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Nīksār

(579 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, the classical Neo-Caesarea in Bithynia, a town lying on the southern rim of the Pontic mountain chain of Asia Minor (the modern Turkish Kuzey Anadolu Dağlari) on the right bank of the Kelkit river. It is situated at an altitude of 350 m/1,150 feet in lat. 40°35′ N. and long. 36°59′ E. The nucleus of the town is picturesquely situated at the foot of a hill, crowned by the ruins of a mediaeval castle which was erected from the material provided by the numerous buildings of antiquity there. Here in remote antiquity was Cabira and after its decline …

Nefʿī

(813 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(980-1044/1572-1635), the greatest satirist of the Ottomans. ʿÖmer Efendi, whose nom-de-plume ( mak̲h̲laṣ ) was Nefʿī came from the village of Ḥasan Ḳalʿa near Erzerūm (eastern Anatolia). Not much is known of his early life. He spent his early years in Erzerūm where the historian ʿĀlī [ q.v.], who was a defterdār there, became acquainted with him. During the reign of Aḥmed I, fate brought him to the capital Istanbul where he worked for a time as a book-keeper. He failed in an attempt to gain the sultan’s favour or that of his son, the unfortunate ʿOt̲h̲mān II, with some brilliant ḳaṣīdas . It wa…

Atīna

(1,030 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Athens, capital of Greece. The history of Athens in pre-Islamic times will not be treated here. The first closer—admittedly hostile—contact with the Muslims was made in 283/896, when Saracen pirates occupied the town for a short time (cf. D. G. Kambouroglous, ‘H ἄλωσις ’Αθηνῶν ὑπὸτῶν Σαρακηνῶν Athens 1934). Certain Arabic remains, and influences on the ornamental style in Athens, have been traced back to this event (cf. G. Soteriou, Arabic remains in Athens in Byzantine times, in: Praktiká ( Proceedings ) of the Academy of Athens , iv (Athens 1929), reproduced by D. G. Kambouroglous, l.c…

Nesīmī

(601 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Seyyid ʿImād al-Dīn , known as Nesīmī, an early Ottoman poet and mystic, believed to have come from Nesīm near Bag̲h̲dād, whence his name. As a place of this name no longer exists, it is not certain whether the laḳab should not be derived simply from nasīm “zephyr, breath of wind”. That Nesīmī was of Turkoman origin seems to be fairly certain, although the “Seyyid” before his name also points to Arab blood. Turkish was as familiar to him as Persian, for he wrote in both languages. Arabic poems ar…

Ramaḍān-Zāde

(342 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
Meḥmed Čelebi Pas̲h̲a , Yes̲h̲ild̲j̲e , known as Küčük Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊, an Ottoman historian. He was born in Merzifūn [ q.v.] and was the son of a certain Ramaḍān Čelebi. He was a secretary in the dīwān , became in 960/1553 chief defterdār , in 961/1554 reʾīs ül-küttāb or secretary of state, and in 965/1558 secretary of the imperial signature ( ṭüg̲h̲ra [ q.v.]). He was later appointed defterdār of Aleppo, then governor of Egypt and finally sent to the Morea to make a survey ( taḥrīr ). He retired in 970/1562 and died in D̲j̲umādā I 979/September-October 1571…

Niyāzī

(843 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Ottoman poet and mystic. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Meḥmed known as Miṣrī Efendi, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Miṣrī, whose mak̲h̲laṣ was Niyāzī, came from Aspūzī, the former summer capital of Malaṭya (cf. Ewliyā Čelebi, iv, 15; von Moltke, Reisebriefe , 349), where his father was a Naḳs̲h̲bandī dervish. Niyāzī was born in 1027/1617-18. The statement occasionally found that Sog̲h̲anli̊ was his birthplace is not correct. His father instructed him in the teaching of the order, then he went in 1048/1638 to Diyārbakr, later to Mārdīn where he studied for three years and finally to Cai…

Piyāle Pas̲h̲a

(966 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman Grand Admiral, came according to St. Gerlach, Tage-Buch (Frankfurt a/M. 1674, 448), from Tolna in Hungary and is said to have been the son of a shoemaker, probably of Croat origin. Almost all contemporary records mention his Croat blood (cf. the third series of the Relazioni degli ambasciatori Veneti al Senato , ed. E. Albèri, Florence 1844-5, and esp. iii/2, 243: di nazione croato, vicino ai confini d’Ungheria; 357: di nazione croato; iii/3, 294: di nazione unghero; 418). Following the custom of the time, his father was later given the name of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān an…

