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Tabūk

(299 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town on the pilgrim road and on the railway from Damascus to Medīna (according to Yāḳūt four days’ journey from al-Ḥid̲j̲r and 12 from Medīna). It lies on a slight undulation of the sandy plain and has a very good well, probably the one mentioned in Arab legend. ¶ The most important building is the pilgrim’s fort built according to the inscription in 1064 (1654), the oldest parts of which can easily be distinguished from the later restorations. Beside it is a modern mosque built of beautifully hewn stones. Euting found the place empty excep…

Badr

(785 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, also called Badr Ḥunain, a small town southwest of Medīna, a short night’s journey distant from the coast situated at the union of the rood from Medīna and the caravan route from Syria to Mecca. The houses were, when Burckhardt visited it, built partly of clay and partly of stone and surrounded by a wretched mud wall. The inhabitants were, for the most part, Beduins of whom many however had only their booths in the town while they spent the night in their tents on the hills. In the time of Muḥamma…

Minā

(1,376 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, later often pronounced Munā, a place in the hills east of Mecca on the road from it to ʿArafa [q. v.]. The distance between the two is given by Muḳaddasī as one parasang, while Wavell calls it five miles and says the continuation to ʿArafa is nine miles. Minā lies in a narrow valley running from west to east, 1,500 paces long according to Burckhardt, surrounded by steep barren granite cliffs. On the north side rises a hill called T̲h̲abīr. Travellers from Mecca come down into the valley by a hill path with steps in it; this is the ʿAḳaba [q. v.] which became famous in connection with Muḥamma…

Ṭarsūs

(988 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town on the frontier between Asia Minor and Syria, the birthplace of the apostle Paul. It lies in a very fertile plain through which flows a river (Cydnos, later Nahr Baradīn). Situated at the junction of several important roads and not far from the sea, even in ancient times it played an important part as a trading centre and was distinguished in the Hellenistic period for the activity of its intellectual life. Christianity spread early there and bishops and metropolitans of Ṭarsūs are mentioned in the Acts of the Councils. When the Arabs had conquered these regions, the Umaiy…

al-Dārūm

(322 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
is mentioned by Muḳaddasī as the district in which Bait Ḏj̲abrīn [q. v., p. 597] was situated. It is the Hebrew Darom, the South, which term the Jews particularly applied to the southwest plain on the coast of Judaea and appears in Eusebius (who distinguishes it from Eleutheropolis) as Daroma. It is wrongly described by certain Arab historians as the goal of the expedition, on which Muḥammad shortly before his death was going to send Usāma b. Zaid; its real objective was, as is clear from the account of the campaign which was afterwards carried out, the southern lands east of Jordan. The name al…

al-Lāt

(385 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, an old Arabian goddess. The name (from al-ilāhat; cf. alilat) means “the goddess” but was the proper name of a definite deity, according to the Arabs themselves (e. g. Ibn Yaʿīs̲h̲, ed. Jahn, p. 44, 23) the sun. She is found as early as the Nabataean and Palmyran inscriptions and was later worshipped by various Beduin tribes (e.g. the Hawāzin; Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 849, 13). An oath by al-Lāt is frequently found in the poets, e. g. Abū Saʿd in Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 567, 7, Mutalammis, ed. Vollers, p. 2, 1, ʿAws b. Had̲j̲ar, ed. Geyer, p. 11, 2, and even in al-Ak̲h̲ṭal, Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, vii. 173. She had …

Nāḳūs

(168 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), pl. nawāḳīs , a kind of rattle once used and in some places still used by Eastern Christians to summon the community to divine service. It is a board pierced with holes which is beaten with a rod. The name, which comes from the Syriac nāḳōs̲h̲ā , is not infrequently found with the verbs ḍaraba or ṣakka in the old Arabic poets, especially when early morning is to be indicated, e.g. ʿAntara, app.; Labīd, 19, 6; ZDMG, xxxiii, 215; Mutalammis, ed. Vollers, 178, v. 6; al-Aʿs̲h̲ā, in Nöldeke’s Delectus , 26; Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī , xix, 92. According to tradition, Muḥam…

