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(262 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(a.), the title of governors of the provinces of Egypt, called mudīriyya . The use of the word mudīr in this meaning is no doubt of Turkish origin. The office was created by Muḥammad ʿAlī, when, shortly after 1813, he reorganised the administrative structure of Egypt, instituting seven mudīriyyas; this number has been changed several times. The chief task of the mudīr is the controlling of the industrial and agricultural administration and of the irrigation, as executed by his subordinates, viz. the maʾmūr , who administers a markaz , and the nāẓir who controls the ḳism


(6,769 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the river Nile. The Nile is one of the large rivers (length ca. 6,648 km./4,132 miles) which from the beginning have belonged to the territory of Islam, and the valleys and deltas of which have favoured the development of an autonomous cultural centre in Islamic civilisation. In the case of the Nile, this centre has influenced at different times the cultural and political events in the Islamic world. Thus the Nile has, during the Islamic period, continued to play the same part as it did during the centuries that preceded the coming of Islam. The name al-Nīl or, very often, Nīl Miṣr, goe…

Murād II

(1,480 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(824-48, 850-5/1421-44, 1446-51), sixth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born in 806 (1403-4) and ascended the throne in D̲j̲umādā I 824/May 1421, when he arrived in Edirne some days after his father Meḥemmed I’s death; his decease had been kept secret on the advice of the vizier ʿIwaḍ Pas̲h̲a until the new sultan’s arrival. As crown prince he had resided at Mag̲h̲nisa, and he had taken part in the suppression of the revolt of Simawna-Og̲h̲lu Bedr al-Dīn [ q.v.]. Immediately after his accession he had to face the pretender known in Turkish history as Düzme Muṣṭafā [ q.v.] and his ally D̲j̲un…


(758 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, a town of mediaeval ʿIrāḳ situated in the Euphrates-Tigris delta region at the head of the Persian Gulf and famed as the terminal for commerce from India and further east. It lay to the east of al-Baṣra [ q.v.] on the right bank of the Tigris and on the north side of the large canal called Nahr al-Ubulla, which was the main waterway from al-Baṣra in a southeastern direction to ¶ the Tigris and further to ʿAbbādān and the sea. The length of this canal is generally given as four farsak̲h̲ s or two barīd s (al-Muḳaddasī). Al-Ubulla can be identified with ’Απολόγου ’Εμπόριον, mentioned in the Periplus m…

Muṣṭafā I

(523 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the fifteenth Ottoman sultan (1026-7/1617-18 and 1031-2/1622-3), was born in the year 1000/1591 as son of Meḥemmed III [ q.v.]. He owed his life to the relaxation of the ḳānūn authorising the killing of all the brothers of a new sultan, and was called to succeed his brother Aḥmed I [ q.v.] at the latter’s death on 23 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 1026/22 November 1617. But his weakmindedness —which is said to have him made escape death on account of superstitious fear of Aḥmed— made him absolutely incapable of ruling. Aḥmed’s son ʿOt̲h̲mān, who felt himself e…


(265 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the desert region that lies west of Kūfa along the alluvial plain of the Euphrates. It is higher than the low-lying ground by the river and forms the transition to the central Arabian plateau. According to the authorities quoted by Yāḳūt, Buldān , iii, 359, al-ṭaff means an area raised above the surrounding country or fringe, edge, bank; the name is not found after the 13th century. The district contains a number of springs, the waters of which run ¶ southwest (cf. Ibn al-Faḳīh, 187). The best known of these wells was al-ʿUd̲h̲ayr. From its geographical position al-Ṭaff w…


(134 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, or in the official style, Telk̲h̲īṣī , was the individual of the Ottoman Turkish administration appointed to prepare the précis called telk̲h̲īṣ [ q.v.] and to take it to the palace, where it was handed over to the chief of the eunuchs. The telk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i was therefore an official of the Grand Vizier’s department; in addition to preparing the telk̲h̲īṣ, he took part in several official ceremonies. The telk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i of the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām was not—at least in the later period—in direct communication with the palace; documents presented by him had to pass first …

Muṣṭafā II

(906 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the twenty-second Ottoman sultan (1106-15/1695-1703), was a son of Meḥemmed IV [ q.v.]. Born in 1664, he succeeded to his uncle Aḥmed II on D̲j̲umādā II 1106/6 February 1695, at a time when the empire was at war with Austria, Poland, Russia and Venice. The new sultan in a remarkable k̲h̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲erīf proclaimed a Holy War and carried out, against ¶ the decision of the Dīwān , his desire to take part in the campaign against Austria. Before his departure a mutiny of the Janissaries had cost the grand vizier Defterdār ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a his life…