Baliabadra

(1,658 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Turkish name for Pátrai, Patras (fourth largest town on the Greek mainland and the largest on the Morean peninsula), situated on the gulf of the same west of the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth (Turkish Kordos , [ q.v.]), capital of the Nomos Achaia, seat of a bishop. It had about 85,000 inhabitants in 1951. The name Baliabadra comes from Παλαιαὶ Πάτραι, or rather Παλαιά Πάτ ρα ( Pâtra is even today the colloquial name for the town), i.e., Old Pátra(i), apparently because from the 14th century onwards New Pátra(i) denoted the fortress under whose protection the old settle…

Merkez

(329 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Muṣliḥ al-Dīn b. Muṣṭafā, the head of an Ottoman Ṣūfī order and saint. Merkez Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mūsā b. Muṣṭāfā b. Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ b. Had̲j̲dar belonged to the village of Ṣari̊ Maḥmūdlu in the Anatolian district of Lād̲h̲ikiyya. He was at first a pupil of the Mollā Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, son of Ḵh̲iḍr Beg [ q. v.], and later of the famous Ḵh̲alwatī S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Sünbül Sinān Efendi, founder of the Sünbüliyya, a branch of the Ḵh̲alwatiyya, head of the monastery of Ḳod̲j̲a Muṣṭāfā Pas̲h̲a in Istanbul (see Bursali̊ Meḥmed Ṭāhir, ʿOt̲h̲mānli müʾellifleri , i, 78-9). When th…

ʿÖmer Efendi

(366 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Ottoman historian, according to popular tradition originally called Elkazović or Čaušević, who belonged to Bosna-Novi (Bosanski-Novi). Of his career we only know that he was acting as ḳāḍī in his native town when fierce fighting broke out on Bosnian soil between the Imperial troops and those of Ḥekīm-Og̲h̲lu ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a (1150/1737). ʿÖmer Efendi at this time wrote a vivid account of the happenings in Bosnia from the beginning of Muḥarram 1149/May 1736 to the end of D̲j̲umādā I 1152/end of March 1…

ʿAzmī-Zāde

(568 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
muṣtafā , Ottoman poet and stylist, as a poet known under the name of Ḥāletī. Born in the so-called laylat al-berāt in Istanbul on 15 S̲h̲aʿbān 977/23 Jan. 1570. He was the son of ʿAzmī-Efendi, who was the well-known and well-respected tutor of Murād IV as well as a poet, writer, and translator (died 990/1582). As a pupil of Saʿd al-Dīn [ q.v.] who became famous as a historian, he studied law, and to him he owed his special love for historical investigation. He became müderris at the madrasa of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī-Ḵh̲ātūn in Istanbul, but in 1011/1602-3 he was transferred to Damascus as a ¶ judge. Two ye…

Ḳoyun Baba

(235 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, lit “father of sheep”, a Turkish saint. He is thought to have been a contemporary of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bektās̲h̲ [see bektās̲h̲iyya ] and is said to have received his name from the fact that he did not speak, but only bleated like a sheep five times a day at the periods for prayer. Sulṭān Bāyezīd II, called Walī , built a splendid tomb and dervish monastery on the site of his alleged grave at ʿOt̲h̲mānd̲j̲i̊ḳ (near Amasya, in Anatolia) which was one of the finest and richest in the Ottoman empire. Ewliyā Čelebi in his Travels ( Seyāḥet-nāme , ii, 180 ff.) describes very ful…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a Rāmī

(730 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman Grand Vizier and poet, was born in 1065/1655 or 1066/1656 in Eyyūb, a suburb of Istanbul, the son of a certain Ḥasan Ag̲h̲a. He entered the chancellery of the Reʾīs Efendi as a probationer ( s̲h̲āgird ), and through the poet Yūsuf Nābī [ q.v.] received an appointment as maṣraf kātibi , i.e. secretary for the expenditure of the palace. In 1095/1684, through the influence of his patron, the newly appointed Ḳapudān pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a, he became dīwān efendi, i.e. chancellor of the Admiralty. He took part in his chief’s journeys and campaigns (against Chios…

