (with an area of 1,780 sq. m.) in the wilāyet of Adana [q. v.] on the south coast of Anatolia, is 40 miles from Adana, to which a railway runs. The name Mersīna comes from the Greek myrsíni (μυρσίνη), myrtle, because this tree grows in large numbers in this region. The regularly built town, founded only in 1832, with about 21,171 inhabitants (1927) is only of importance as a port for the export of silk, corn and cotton. The clim…

Dimetoḳa

(1,029 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, also called Dimotiḳa , a town in the former Ottoman Rumeli. Dimetoḳa lies in western Thrace, in a side valley of the Maritsa, and at times played a significant role in Ottoman history. The territory has belonged to Greece since the treaty of Neuilly (27 November 1919), again bears its pre-Ottoman name of Didymóteikhon, and lies within the administrative district (Nomos) of Ebros. It has a population of about 10,000, and is the seat of a bishop of the Greek church as well as o…

Mīk̲h̲āl-Og̲h̲lu

(1,016 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an old Ottoman noble family. This family traced its descent to the feudal lord Köse Mīk̲h̲āl ʿAbd Allāh, originally a Greek (cf. F.-A. Geuffroy, in Ch. Schefer, Petit traicte de l’origine des Turcqz par Th. Spandouyn Cantacasin , Paris 1696, 267: L’ung desdictz Grecz estoit nommé MichaeliDudict Michali sont descenduz les Michalogli ), who appears in the reign of ʿOt̲h̲mān I as lord of Chirmenkia (K̲h̲irmend̲j̲ik) at the foot of Mount Olympus near Edrenos, and later as an ally of the first Ottoman ruler earned great merit for his share in aiding the latter’s expansion (cf. J. von Hammer, in G…

Nīlūfer K̲h̲ātūn

(367 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, wife of the Ottoman sultan Ork̲h̲an and mother of Murād I [ q.vv.], apparently the Greek Nenuphar (i.e. Lotus-flower) (cf. J. von Hammer, GOR, i, 59), was the daughter of the lord of Yārḥiṣār (Anatolia, near Bursa; cf. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa, D̲j̲ihān-numā . 659) and according to one story was betrothed to the lord of Belokoma (Biled̲j̲ik). ʿOt̲h̲mān [ q.v.], the founder of the dynasty which bears his name, is said to have kidnapped and carried her off in 699/1299 and to have destined her to be the wife of his son Ork̲h̲an [ q.v.], then only 12 years old. Idrīs Bitlīsī, and following hi…

Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a

(567 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, K̲h̲od̲j̲a Meḥmed (1111-76/1699-1763), Ottoman Grand Vizier and littérateur. He was born in Istanbul, the son of the kātib Meḥmed S̲h̲ewḳī. and was soon on account of his unusual ability employed in the dīwān . He then acted as secretary and deputy-chamberlain to the governors of Van, ʿArifī Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a, and Köprülü-zāde ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], and, lastly, to Ḥekīm-zāde ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a. In 1141/1728 he returned to ¶ the capital and in the following year went back to Bag̲h̲dād as deputy to the reʾīs efendi . Soon after the conquest of Bag̲h̲dād in 1146/1733 he was appointed def…

Aḥmad Rasmī

(480 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman statesman and historian. Aḥmad b. Ibrāhīm, known as Resmi came from Rethymno (Turk. Resmo; hence his epithet?) in Crete and was of Greek descent (cf. Hammer-Purgstall, viii, 202). He was born in 1112/1700 and came in 1146/1733 to Istanbul, where he was educated, married a daughter of the Reʾīs Efendi Taʾūḳd̲j̲i Muṣṭafā and entered the service of the Porte. He held a number of offices in various towns (cf. Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī , ii, 380 f.). In Ṣafar 1171/Oct. 1757 he went as Ottoman envoy to Vienna and on his return made a written re…