(259 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the Turkish word for “black” or “dark colour” in general. It is commonly used with this meaning as the first component of geographical names e.g., Ḳarā Āmid (on account of the black basalt of which this fortress is built), Ḳarā Dag̲h̲ (on account of its dark forests), etc. Besides Ḳarā we find in place names the diminutive form Ḳarad̲j̲a. In personal names, ḳarā may refer to the black or dark brown colour of hair or to a dark complexion. It has, however, at the same time the meaning “strong, powerful”, and should be interpreted in th…

Sūḳ al-S̲h̲uyūk̲h̲

(530 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, a small town in southern ʿIrāḳ, on the right bank of the Euphrates (lat. 30° 53′ N., long. 46° 28′ E.). It lies some 40 km/25 miles to the south-east of al-Nāṣiriyya [ q.v.] and at the western end of the K̲h̲awr al-Ḥammār lake and marshlands region, about 160 km/100 miles as the crow flies from Baṣra. The town is surrounded by date-groves extending along the river bank, but the marshy country, that extends into Baṣra, makes the air very unhealthy. Sūḳ al-S̲h̲uyūk̲h̲ was founded in the first half of the 18th century as a market-place ( sūḳ) of the confederation of the Muntafiḳ [ q.v.] Arabs; 4 hour…

Lala Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(377 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, grand vizier under Aḥmad I. He was a Bosnian by origin and a relation of Meḥmed Soḳollu Pas̲h̲a. The year of this birth is not given. After having had higher education ¶ in the palace, he was mīr-āk̲h̲ūr , and became in 1003/1595 ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries. In the next year he took part in the Austrian wars as beglerbegi of Rūmili and was commander of Esztergom (Gran, Turkish: Usturg̲h̲on) when this town capitulated to the Austrian army in Muḥarram 1004/September 1595. During the following years, Lala Meḥmed was several times ser-ʿasker in Hungary and when, in Ṣa…


(747 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the name of a region lying to the west of Farg̲h̲āna [ q.v.] in mediaeval Islamic Transoxania, now falling in the region where the eastern part of the Uzbekistan Republic, the northernmost part of the Tajikistan Republic and the easternmost part of the Kirghiz Republic meet. The form Usrūs̲h̲ana is the best known, although Yāḳūt (i, 245) says that Us̲h̲rūsana is preferable. In the Persian versions of the text of al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī and in the Persian text of the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam we find more often Surūs̲h̲ana, while Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih sometimes has S̲h̲ur…

Meḥemmed IV

(1,147 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, nineteenth sultan of the Ottoman dynasty in Turkey, known as awd̲j̲i̊ "the hunter" from his excessive passion for the chase, reigned 1058-99/1648-87. Born on 30 Ramadan 1051/2 January 1642, he was the son of Sultan Ibrāhīm [ q.v.] and Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a Turk̲h̲ān Sulṭān. He was placed on the throne in Istanbul at the age of seven after the deposition in 18 Rad̲j̲ab 1058/8 August 1648 of the sensualist and possibly mentally deranged “Deli” Ibrāhīm, at a moment when Ibrāhīm was the sole surviving adult male of the house of ʿOt̲h̲mān, but i…

Murād I

(2,118 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(761-91/1360-89), according to the common tradition the third ruler of the Ottoman state, was a son of Ork̲h̲ān and the Byzantine lady Nīlūfer. Although some Ottoman sources profess to know the year of his birth ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , i, 74, gives the year 726/1326), this date, like all dates given by Turkish sources relating to this period, is far from certain. The name Murād (Greek sources such as Phrantzes have ’Αμουράτης, from which later Latin sources make Amurath, while contemporary Latin sources from…

ʿOt̲h̲mān II

(887 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, sixteenth sultan of the Ottoman empire (regn. 1027-31/1618-22), was born on 19 D̲j̲umādā II 1012/15 November 1603; cf. Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , i, 56), the son of Sultan Aḥmed I. After the death of his father in November 1617, the brother of the latter had been proclaimed sultan as Muṣṭafā I [ q.v.] but ʿOt̲h̲mān, taking advantage of the weak character of his uncle and supported by the Muftī Esʿad Efendi and the Ḳi̊zlar Ag̲h̲asi̊ . Muṣṭafā, seized the throne on 26 February 1618 by a coup d’état. The youth of the new sultan at first assured the promoters of the coup d’état of cons…