Delvina

(783 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, former residence of an Ottoman sand̲j̲aḳ-bey in Albania. In Ottoman times Delvina (so in Turkish and Albanian; Gk. Δέλβινον, Délvinon) formed a sand̲j̲aḳ of the Rumelian governorship. It stands 770 ft. above sea level, about 10½ miles from the shores of the Ionian sea, and consists of one single bazar street set in the midst of olive, lemon and pomegranate trees, surmounted by the ruins of an old, perhaps Byzantine, stronghold. The inhabitants numbered about 3000 before 1940, of whom two-thirds…

Midḥat Pas̲h̲a

(1,581 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman statesman, twice grand vizier. Midḥat Pas̲h̲a was born in Stambul in Ṣafar 1238 (beg. Oct. 18, 1822), the son of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī ʿAlī Efendi-Zāde Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḥāfiẓ Meḥemmed Es̲h̲ref Efendi, a native of Rus̲h̲čuk The family seem to have been professed Bektas̲h̲īs and Midḥat Pas̲h̲a also had a leaning towards them. His earliest youth was spent in his parents’ home at Widdin, Lofča (Bulgaria) and later in Stambul, where his father held judicial offices. In 1836 he was working in the secretariat of …

Ḳalpaḳ

(726 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(t.), A Central Asian headdress, which was introduced by the Turks into Europe and became widely distributed there. The word ḳalpaḳ is found in the most diverse Turkish dialects in meanings which are detailed by W. Radloff in his Versuch eines Wörterbuches der Türkdialekte, ii. 268 sq. (cf. also ḳalabaḳ, ii. 234). The Eastern Turkish tilpäk, Djag. East. Turk, tälpäk, Kirg. and Karakirg. telpäk, meaning cap, felt cap (cf. also the French talpack) is certainly related. Cf. thereon Pavet de Courteille, Dict. turk-oriental, p. 408). In its original form the ḳalpaḳ is a cone-shape…

Mentes̲h̲e-Og̲h̲lulari̊

(712 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, a petty dynasty in Anatolia. The princes of Mentes̲h̲e first appear in history after the break up of the Seld̲j̲ūk empire. The founder of the family is said to have been a certain Mentes̲h̲e Beg b. Behāʾ al-Dīn Kurdī. He had his court at Mīlās (Mylasa) in the ancient Caria, and not far from it his stronghold Paičīn (Petsona). His descendants also lived in Mīlās until they moved their court to Miletus. The son of Mentes̲h̲e was Urk̲h̲ān Beg, who is known from an inscription on a building in Mīlās and from Ibn Baṭṭūṭa who visited him in 1334 in Mīlās (cf. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, Voyages, ed. Defrémery, Paris …

Mīk̲h̲āl-og̲h̲lu

(1,080 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an old Ottoman noble family. This family traces its descent to the feudal lord Köse Mīk̲h̲āl ʿAbd Allāh, originally a Greek (cf. F.-A. Geuffroy in Ch. Schefer, Petit traicte de l’origine des Tureqz par Th. Spandouyn Cantacasin, Paris 1696, p. 267: L’ung desdictz Grecz estoit nommé Michali…. Dudict Michali sont descendus les Michalogli), who appears in the reign of ʿOt̲h̲mān I as lord of Chirmenkia (Ḵh̲irmend̲j̲ik) at the foot of Olympus near Edrenos, and later as an ally of the first Ottoman ruler earned great merit for his share in aiding the latter’s expansion (cf. J. v. Hammer, in G.O.R.,…

Mihr-i Māh Sulṭān

(443 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent. Mihr-i Māh (sometimes also written Mihr-u-māh: cf. Ḳaračelebizāde, Rawḍat ul-Ebrār, p. 458) was the only daughter of Suleimān the Magnificent [q. v., as well as F. Babinger, in Meister der Politik, ii.2, Berlin 1923, p. 39—63]. While still quite young she was married to the grand vizier Rustem Pas̲h̲a (cf. F. Babinger, G. O. W., p. 81 sq.) in the beginning of December 1539 (cf. J. H. Mordtmann, in M. S. O. S., Year xxxii., Part 2, p. 37), but the marriage does not seem to have been a happy one. She used her enormous wealth — St. Ger…

Mezzomorto

(564 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Ottoman Grand Admiral whose real name was Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḥusein Pas̲h̲a. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḥusein Pas̲h̲a, known as Mezzomorto, i. e. “half-dead” because he was severely wounded in a naval battle, came from the Balearic Islands, if A. de la Motraye’s statement ( Voyages, The Hague 1727, i. 206) that he was born in Mallorca is right. He probably spent his youth sailing with corsairs on the seas off the North African coast. He first appears as a desperate pirate in the summer of 1682 in the Barbary States. When France was preparing to deal a …