Minā

(1,371 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, later often pronounced Munā , a place in the hills east of Mecca on the road from it to ʿArafa [ q.v.]. The distance between the two is given by al-Muḳaddasī as one farsak̲h̲ , while Wavell calls it five miles and says the continuation to ʿArafa is nine miles. Minā lies in a narrow valley running from west to east, 1,500 paces long according to Burckhardt, surrounded by steep barren granite cliffs. On the north side rises a hill called T̲h̲abīr. Travellers from Mecca come down into the valley by a hill path with steps in it; this is the ʿAḳaba [ q.v.] which became famous in connection with Muḥam…

Allāhumma

(232 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
is an old Arabic formula of invocation: "Allāh!", for which also Lahumma is found (cf. Nöldeke, Zur Grammatik d. class. Arab., 6). Whether, as Wellhausen supposes in his Reste arabischen Heidentums 2, 224, it was originally meant for the god Allāh, higher than and different from the old Arabian gods, is rather doubtful, because every god might be invoked as "the God" (just as "the Lord". It was used in praying, offering, concluding a treaty and blessing or cursing (see Goldziher, Abhandlungen z. arab . Philol ., i, 35 ff.; cf. also the expression Allāhuma ḥayyi =much …

al-Ḥasan b. Zayd b. Muḥammad

(448 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. Ismāʿīl b. al-Ḥasan b. Zayd , a descendant of the preceding, founder of an ʿAlid dynasty in Ṭabaristān [ q.v.]. The high-handed rule of the Ṭāhirids on the one hand and, on the other, the settlement of ʿAlid elements in the region led to a rising in favour of al-Ḥasan b. Zayd, al-dāʿī al-kabīr , in 250/864. Al-Ḥasan, who was living at Rayy, was proclaimed sovereign by a section of the population of Ṭabaristān and received the allegiance of Wahsūdān b. Ḏj̲ustān of Daylam [ q.v.]. He succeeded in defeating the Ṭāhirid troops and seizing the towns of Āmul and Sāriya, while D̲j̲us…

Maymūna Bint al-Ḥārit̲h̲

(228 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the last wife that Muḥammad married. She stemmed from the Hawāzin tribe of ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa and was a sister-in-law of al-ʿAbbās. After she had divorced her first husband, a T̲h̲aḳafi, and her second, the Kuras̲h̲ī Abū Rukm, had died, she lived as a widow in Mecca where the Prophet wooed her, primarily no doubt for political reasons, on the ʿumra allowed to him in the year 7/629. His wish to marry her in Mecca was refused by the Meccans, in order not to prolong his stay there; the marriage therefore took place in Sarif, a village north of Mecca. Her brother-in-law al-ʿAbbās acted as her walī

Hind Bint ʿUtba

(365 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. Rabīʿa , mother of Muʿāwiya; this Meccan woman, who belonged to the clan of the ʿAbd S̲h̲ams (see the list of her maternal ancestors in Muḥ. b. Ḥabīb, Muḥabbar , 19), had mairied as her third husband Abū Sufyān b. Ḥarb, to whom she bore other children besides the future caliph. Traditions hostile to the Umayyads draw an extremely repellant portrait, apparently something of a caricature, of this short, stout woman who quite certainly had a highly passionate temperament and who on different occasions m…

al-Ḥasan b. Zayd b. al-Ḥasan

(165 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib was a pious man, who, following the example of his father and grandfather, abandoned all political aspirations and reconciled himself to ʿAbbāsid rule. His daughter became the wife of al-Saffāḥ while he himself lived at the Caliph’s court, and is even said to have occasionally communicated the views of his ʿAlid relatives and their dependants to al-Manṣūr. In 150/767 al-Manṣūr made him governor ¶ of Medina, but in 155/772 he aroused the Caliph’s wrath and was dismissed, imprisoned and had his property confiscated. But restitution was made to…