Kirmāstī

(416 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, chef-lieu of a ḳadaʾ in Anatolia, 15 miles south-east of Mik̲h̲alid̲j̲ (cf. J. H. Mordtmann, in ZDMG, lxv [1911], 101) and 40 miles S.W. of Bursa with about 16,900 inhabitants (1960). The town lies on both banks of the Edrenos Čay (Rhyndacus), now called the Mustafa Kemal Paşa Çay. The origin of the name, often wrongly written Kirmāsli̊, which points to a Greek *Κερμαστὴ or *Κρεμαστὴ, is uncertain, nor is it known what ancient town was here. Perhaps the Kremastis in the Troas (cf. Pauly-Wissowa, ii, 743) mentioned in Xenophon, Hist , iv, 8, is to be connected wi…

ʿÖmer Efendi

(371 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, historien ottoman qui ¶ d’après la tradition populaire se serait d’abord appelé Elkazović ou Čaušević, et était originaire de Bosna-Novi (Bosanski Novi). De sa vie, on sait seulement qu’il exerçait les fonctions de ḳāḍī dans son pays natal lorsque se déroulèrent sur le sol bosniaque de violents combats entre les Impériaux et les troupes de Ḥekīm-Og̲h̲lu ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a (1150/1737). ʿÖmer Efendi écrivit alors, dans une langue simple et aisée, un récit vivant, extrêmement intéressant au point de vue de l’histoire sociale, des événe…

Dimetoḳa

(970 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(également Dimotiḳa), ville de l’ancienne Roumélie ottomane, en Thrace occidentale, dans une vallée latérale de la Maritsa; elle joua parfois un rôle important dans l’histoire ottomane. Son territoire, qui a repris son nom pré-ottoman de Didymóteik̲h̲on, appartient à la Grèce depuis le traité de Neuilly (27 nov. 1919) et fait partie du district administratif d’Ebros (Nomos); la ville compte une population d’environ 10 000 âmes et est le siège d’un évêché de l’Église grecque ainsi que d’un éparqu…

ʿOt̲h̲mānd̲j̲i̊ḳ

(744 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, turc moderne Osmancik, centre administratifd’un ilçe ou district du même nom dans l’ il ou province de Çorum [voir Çorum] dans le Nord de l’Anatolie, correspondant à la partie méridionale de la Paphlagonie classique. La ville est située sur le Halys ou Ḳi̊zi̊l İrmaḳ [ q.v.] à un important croisement du fleuve et de la route Tosya-Merzifun (lat. 40°58΄ N, long. 34° 50΄ E.; ait. 430 m). Elle occupe une situation pittoresque au pied d’une hauteur volcanique couronnée d’un château qui commandait autrefois le célèbre pont que Bāyazīd Ier passe pour avoir construit. La localité est prob…

Nefʿī

(835 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, (980-1044/1572-1635), le plus grand satirique ottoman, ʿOmer Efendi, dont le pseudonyme ( mak̲h̲laṣ) est Nefʿī, originaire du village de Ḥasan ḳalʿa non loin d’Erzerūm (Anatolie orientale). On ne sait pas grand-chose de ses premières années. Il passa sa jeunesse à Erzerùm où il connut l’historien ʿAlī [ q.v.] qui y exerçait les fonctions de defterdār. Pendant le règne d’Aḥmed Ier le destin le dirigea vers la capitale, Istanbul, où, pendant un certain temps, il exerça le métier de comptable. Ses tentatives en vue de gagner la faveur du sultan ou celle d…

Nāḥiye

(137 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(t., de l’arabe nāḥiya «région; voisinage»), vocable employé dès le IXe/XVe siècle dans l’administration de l’empire ottoman pour désigner les subdivisions d’une wilāyet ou province, mais c’est plus tard qu’il est devenu un terme spécifiquement réservé à la subdivision d’un ḳaḍāʾ [ q.v.] ou ḳażā qu’on peut comparer approximativement à l’arrondissement français et qui est placée sous l’autorité d’un kāʾim-maḳām [ q.v.], tandis qu’elle est administrée par un mudīr. Ce fonctionnaire anciennement nommé par le wālī, gouverneur de la province, recevait ses directives du ḳāʾim-maḳām, …