Merkez

(320 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mūsā, an Ottoman S̲h̲aik̲h̲ of an Order and Saint. Merkez Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mūsā b. Muṣṭafā b. Ḳilid̲j̲ b. Ḥad̲j̲dar belonged to the village of Ṣari̊ Maḥmūdlu in the Anatolian district of Lād̲h̲ikīya. He was at first a pupil of the Mollā Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, son of Ḵh̲iḍr Beg [q. v.], and later of the famous Ḵh̲alwetī S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Sünbül Sinān Efendi, founder of the Sünbülīya, a branch of the Ḵh̲alwetīya, head of the monastery of Ḳod̲j̲a Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a in Stambul (cf. on him: Brūsali̊ Meḥemmed Ṭāhir, Ot̲h̲mānli̊ Müʾellifleri̊, i. 78 sq.). When the latter died in 936 (1529), Merke…

Mentes̲h̲e-eli

(218 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, a little principality in Anatolia. The boundaries of the territory of the Mentes̲h̲e-og̲h̲lu’s [q. v.] are given by Müned̲j̲d̲j̲im-bas̲h̲i̊ (cf. Fr. Babinger, G.O.W., p. 234 sq.) in his Ṣaḥāʾif al-Ak̲h̲bār (Stambul 1285) as marked by Mug̲h̲la, Balāṭ, Boz-Üyük, Mīlās, Bard̲j̲īn, Marīn, Čīne, Ṭawās, Bornāz, Makrī, Göd̲j̲iñiz, Foča and Mermere. They thus correspond approximately to those of the ancient Caria. The origin of the name is uncertain, but it can confidently be asserted that the opinion, presumably first put forward by F. Meninski ( Lexicon, iv. 737) and till quite rec…

Merzifūn

(514 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, also called Mārsiwān, a town in the Anatolian wilāyet of Siwas [q. v.] and in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Amasia [q. v.] at the beginning of the fertile plain of Ṣulu Owa, with 11,334 inhabitants (in 1927), of whom the Armenians have had to migrate, which produces a good deal of wine and makes some cotton. Merzifūn before the World War was the centre of activity of the Protestant missions in this region and contained the Anatolia College. The town most probably occupies the site of the ancient Phazemon (Φαζημών) in the district of Phazemonitis; the name is probably a development of Φαζημών. Ibn Bībī (cf. Rec…

Mersīna

(154 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Anatolian sea-port on the south coast of Asia Minor. Mersīna, the port and capital of the former sand̲j̲aḳ of the same name (with an area of 1,780 sq. m.) in the wilāyet of Adana [q. v.] on the south coast of Anatolia, is 40 miles from Adana, to which a railway runs. The name Mersīna comes from the Greek myrsíni (μυρσίνη), myrtle, because this tree grows in large numbers in this region. The regularly built town, founded only in 1832, with about 21,171 inhabitants (1927) is only of importance as a port for the export of silk, corn and cotton. The clim…

Dimetoḳa

(1,029 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, also called Dimotiḳa , a town in the former Ottoman Rumeli. Dimetoḳa lies in western Thrace, in a side valley of the Maritsa, and at times played a significant role in Ottoman history. The territory has belonged to Greece since the treaty of Neuilly (27 November 1919), again bears its pre-Ottoman name of Didymóteikhon, and lies within the administrative district (Nomos) of Ebros. It has a population of about 10,000, and is the seat of a bishop of the Greek church as well as o…

Mīk̲h̲āl-Og̲h̲lu

(1,016 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an old Ottoman noble family. This family traced its descent to the feudal lord Köse Mīk̲h̲āl ʿAbd Allāh, originally a Greek (cf. F.-A. Geuffroy, in Ch. Schefer, Petit traicte de l’origine des Turcqz par Th. Spandouyn Cantacasin , Paris 1696, 267: L’ung desdictz Grecz estoit nommé MichaeliDudict Michali sont descenduz les Michalogli ), who appears in the reign of ʿOt̲h̲mān I as lord of Chirmenkia (K̲h̲irmend̲j̲ik) at the foot of Mount Olympus near Edrenos, and later as an ally of the first Ottoman ruler earned great merit for his share in aiding the latter’s expansion (cf. J. von Hammer, in G…