Muṣṭafā III

(1,475 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the twenty-sixth sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1171-87/1757-74), was one of the younger sons of Aḥmed III [ q.v.] and was born on 14 Ṣafar 1129/28 January 1717 ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , i, 80). When he succeeded to the throne, after ʿOt̲h̲mān III’s [ q.v.] death, on 16 Ṣafar 1171/30 October 1757, his much more popular brother and heir to the throne, Meḥemmed, had recently died, in Rabīʿ I 1170/December 1756. Turkey enjoyed at that time, since the peace of Belgrade of 1739, a period of peace with her neighbours. Since December 1756 the very able Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] was grand vizier and …

Ḳūhistān (p.) or Ḳuhistān

(2,458 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
is the arabicised form of the Persian name Kūhistān meaning a mountainous country (derived from kūh , “mountain” with the sufix -istān ) and corresponds to the Arabic designation al-D̲j̲ibāl. As the Iranian plateau is very mountainous, we find many more or less extensive areas in it to which the name Ḳūhistān has been given, as Yāḳūt has already remarked (iv, 204). Many of these names have disappeared in course of time. Thus Ḳazwīnī (ed. Wüstenfeld, 228) says that the term Ḳūhistān is used for Media, which other geographers always call al-D̲j̲ibāl. In the S̲h̲āh-nāma


(311 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(t.), the name of a corps of guards, who were especially attached to the person of the sultan at the Ottoman Turkish court. The name is also applied to a member of the guard. Their occupations were similar to those of the Čawus̲h̲ [ q.v.], not of military character, nor for court service only, but they were used for more or less important public or political missions. Like the Čawus̲h̲, the Müteferriḳa were a mounted guard. The name appears early, e.g., in a waḳfiyya of 847/1443, one Ibrāhīm b. Isḥāḳ is mentioned as being one. In later times there were ¶ two classes, the gedikli or ziʿāmetli

Muṣṭafā IV

(643 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the twenty-ninth sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1222-3/1807-8), was a son of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd I and was born on 26 S̲h̲aʿbān 1193/19 September 1778 (Meḥmed T̲h̲üreyyā, Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , i, 81). When the anti-reform party, headed by the ḳāʾim-maḳām Mūsā Pas̲h̲a and the muftī, and supported by the Janissaries and the auxiliary troops of the Yamaḳs, had dethroned Selīm III [ q.v.] on 21 Rabīʿ I 1222/29 May 1807, Muṣṭafā was proclaimed sultan. Immediately afterwards, the niẓām-i d̲j̲edīd ¶ [ q.v.] corps was dissolved and Ḳabaḳd̲j̲i-og̲h̲lu, the leader of the Yamaḳs, was mad…

Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a, Lala

(671 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, famous Ottoman commander of the 10th/16th century, d. 988/1580. The date of his birth is not given. He was a native of Soḳol, and began his service in the imperial palace. He rose in rank under the grand vizier Aḥmed (960-2/1553-5), but was not in favour with the latter’s successor Rüstem Pas̲h̲a, who made him in 963/1556 lālā to prince Selīm with the object of ruining him. The outcome of this nomination was the contrary of what was expected; Muṣṭafā became the chief originator of the intrigues by which Selīm came into conflict …

al-Mahalla al-Kubrā

(600 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
or maḥalla kabīr is the modern name of an important town in the Delta of the Nile at some distance to the west of the Damietta arm, north-east of Ṭanṭa. It ¶ lies on the Turʿat al-Milāḥ canal, a branch of the Baḥr S̲h̲ībīn. In view of the large number of Egyptian geographical names compounded with Maḥalla (see these listed in Muḥammad Ramzī, al-Ḳāmūs al-d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfī li ’l-bilād al-Miṣriyya , Cairo 1953-68, i, 404-9), the identification of the town with the names mentioned by earlier Arabic writers is a matter of some difficulty. Maspero an…