K̲h̲osrew Mollā

(386 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
célèbre juriste ottoman, de son vrai nom Meḥmed b. Farāmurz b. ʿAlī. Selon certaines sources, il était d’origine turcomane (tribu des Warsaḳ) et natif du village de Ḳarg̲h̲in, à michemin entre Sīwās et Toḳat ; selon d’autres, il était d’origine «franque», fils d’un aristocrate «français» converti à l’Islam; Saʿd al-dīn affirme que son père descendait des Rūm. Il suivit les enseignements du célèbre disciple d’al-Taftazānī, Burhān al-dīn de Herāt (cf. Islam, XI, 61; Saʿd al-dīn, Tād̲j̲ al-tawārīk̲h̲, II, 430) et enseigna lui-même à la medrese de S̲h̲āh Malik à Andrinople. En 848/…

Aynabak̲h̲ti̊

(405 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, nom turc de Lépante, ou Naupaktos, en Grèce, sur le golfe de Corinthe, dans un site pittoresque; mais elle n’est plus actuellement qu’une petite ville modeste, appelée Epaktos par le peuple et Lepanto par les Italiens. Elle est entourée de murs croulants qui datent de la domination vénitienne, et coiffée d’une citadelle. Au moyen âge, Aynabak̲h̲ti̊ était maîtresse du golfe de Corinthe; elle tomba aux mains des Vénitiens en 1407 (cf. Vitt. Lazzarini, L’acquisto di Lepanto, 1407, dans Nuovo Archivio Veneto, XV, Venise 1898, 267-83). En 1483, elle fut en vain assiégée par les…

Pīrī Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(456 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(m. 939/1532-3), grand -vizir ottoman originaire d’Amasya. Il descendait du célèbre Ḏj̲amāl al-dīn d’Aḳsarāy, et faisait par conséquant remonter son origine à Abū Bakr. Il s’engagea dans la carrière judiciaire, devint successivement kāḍī de Sofia, Siliwri et Galata, administrateur de la cuisine des pauvres (ʿ imārei) de Meḥemmed II, à Istanbul et, au début du règne de Bāyezīd II, il fut appelé au poste de premier dejterdār ( bas̲h̲ defterdār). Sous Selīm Ier, il se distingua pendant la campagne de Perse par ses sages conseils (cf. J. von Hammer, GOR, II, 412, 417 sqq.), fut envoyé e…

ʿAbdī Efendī

(147 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, historien ottoman. La seule information que nous ayons sur sa vie est que son activité se place sous les sultans Maḥmūd Ier et Muṣṭafā III, c.-à-d. vers 1730-64. Son histoire, appelée soit simplement ʿ Abdī Tārīk̲h̲i ou Tārīk̲h̲-i Sulṭân Maḥmūd Ḵh̲ān, traite principalement des antécédents de la révolte de Patrona Ḵh̲alīl et de la révolte elle-même (1730-1). C’est l’une des sources contemporaines les plus importantes pour cet événement.On trouve des mss. à Istanbul, Esʿad Efendī, 2153 et Millet Kütüpk̲h̲anesi. 409. (Fr. Babinger) Bibliography F.R. Unat, 1730 Patrona Īhtilali hak…

Pertew Pas̲h̲a

(689 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, the name of two Ottoman statesmen. I. Pertew Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a , Ottoman admiral and wezīr , started his career on the staff of the imperial harem, became ḳapud̲j̲i̊ bas̲h̲i̊ [see Ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ ], later Ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries, and in 962/1555 he was advanced to the rank of wezīr; in 968/1561 he was appointed third wezīr, in 982/1574 second wezīr and finally commander ( serdār ) of the imperial fleet under the ḳapudan pas̲h̲a Muʾed̲h̲d̲h̲in-zāde ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a. He had fought at the Battle of Lepanto [see aynabak̲h̲ti̊ ]. He later fell into disgrace and died in I…
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