Nīlūfer K̲h̲ātūn

(367 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, wife of the Ottoman sultan Ork̲h̲an and mother of Murād I [ q.vv.], apparently the Greek Nenuphar (i.e. Lotus-flower) (cf. J. von Hammer, GOR, i, 59), was the daughter of the lord of Yārḥiṣār (Anatolia, near Bursa; cf. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa, D̲j̲ihān-numā . 659) and according to one story was betrothed to the lord of Belokoma (Biled̲j̲ik). ʿOt̲h̲mān [ q.v.], the founder of the dynasty which bears his name, is said to have kidnapped and carried her off in 699/1299 and to have destined her to be the wife of his son Ork̲h̲an [ q.v.], then only 12 years old. Idrīs Bitlīsī, and following hi…

Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a

(567 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, K̲h̲od̲j̲a Meḥmed (1111-76/1699-1763), Ottoman Grand Vizier and littérateur. He was born in Istanbul, the son of the kātib Meḥmed S̲h̲ewḳī. and was soon on account of his unusual ability employed in the dīwān . He then acted as secretary and deputy-chamberlain to the governors of Van, ʿArifī Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a, and Köprülü-zāde ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], and, lastly, to Ḥekīm-zāde ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a. In 1141/1728 he returned to ¶ the capital and in the following year went back to Bag̲h̲dād as deputy to the reʾīs efendi . Soon after the conquest of Bag̲h̲dād in 1146/1733 he was appointed def…

Aḥmad Rasmī

(480 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman statesman and historian. Aḥmad b. Ibrāhīm, known as Resmi came from Rethymno (Turk. Resmo; hence his epithet?) in Crete and was of Greek descent (cf. Hammer-Purgstall, viii, 202). He was born in 1112/1700 and came in 1146/1733 to Istanbul, where he was educated, married a daughter of the Reʾīs Efendi Taʾūḳd̲j̲i Muṣṭafā and entered the service of the Porte. He held a number of offices in various towns (cf. Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī , ii, 380 f.). In Ṣafar 1171/Oct. 1757 he went as Ottoman envoy to Vienna and on his return made a written re…

Kirmāstī

(416 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, chef-lieu of a ḳadaʾ in Anatolia, 15 miles south-east of Mik̲h̲alid̲j̲ (cf. J. H. Mordtmann, in ZDMG, lxv [1911], 101) and 40 miles S.W. of Bursa with about 16,900 inhabitants (1960). The town lies on both banks of the Edrenos Čay (Rhyndacus), now called the Mustafa Kemal Paşa Çay. The origin of the name, often wrongly written Kirmāsli̊, which points to a Greek *Κερμαστὴ or *Κρεμαστὴ, is uncertain, nor is it known what ancient town was here. Perhaps the Kremastis in the Troas (cf. Pauly-Wissowa, ii, 743) mentioned in Xenophon, Hist , iv, 8, is to be connected wi…

ʿÖmer Efendi

(371 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, historien ottoman qui ¶ d’après la tradition populaire se serait d’abord appelé Elkazović ou Čaušević, et était originaire de Bosna-Novi (Bosanski Novi). De sa vie, on sait seulement qu’il exerçait les fonctions de ḳāḍī dans son pays natal lorsque se déroulèrent sur le sol bosniaque de violents combats entre les Impériaux et les troupes de Ḥekīm-Og̲h̲lu ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a (1150/1737). ʿÖmer Efendi écrivit alors, dans une langue simple et aisée, un récit vivant, extrêmement intéressant au point de vue de l’histoire sociale, des événe…

Dimetoḳa

(970 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(également Dimotiḳa), ville de l’ancienne Roumélie ottomane, en Thrace occidentale, dans une vallée latérale de la Maritsa; elle joua parfois un rôle important dans l’histoire ottomane. Son territoire, qui a repris son nom pré-ottoman de Didymóteik̲h̲on, appartient à la Grèce depuis le traité de Neuilly (27 nov. 1919) et fait partie du district administratif d’Ebros (Nomos); la ville compte une population d’environ 10 000 âmes et est le siège d’un évêché de l’Église grecque ainsi que d’un éparqu…

ʿOt̲h̲mānd̲j̲i̊ḳ

(744 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, turc moderne Osmancik, centre administratifd’un ilçe ou district du même nom dans l’ il ou province de Çorum [voir Çorum] dans le Nord de l’Anatolie, correspondant à la partie méridionale de la Paphlagonie classique. La ville est située sur le Halys ou Ḳi̊zi̊l İrmaḳ [ q.v.] à un important croisement du fleuve et de la route Tosya-Merzifun (lat. 40°58΄ N, long. 34° 50΄ E.; ait. 430 m). Elle occupe une situation pittoresque au pied d’une hauteur volcanique couronnée d’un château qui commandait autrefois le célèbre pont que Bāyazīd Ier passe pour avoir construit. La localité est prob…