(592 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the form of the name in Ottoman Turkish of the small village in Lydia in Asia Minor, the ancient Sardes (αἱ Σάρδεις of the classical authors, which makes Sāmī Bey write Sārd), capital of the Lydian kingdom, situated on the eastern bank of the Sart Çay (Paktōlos) a little southward to the spot where this river joins the Gediz Çay (Hermos). Although in the later Byzantine period Sardes had lost much of its former importance (as a metropolitan see) and been outflanked by Magnesia (Turkish Mag̲h̲nīsa [ q.v.]) and Philadelphia (Ala S̲h̲ehir [ q.v.]), it still was one of the larger towns, wh…


(5,340 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a Persian province and of its present capital. The name of the town was derived later from that of the province. The usual pronunciation is Kirmān, although, according to the tradition of Arab scholarship (Yāḳūt, iv. 263) the form Karman is more correct; the name, in any case, goes back to the form Carmania, which is found in Strabo (xv. 2, 14), and which in its turn is said to be derived from the name of an ancient capital, Carmana (Ptolemy, Geography, vi. 8; Ammianus Marcellinus, xxiii. 6, 48). According to Marquart ¶ ( Ērānšahr, p. 30) the name Carmania replaced that of Yūti…

Muṣṭafā II

(872 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the twenty-second Ottoman sulṭān, was a son of Muḥammad IV. Born in 1664, he succeeded to his uncle Aḥmad II on February 6, 1695, at a time when the empire was at war with Austria, Poland, Russia und Venice. The new sulṭān in a remarkable k̲h̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲erīf proclaimed a Holy War and carried out, against the decision of the Dīwān, his desire to take part in the campaign against Austria. Before his departure a mutiny of the Janissaries had cost the grand vizier Defterdār ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a his life (April 24, 1693) and the campaign was led by the new grand viz…


(857 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Bannāʾ al-S̲h̲aʾmī al-Muḳaddasī al-maʿrūf bi ’l-Bas̲h̲s̲h̲ārī as he is called on the first page of the Berlin manuscript (Cat. Ahlwardt, N°. 6034), is the author of the most original and at the same time one of the most valuable geographical treatises in Arabic literature. The name-form al-Muḳaddasī, denoting his origin from Jerusalem, goes back to Sprenger, who brought the Berlin manuscript from India and made this author first known in Europe (A. Sprenger, Die Post-und Reiserouten des Orients, Leipzig 1864, p. xviii.…

Muḥammad III

(651 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, thirteenth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born on May 16,1567, the son of Murād III and the Venetian lady Baffa, and reigned from January 27, 1593 until his death, December 22, 1603. He was the last sulṭān who, as crown prince, had resided as governor in Mag̲h̲nisa. During his short reign he does not seem to have exercised any great influence on the policy of the Empire, being mostly under the influence of his mother who, as wālide sulṭān, intervened in affairs of state through her protégés within and without the palace. Much against her will but on the insistence of a …

Ḳod̲j̲a Ili

(406 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a sand̲j̲aḳ in the old territorial division of the Ottoman empire. This sand̲j̲aḳ covered the north-west part of Bithynia, including the whole of the shore of the Gulf of Nicomedia. In the north it was bounded by the Black Sea, in the east by the Bosphorus and the Gulf of Nicomedia, in the south by the sand̲j̲aḳ of Brusa and in the east by that of Boli; on this side the Saḳaria forms the natural boundary but in the administrative division the eastern bank of this river was included in the sand̲j̲aḳ. The name Ḳod̲j̲a Hi is connected with Aḳče Ḳod̲j̲a, the famous g̲h̲āzī and companion-in-…


(684 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the part of the range of hills west of the Nile, which lies immediately to the east of Cairo and from which the mountains take a north-easterly direction, bordering the Nile delta to the south-east. It reaches a height of about 600 feet and consists, as does the greater part of the north African mountains, of limestome (cf. Description de l’Egypte, Etat moderne, Paris 1822, ii/ii. 751). The name Muḳaṭṭam (the Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs records also the popular form al-Muḳaṭṭab) does not go back to a pre-Muḥammadan nomenclature, nor is it considered, in spite of its correct Ar…


(1,694 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town lying in a plain among the mountain ranges that border the Iranian plateau on the south-west, now the capital of a Persian province between Kurdistān on the north and Luristān on the south. The geographical position of the town is approximately 34° 20′ North Lat. and 47° East Long.; the plain is traversed by the Ḳara Ṣu which runs to the north-east of the town in a south-easterly direction, joining the river Gāmāsiyāb (formerly the Gāwmāsā Rūd) farther south; the latter is a tributary of the Kerk̲h̲a [q.v.] and the most important water-course of the province. It was probably in this …