Ṣāliḥ

(616 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a prophet who was sent to the Arab people T̲h̲amūd. He is, as usual, depicted as a sign and a warning in the style of Muḥammad; he demanded that his countrymen should turn to him and pray to Allāh alone (Sūra 7, 71, 11, 64, 26, 141); he called their attention to the benefits received from God (7, 72, 51, 43) and prided himself on seeking for no reward from them (26, 145). But they rejected him abruptly, called him bewitched (26, 153), a man like themselves, who could make no claim to revelatio…

Muḥammad

(19,257 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the founder of Islām, was a native of the city of Mecca, out of which the energetic Ḳurais̲h̲ had in the sixth century created a flourishing centre of commerce by exploiting the much visited places of pilgrimage there. In consequence of the unreliability of the sources at our disposal the very first question a biographer has to ask, namely when was his hero born, cannot be answered with certainty. That Muḥammad’s activity in Medīna covered ten years (622-632) is certain; but we have no certain…

Faḥl

(275 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
or Fiḥl, among the Jews Pḥl, called Pella by the Greeks in allusion to the name of the Macedonian town, at the present day the ruins of Faḥil on the western slopes of the land east of Jordan. It belonged to the Decapolis and is particularly celebrated because the Christians went thither on leaving Jerusalem before its destruction; it afterwards belonged to Falaestina Secunda and was the see of a bishop. About six months after the battle of Ad̲j̲nādain in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda of the year 13 (January 635) the…

Ḏj̲abala

(797 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
I. A town on the Syrian coast south of Lādiḳīya, the ancient Gabala. The town, which was fortified, was abandoned by its inhabitants when the Muslims conquered the coast-towns in the year 17; but Muʿāwiya had it peopled again and built a new citadel outside the old one. In 245 = 859, it suffered severely from an earthquake. When the Byzantines were gaining ground again in the xth century, they recaptured Ḏj̲abala in 357 = 968 along with other neighbouring towns, on the death of the Hamdānid Saif al-Dawla; on this occasion 35,000 men, women and children are said…

Bāniyās

(729 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the ancient Paneas, so called from Paneion, a grotto sacred to Pan above the main source of the Jordan at the foot of Hermon; its later name Caesarea Philippi was, as was so often the case, ousted by its more ancient one. The grotto and the town of Paneas (and the surrounding district also of the same name) are first mentioned in the Hellenistic period, although it is probable that a predecessor of this place is concealed in a name given to this district in the Old Testament. Herod the Great b…

Kaʿb b. Mālik

(369 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh, a native of Medīna of the Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ī tribe of Salima. After taking an active part in the sanguinary tribal ¶ battles in Medīna, he was won over to Islām even before the Ḥid̲j̲ra and took part in the momentuous second meeting at the ʿAḳaba [q. v.]. He was a poet and along with Ḥassān b. T̲h̲ābit [q. v.] and ʿAbd Allāh b. Rawāḥa [q. v.] was employed by Muḥammad to glorify his military exploits and answer the polemical poems of the enemies. He did not fight at Badr [q. v.] but was in most of the other…

Āmina

(260 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Muḥammed’s mother. According to the genealogies she was the daug̲hter of Wahb b. ʿAbd Manāf of the family of Zuhra and of his wife Barra of the family of ʿAbd al-Dār, both families of Mecca. The expression of the poet Ḥassān b. T̲h̲ābit of Medīna: “we have brought him (Muḥammed) forth” (Nöldeke, Delectus, p. 74, 6) would, according to ordinary usage; signify that his mother was of Medīna; but according to the traditions of the Arabs this is not possible, and this expression as also the allusions to Muḥammed’s maternal uncles as living at Medīna …
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