Nefʿī

(835 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, (980-1044/1572-1635), le plus grand satirique ottoman, ʿOmer Efendi, dont le pseudonyme ( mak̲h̲laṣ) est Nefʿī, originaire du village de Ḥasan ḳalʿa non loin d’Erzerūm (Anatolie orientale). On ne sait pas grand-chose de ses premières années. Il passa sa jeunesse à Erzerùm où il connut l’historien ʿAlī [ q.v.] qui y exerçait les fonctions de defterdār. Pendant le règne d’Aḥmed Ier le destin le dirigea vers la capitale, Istanbul, où, pendant un certain temps, il exerça le métier de comptable. Ses tentatives en vue de gagner la faveur du sultan ou celle d…

Nāḥiye

(137 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(t., de l’arabe nāḥiya «région; voisinage»), vocable employé dès le IXe/XVe siècle dans l’administration de l’empire ottoman pour désigner les subdivisions d’une wilāyet ou province, mais c’est plus tard qu’il est devenu un terme spécifiquement réservé à la subdivision d’un ḳaḍāʾ [ q.v.] ou ḳażā qu’on peut comparer approximativement à l’arrondissement français et qui est placée sous l’autorité d’un kāʾim-maḳām [ q.v.], tandis qu’elle est administrée par un mudīr. Ce fonctionnaire anciennement nommé par le wālī, gouverneur de la province, recevait ses directives du ḳāʾim-maḳām, …

K̲h̲osrew Mollā

(386 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
célèbre juriste ottoman, de son vrai nom Meḥmed b. Farāmurz b. ʿAlī. Selon certaines sources, il était d’origine turcomane (tribu des Warsaḳ) et natif du village de Ḳarg̲h̲in, à michemin entre Sīwās et Toḳat ; selon d’autres, il était d’origine «franque», fils d’un aristocrate «français» converti à l’Islam; Saʿd al-dīn affirme que son père descendait des Rūm. Il suivit les enseignements du célèbre disciple d’al-Taftazānī, Burhān al-dīn de Herāt (cf. Islam, XI, 61; Saʿd al-dīn, Tād̲j̲ al-tawārīk̲h̲, II, 430) et enseigna lui-même à la medrese de S̲h̲āh Malik à Andrinople. En 848/…

Aynabak̲h̲ti̊

(405 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, nom turc de Lépante, ou Naupaktos, en Grèce, sur le golfe de Corinthe, dans un site pittoresque; mais elle n’est plus actuellement qu’une petite ville modeste, appelée Epaktos par le peuple et Lepanto par les Italiens. Elle est entourée de murs croulants qui datent de la domination vénitienne, et coiffée d’une citadelle. Au moyen âge, Aynabak̲h̲ti̊ était maîtresse du golfe de Corinthe; elle tomba aux mains des Vénitiens en 1407 (cf. Vitt. Lazzarini, L’acquisto di Lepanto, 1407, dans Nuovo Archivio Veneto, XV, Venise 1898, 267-83). En 1483, elle fut en vain assiégée par les…

Pīrī Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(456 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(m. 939/1532-3), grand -vizir ottoman originaire d’Amasya. Il descendait du célèbre Ḏj̲amāl al-dīn d’Aḳsarāy, et faisait par conséquant remonter son origine à Abū Bakr. Il s’engagea dans la carrière judiciaire, devint successivement kāḍī de Sofia, Siliwri et Galata, administrateur de la cuisine des pauvres (ʿ imārei) de Meḥemmed II, à Istanbul et, au début du règne de Bāyezīd II, il fut appelé au poste de premier dejterdār ( bas̲h̲ defterdār). Sous Selīm Ier, il se distingua pendant la campagne de Perse par ses sages conseils (cf. J. von Hammer, GOR, II, 412, 417 sqq.), fut envoyé e…