Ḳoč Ḥiṣār

(437 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of several places in Asia Minor. The meaning — if it is not ¶ simply a corruption of Ḳod̲j̲a Ḥiṣār — is “castle of the ram” and it may be compared with proper names like Ḳoyun Ḥiṣār, Toḳlu Ḥiṣār, Keči Ḥiṣār. 1. Ḳoč Ḥiṣār in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Kang̲h̲ri is a little town on the Dewrek Cai, twenty-five miles north of the town of Kang̲h̲ri. It is on the high road from Constantinople to Boli, Amasia and Erzerūm, between Ḳarad̲j̲a Wīrān and Ṭosia. According to Ewliyā Čelebi, this Ḳoč Ḥiṣār was captured by ʿOt̲h̲mān in 708 (1308) and comp…

Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a Lala

(654 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a famous military commander in the Ottoman history of the xvith century. The date of his birth is not given. He was a native of Ṣoḳol, the ¶ same Bosnian locality from which came the grand vizier Ṣoḳolli [q. v.], and began his service in the imperial serāy. He rose in rank under the grand vizier Aḥmad (1553—1555), but was not in favour with the letter’s successor Rustam Pas̲h̲a, who made him in 1556 lālā to prince Selīm with the object of ruining him. The outcome of this nomination was the contrary of what was expected; Muṣṭafā became the chief originator of the intr…


(901 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, is the Italian form of the name of the Greek town Naupactos which the Turks call Ine Bak̲h̲ti̊. This is how the Turkish form is transcribed, e. g. by Leunclavius ( Annales Turcici, p. 35) while von Hammer ( G. O. R., iii. 318) transcribes it as Aina Bak̲h̲ti̊, which he translates ¶ “Spiegelglück”; in view of the Greek form however it is very probable that the Turks originally pronounced it Ine Bak̲h̲ti̊. The town is situated in the ancient Locris, north of the strait which leads from the Ionian Sea towards the Gulf of Corinth, known since the middle ages as the Gulf of Lepanto. After forming from t…

Sulaimān I

(4,968 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the tenth and the greatest of the Ottoman Sulṭāns, reigned from 1520 to 1566. The Turks call him Ḳānūnī Sulṭān Sulaimān and western authors Soliman the Magnificent. Some Western historians like Leunclavius and, more recently, Jorga call him Sulaimān II, the first Sulaimān having been, according to them, the son of Bāyazīd I who lived at Adrianople. In Turkey however the opinion that Sulaimān the Legislator is the first of the name has prevailed; he is always called Sulaimān Ḵh̲ān Awwal and the ten s̲h̲erfe of the four minarets of the Sulaimānīya mosque signify, according to the Ḥadīḳat al-…

Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a

(678 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Viceroy (Ḵh̲edive) of Egypt from 1854 to 1863. Muḥammad Saʿīd, youngest son of Muḥammad ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā, was born in 1822. His father had a very high opinion of this, his fourth, son whom he sent when only 19 to Constantinople to conduct negotiations regarding the tribute to be paid by Egypt. Saʿīd, who was francophil, was not on good terms with his nephew and predecessor, ʿAbbās I [q.v.]. The latter had done everything possible to induce the Porte to alter the law of succession formulated by the Sulṭān’s firmān in favour of Muḥammad ʿAlī and to s…


(1,245 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, turkicised form of the Arabic tard̲j̲amān (cf. Muḥammad Ḥafīd, al-G̲h̲alaṭāt al-mas̲h̲hūra, p. 110) meaning an interpreter. The word is of Aramaic origin and early entered the Arabic language. Interpreters must have always played an important part in the commercial and diplomatical relations of Islāmic states with foreign peoples, but their activity begins to enter into clearer historical light only in the vith (xiith) century; from that time date the earliest known treaties between Christian towns or states and Muslim rulers of the countries around the M…


(2,473 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the town of Salonika in Macedonia, situated at the foot of the Gulf of Salonika, to the east of the mouth of the Wardar and at the foot of a hill which commands it on the north-east. It is the ancient Greek town of Θεσσαλονίκη, founded on the site of Therma by Cassander, who gave the new city the name of his wife, the sister of Alexander the Great (Strabo, VII, vii. 4). Towards the eleventh century, the popular form Σαλονίκιον appears ( Chronicle of the Morea) on which is based the form Ṣalūnīḳ or Ṣalūnīḳ in al-Idrīsī, the Bulgarian form Solun, the western form Salonika and fina…

Mūsā Čelebi

(509 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, one of the younger sons of the Ottoman sulṭān Bāyazīd I. According to some sources he was younger than his brother Muḥammad I [q. v.], who is generally considered as the youngest. Mūsā had been taken prisoner in the battle of Angora (1402) and was left by Tīmūr in custody with the Germiyān Og̲h̲lū Yaʿḳūb Beg. The latter sent him afterwards to his brother Muḥammad in Amasia, and for some time he became Muḥammad’s helper in the reestablishment of Ottoman power in Anatolia; he is even said to hav…

Sulṭān Öñü

(515 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, is the ancient name of the part of Phrygia in Asia Minor, situated to the N.W. of Eski S̲h̲ehir, which was the birthplace of the Ottoman power. The name existed already in the time of the Seld̲j̲ūḳs, for it is mentioned in the Chronicle of Ibn Bībī (Houtsma, Recueil de textes relatifs a l’histoire des Seldjoucides, iii. 217) as a frontier district of the Seld̲j̲ūḳ empire, the protection of which was trusted to frontier warders ( uč begleri) such as Ertog̲h̲rul. Among the early Ottoman historians Nes̲h̲rī (ed. Nöldeke, Z.D.M.G., xiii. 190) mentions Sulṭān Öñü as the place where Erto…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Rūm

(586 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, vizier and, according to some sources, grand vizier under Sulṭān Muḥammad II. As his surname indicates he was a Greek renegade. After having had an education in the palace he was destined for a military career and became at one time beylerbey. The dates of his birth and of his military advancements are not recorded. He had taken part in the final campaign of Muḥammad II against Ḳaramān in 1466 and was charged by the sulṭān with the transfer of parts of the population of the conquered regions to Constantinople, instead of the grand viz…


(1,485 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, surnamed “Ṭawīl”, “the Tall”, one of the most famous of Turkish grand viziers. He was born in the early years of the xvth century in the village of Sokol in Bosnia. His family was called Sokolewitch, of which Ṣoḳolli is the Turkish form. According to a panegyrical biography written about 1570 entitled Ḏj̲awāhir al-Manāḳib (cf. T. O. E. M., N°. 29, p. 257 sqq,), which is regarded as the best authority for the youth of Ṣoḳolli, Sokol means “falcon’s nest”. He was the eldest son and was taken from his parents under the dews̲h̲irme in the early years of Sulaimān I’s reign. …

Murād IV

(1,177 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, fifth son of sulṭān Aḥmad I, and seventeenth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born 28th Ḏj̲umādā I 1021 (July 27, 1612) and called to the throne as a result of the mutiny of the Janissaries and Sipāhīs, which had forced Muṣṭafā I to abdicate, on September 11, 1623. When the lives of Murād and his brothers were in danger, they had been hidden by Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a. But even after his enthronement Murād IV’s position was far from strong. The turbulent and continuously mutinying Janissaries and Sipāhīs were the rea…


(959 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, name of several princes belonging to the Ottoman dynasty: 1. Muṣṭafā Čelebi, eldest son of Bāyazīd I; the date of his birth is not recorded. He disappeared in the battle of Angora (July 1402). This Muṣṭafā is the first Ottoman prince to bear this name, which, like such other names as Bāyazīd and Murād, originated in mystical circles in Asia Minor in the xivth century. According to the Byzantine sources, this Muṣṭafā is the same as the person called by the majority of the Turkish sources: Dözme Muṣṭafā, who came forward in 1419 as pretender to the Ottoman throne against Muḥammad …

Muṣṭafā I

(455 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the fifteenth Ottoman Sulṭān, was born in the year 1000 (1591) as son of Muḥammad III. He owed his life to the relaxation of the ḳānūn authorising the killing of all the brothers of a new sulṭān, and was called to succeed his brother Aḥmad I at the latter’s death on November 22, 1617. But his weakmindedness — which is said to have him made escape death on account of superstitious fear of Aḥmad — made him absolutely incapable of ruling. Aḥmad’s son ʿOt̲h̲mān, who felt himself entitled to the succession, had little difficulty in procuring Muṣṭafā’s deposition in a meeting of the Imperial Dīwān, by …