ʿAbdī Efendī

(147 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, historien ottoman. La seule information que nous ayons sur sa vie est que son activité se place sous les sultans Maḥmūd Ier et Muṣṭafā III, c.-à-d. vers 1730-64. Son histoire, appelée soit simplement ʿ Abdī Tārīk̲h̲i ou Tārīk̲h̲-i Sulṭân Maḥmūd Ḵh̲ān, traite principalement des antécédents de la révolte de Patrona Ḵh̲alīl et de la révolte elle-même (1730-1). C’est l’une des sources contemporaines les plus importantes pour cet événement.On trouve des mss. à Istanbul, Esʿad Efendī, 2153 et Millet Kütüpk̲h̲anesi. 409. (Fr. Babinger) Bibliography F.R. Unat, 1730 Patrona Īhtilali hak…

Pertew Pas̲h̲a

(689 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, the name of two Ottoman statesmen. I. Pertew Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a , Ottoman admiral and wezīr , started his career on the staff of the imperial harem, became ḳapud̲j̲i̊ bas̲h̲i̊ [see Ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ ], later Ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries, and in 962/1555 he was advanced to the rank of wezīr; in 968/1561 he was appointed third wezīr, in 982/1574 second wezīr and finally commander ( serdār ) of the imperial fleet under the ḳapudan pas̲h̲a Muʾed̲h̲d̲h̲in-zāde ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a. He had fought at the Battle of Lepanto [see aynabak̲h̲ti̊ ]. He later fell into disgrace and died in I…

ʿOt̲h̲mānd̲j̲i̊ḳ

(739 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, modern Turkish Osmancık, the administrative centre of an ilçe or district of the same name in the il or province of Çorum [see čorum ] in northern Anatolia, in the southern part of classical Paphlagonia. It lies on the Halys or Ḳi̊zi̊l I̊rmaḳ [ q.v.] at an important crossing-point of that river by the Tosya-Merzifun road (lat. 40°58′ N., long. 34°50′ E., altitude 430 m/1,310 ft.). ¶ The town is situated in a picturesque position at the foot of a volcanic hill which rises straight out of the plain and is crowned by a castle which formerly commanded the celebrat…

Merkez

(318 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Muṣlih al-dīn Mūsā b. Mūṣṭafā b. Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ b. .Ḥad̲j̲dar, chef d’une confrérie sūfie ottomane et saint. Originaire du village de Ṣari̊ Maḥmūdlu, dans la conscription de Lād̲h̲ikiyya, en Anatolie, il fut d’abord l’élève du Mollā Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, fils de Ḵh̲iḍr Beg [ q.v.], puis du s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ k̲h̲alwatī bien connu, Sūnbūl Sinān Efendi, fondateur de la Sünbüliyya, qui est une branche de la Ḵh̲alwatiyya, et supérieur du monastère ¶ de Ḳod̲j̲a Muṣṭafa Pas̲h̲a à Istanbul (voir Bursali̊ Meḥmed Ṭāhir, ʿOt̲h̲mānli müʾellifleri̊, I, 78-9). Quand celui-ci mourut en 936/1520…

Mīk̲h̲āl Og̲h̲lu

(972 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, vieille famille ottomane noble, qui fait remonter son origine à ce seigneur d’origine grecque Köse Mīk̲h̲āl ʿAbd Allāh (cf. F.-A. Geuffroy, dans Ch. Schefer, Petit traicté de l’origine des Turcqz par Th. Spandouyn Cantacasin, Paris 1696, 267: L’ung desdictz Créez estoit nommé MichaliDudict Michali sont descenduz les Michalogli) qui apparaît sous ʿOt̲h̲mān Ier comme maître de Chîrmenkia (Ḵh̲irmend̲j̲ik). au pied de l’Olympe près d’Edrenos; par la suite, comme allié du premier prince ottoman, il contribua largement à l’accroissement de sa puissance (cf. J. von Hammer, GOR, I, 48…

Nassades

(244 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, forme européenne courante du nom donné aux navires de guerre légers construits en Nassau ou Hohenau (Basse Autriche), les «Nassauer» ou «Hohenauer» (hongrois: naszád, pi. naszádok, slave: nasad), dont on se servait sur le Danube. Leur équipage était composé de marins, serbes pour la plupart, qu’on appelait martaloses (du hongrois martaloć, martalóz, proprement «brigands»). D’après une relation florentine, cette flottille du Danube se composait, en 1475, de 330 navires, avec 10 000 «nassadistes», armés de lances, de boucliers, d’arbalètes ou d’a…

ʿAzmī-zāde

(563 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
Muṣṭafā, poète et styliste ottoman; comme poète, il est connu sous le nom de Ḥāletī. Né au cours de la laylat al-barāt, à Istanbul, le 15 s̲h̲aʿbān 977/23 janvier 1570, il était le fils de ʿAzmī Efendi, qui est devenu célèbre comme précepteur de Murād IV, et aussi comme poète, écrivain et traducteur (m. 990/1582). Disciple de Saʿd al-dīn [ q.v.] qui devint célèbre comme historien, il étudia le droit; il doit à son maître un penchant particulier pour la recherche historique. Il devint müderris à la madrasa de Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲a-Ḵh̲ātūn à Istanbul, mais en 1011/1602-3, il fut envoyé à Dama…

Atīna

(986 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Athènes, actuelle capitale de la Grèce. L’histoire d’Athènes à l’époque préislamique est connue dans ses moindres détails, et il n’en sera pas question ici. Le premier contact immédiat — et hostile — que la ville eut avec les Musulmans se place en 283/896, lorsque des pirates sarrasins occupèrent temporairement la ville (cf. D. G. Kambourouglos, ‘H ἅλωσιΣ’ Aθηνων, ύπò των Σαρακηνων, Athènes 1934). On fait remonter à cet événement certains vestiges arabes et une certaine influence esthétique qu’on trouve en terre athénienne (cf. G. Soteriou, Arabie remains in Athens in Byzantine…

Ramaḍān-zāde

(317 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
Meḥmed Čelebi Pas̲h̲a Yes̲h̲ild̲j̲e, historien ottoman, originaire de Merzifūn [ q.v.] et fils d’un certain Ramaḍān Čelebi. Investi des fonctions de secrétaire du dīwān, il fut nommé en 960/1553 defterdār en chef, en 961/1554, reʾīs ül-küttāb (secrétaire d’Etat) et en 965/1558, secrétaire chargé du chiffre ( ṭug̲h̲ra [ q.v.]) du sultan. Il fut ensuite promu defterdār d’Alep, puis gouverneur d’Egypte et finalement envoyé en Morée pour établir le cadastre ( taḥrīr) du pays. En 970/1562, il prit sa retraite et il mourut en d̲j̲umādā I 979/septembre-octobre 1571. Pour…

Ḳoyun Baba

(224 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, «père du mouton», saint ottoman considéré comme contemporain de Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bektas̲h̲ [ q.v.]. Il tiendrait son surnom du fait qu’il ne parlait pas, mais cinq fois par jour, à l’heure des prières, bêlait comme un mouton. Le sultan Bāyezīd II fit élever, sur ce qu’on dit être sa tombe à ʿOt̲h̲mānd̲j̲i̊ḳ (non loin d’Amasia, en Anatolie), un splendide tombeau en même temps qu’un couvent de derviches qui était un des plus beaux et des plus riches de l’empire ottoman. Ewliyā Čelebi, dans son récit de voyage ( Siyāḥetnāme, II, 180 sqq.), décrit en détail cette grandiose colonie de Bekt…

Mihr-i Māh Sulṭān

(475 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(parfois écrit Mihr-ü-māh; cf. Ḳaračelebi-zāde, Rawḍat ul-ebrār, 458), fille unique du sultan ottoman Sulaymān (Soliman le Magnifique) [ q.v.; voir aussi F. Babinger, dans Meister der Politik, II2, Berlin 1923, 39-63]. Encore enfant, elle fut, au début de rad̲j̲ab 946/décembre 1539 (cf. J. H. Mordtmann, dans MSOS, XXXII/2, 37), mariée au grand-vizir Rüstem-Pas̲h̲a (cf. F. Babinger, GOW, 81-2); mais ce mariage ne semble pas avoir été très heureux. Elle consacra son énorme fortune — St. Gerlach évalue en 984/1576 son revenu quotidien à 2000 ducats au moins (cf. Tagebuch, Francfort 16…

Nedīm

(555 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Aḥmad, poète ottoman. Né à Istanbul, il était le fils dʾun certain juge nommé Meḥmed Bey originaire de Merzifūn. Son grand-père était (dʾaprès Gibb, HOP, IV, 30) un ḳāḍī-ʿaske du nom de Muṣtafā. Aḥmed RefīḲ, cite comme étant son arrière grand-père le Ḳara-Čelebi-zāde [ q.v.] Maḥmūd Efendi, qui avait été lui aussi ḳāḍī-ʿasker. Le tableau généalogique dressé par Aḥmed RefīḲ est toutefois erroné, parce qu’il confond Ḳaramānī Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] avec Rūm Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a. Il y a ainsi une véritable confusion dans le fait de tirer de d̲j̲alāl al-dīn l’origine d’Aḥmed…
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