Muẓaffar al-Dīn

(644 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, fifth S̲h̲āh of Persia of the Ḳād̲j̲ār [q. v.] dynasty, was born on March 25, 1853. He was S̲h̲āh Nāṣir al-Dīn’s second son, the eldest son Ẓill al-Sulṭān being of lower birth by his mother. As crown prince Muẓaffar al-Dīn had been some time governor of Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān (a description of him as crown prince in Curzon, Persia and the Persian Question, i. 413). After his father’s assassination Muẓaffar al-Dīn was enthroned on June 8, 1896. With this new reign the rivalry between England and Russia for commercial and political influence in Persia became ev…


(1,043 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
b. Rustam, a prince of the Bāwand dynasty of Ṭabarīstān [q. v.] regarded as the original author of the Marzubān-nāma, a work in Persian prose containing a series of short stories and fables of a moral and didactic character. This book is known in two versions in elegant Persian of the xiiith century, the author of one of which was Saʿd al-Dīn al-Warāwīnī; he dedicated it to Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Rabīb al-Dīn, vizier of Uzbek b. Muḥammad b. Ildegīz, Atābeg of Ad̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān from 1210 to 1225. These dates give us probable limits for the composition of th…


(259 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, name of two towns, in the region between the two main Nile arms called al-Ḏj̲azīra, generally distinguished as Manūf al-ʿUlyā and Manūf al-Suflā. The latter was situated on the right bank of the western Nile arm, while the former lay more to the east on a smaller canal. Both are described by the geographers as large towns, surrounded by fertile districts and inhabited by wealthy people, especially Manūf al-ʿUlyā, where, according to Ibn Ḥawḳal (p. 92), there resided a governor. The kūra of Manūf al-ʿUlyā is often called the kūra of Damsls and Manūf, while the kūra of Manūf al-Suflā is des…

Maḥmūd I

(1,908 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, twenty fourth Ottoman Sulṭān, reigned 1143—1168 (1730—1754). He was born on the 3rd Muḥarram 1108 (Aug. 2, 1696), the son of Muṣṭafā II — the Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī gives the date 7th Ramaḍān 1107 (April 10, 1696) — and had spent his life in seclusion up to his accession. He came to the throne through the mutiny of the Janissaries under Patrona Ḵh̲alīl, a mutiny which cost the grand vizier Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a, the Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a and the Kiaya Beg their lives, and forced Sulṭān Aḥmad III to abdicate in favour of Maḥmūd; these events took place on the 17th Rabīʿ I, 1143 (Oct. 1, 1730). The muti…


(1,442 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
or S̲h̲ūs̲h̲ter, among the Arabs Tustar, a town in the Persian province of ʿArabistān, the ancient Ḵh̲ūzistān, situated in ¶ about 49° East Long, and 32° N. Lat. It stands on a clif to the west of which runs the river Kārūn [q. v.], the middle course of which begins a few miles north of the town. This position gives the town considerable commercial and strategic importance and has made possible the construction of various waterworks for which the town has long been famous. The main features of these constructions …

Ṣu Bas̲h̲i̊

(621 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, ancient military title in countries of Turkish civilization. Although later popular etymology has always regarded the first element as the word ṣu, “water”, this interpretation ¶ is probably erroneous. In old Eastern Turkish zu (very possibly taken from Chinese) signified army and ṣu-bas̲h̲i̊ therefore meant commander of the army (cf. Maḥmūd Kas̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Dīwān Lug̲h̲at al-Turk, iii. 156; Houtsma, Ein türkisch-arabisches Glossar, Leyden 1884, p. 14, 30). It is not surprising, however, that this title has been connected with the word designating water, …

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Yegen

(395 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier under Maḥmūd II. He was called Yegen “the Nephew” because he stood in that relationship to Kel Yūsuf Efendi, a high official in the financial administration ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, iv. 659); he also began his career by holding different financial offices, and was also ḳapi̊ k i ayasi̊ of the grand vizier Topal ʿOt̲h̲mān Pas̲h̲a (1732). In 1737 he became ḳāʾim-maḳām in Constantinople during the absence of the grand vizier ʿAbd Allāh Pas̲h̲a. The latter was successful that year against the Austrians on the Danube frontier (taking of Fetḥ Islā…
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