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Mudīr

(262 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(a.), the title of governors of the provinces of Egypt, called mudīriyya . The use of the word mudīr in this meaning is no doubt of Turkish origin. The office was created by Muḥammad ʿAlī, when, shortly after 1813, he reorganised the administrative structure of Egypt, instituting seven mudīriyyas; this number has been changed several times. The chief task of the mudīr is the controlling of the industrial and agricultural administration and of the irrigation, as executed by his subordinates, viz. the maʾmūr , who administers a markaz , and the nāẓir who controls the ḳism

al-Nīl

(6,769 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the river Nile. The Nile is one of the large rivers (length ca. 6,648 km./4,132 miles) which from the beginning have belonged to the territory of Islam, and the valleys and deltas of which have favoured the development of an autonomous cultural centre in Islamic civilisation. In the case of the Nile, this centre has influenced at different times the cultural and political events in the Islamic world. Thus the Nile has, during the Islamic period, continued to play the same part as it did during the centuries that preceded the coming of Islam. The name al-Nīl or, very often, Nīl Miṣr, goe…

Siwri Ḥiṣār

(491 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, also written Sifri Ḥiṣār, i.e. strong castle (cf. Aḥmed Wefīḳ, Lehče-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, p. 459), the name of two places in Asia Minor. 1. A little town lying in the centre of the plateau bounded on south and east by the upper course of the Saḳariya and in the north by the Pursāḳ, c. 85 miles southwest of Angora. Siwri Ḥiṣār is on the northern slope of the Günes̲h̲ Dag̲h̲; the citadel of the town was built on this mountain. The town does not date beyond the Sald̲j̲ūḳ period and has no remains of archaeological interest. But it was already known as a strong place to Ḳazwīnī ( Geography, ed. Wüstenfeld, p. …

Otrār

(490 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town on the right bank of the Sīr Daryā (Saiḥūn), a little south of its ¶ tributary the Aris. The name is found as a geographical term for the first time in Yāḳūt (i. 310) as Uṭrār but Ṭabarī (iii. 815—816) already knows of a prince called Utrār-banda as a rebel vassal of the Caliph al-Maʾmūn. The place that Maḳdisī calls Tarār Zarāk̲h̲ ( B G A, iii. 263, 274) in the district of Isbīd̲j̲āb must be quite a different place. Otrār may perhaps be the same as the capital of the district of Fārāb [q. v.], a town which replaced the older one of Kadar (mentioned by …

Saḳārya

(738 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(sometimes Ṣaḳārya), a river in Asia Minor. It rises near Bayāt in the northeast of Āfiyūn Ḳara Hiṣār. In its eastward course it enters the wilāyet of Angora through which it runs to a point above Čaḥmaḳ after receiving on its left bank the Saiyid G̲h̲āzī Ṣū and several other tributaries on the same side. It then turns northwards describing a curve round Siwri Hiṣār. Here it receives on the right bank the Engürü Sūyu from Angora and near this confluence the Pursaḳ on the opposite bank. A little to the south of this point is the bridge of the Eski-S̲h̲ehir-Angora railway. ¶ Farther on, towards th…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Balṭad̲j̲i̊

(599 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier, was born about 1660 in the town of ʿOt̲h̲mānd̲j̲i̊ḳ and, after an education in the imperial palace, entered the corps of the balṭad̲j̲i̊s,. On account of his beautiful voice he acted for some time as müʾed̲h̲d̲h̲in: later on he became a scribe and rose rapidly in this career. In 1703, at Aḥmad III’s accession, he became mīr-āk̲h̲or and was made Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a in November 1704. In December of the same year he obtained the grand vizierate as successor of Ḳalayli̊ Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, against whom, although he had been at one time his fellow balṭad̲j̲i̊, he had used all his power o…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Elmas

(294 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier, was born about 1660 in a village near Sīnūb as son of a ship’s captain. After having been attached to the service of the Pas̲h̲a of Tripolis, he was educated in the k̲h̲aṣṣ oda of the palace and became in 1687 silaḥdār; soon afterwards he became nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲ī and obtained the rank of vizier. In Aḥmad II’s reign he was Pas̲h̲a in Bosnia, but did not yet play a prominent part, though he is said to have been one of that sulṭān’s favourites. After Muṣṭafā II’s accession he was appointed ḳāʾim-maḳām of the imperial stirrup and, when a revolt of the Janissaries had cost the g…

Ḳaraferiya

(365 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a small town in Macedonia, situated about 40 miles to the S. W. of Selānīk, on the Ana Dere, a tributary of the Ind̲j̲e Ḳara Ṣu, in the neighbourhood of the Gulf of Salonica. The ancient Greek name is Βέροια, in modern Greek Vérria (Slav. Ber), to which form the Turks have added the adjective Ḳara. According to the Byzantine authors the town was sacked as early as 1331 by Turkish pirates belonging to the country of Ḳarasī. They landed with 70 ships and laid waste the region of Vérria and Traja…

al-Nīl

(6,638 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the river Nile. The Nile is one of the large rivers which from the beginning have belonged to the territory of Islām, and the valleys and deltas of which have favoured the development of an autonomous cultural centre in Islāmic civilisation. In the case of the Nile this centre has influenced at different times the cultural and political events in the Muḥammadan world. Thus the Nile has, during the Islāmic period, continued to play the same part as it did during the centuries that preceded the coming of Islām. The name al-Nīl or, very often, Nīl Miṣr, goes back to the Greek name Νεĩ…

ʿOt̲h̲mān II

(843 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, sixteenth sulṭān of the Ottoman empire, was born on the 19th Ḏj̲umādā II 1012 (Nov. 15, 1603; cf. Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, i. 56), the son of Sulṭān Aḥmad I. After the death of his father in Nov. 1617, the brother of the latter had been proclaimed sulṭān as Muṣṭafā I [q. v.] but ʿOt̲h̲mān, taking advantage of the weak character of his uncle and supported by the mufti Esʿad Efendi and the Ḳi̊zlar Ag̲h̲a Muṣṭafā, seized the throne on Feb. 26, 1618 by a coup d’état. The youth of the new sulṭān at first assured the pr…

Med̲j̲elle

(658 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(a. mad̲j̲alla). Under this name the Civil Law Code of Turkey; is generally known it is an abbreviation of Med̲j̲elle-i aḥkām-i ʿadlīye. The elaboration of this Civil Code took place between 1869 and 1876 and was a part of the legislative programme of the Tanẓīmāt [q. v.]. It had been preceded by a Penal Code (1858) and a Commercial Code (1861), but, while these two codifications had been based in a large measure on the laws of European countries, the Med̲j̲elle was a codification of that part of Ḥanafite fiḳh, which treats of obligations ( muʿāmalāt). The codification was done by a commi…

Murād III

(1,253 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, twelfth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born on the 5th Ḏj̲umādā I 953 (4th July 1546; Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, i. 76) as son of the later sulṭān Selīm II and the k̲h̲āṣṣekī Nūr Bānū. He arrived at Constantinople on Dec. 21st, 1574, after Selīm II’s death and reigned until his death on January 16, 1595 or a few days later. His reign is not characterized by great conquests in Europe. The peaceful relations with Austria were officially maintained; peace was several times confirmed (in 1575 and 1584) by a new treaty and by extraordinary…

K̲h̲arpūt

(1,700 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town in Turkish Armenia, built on a rock to the north of a great plain in the area bounded by the west and south by the Euphrates, in the north by the Murād Ṣu and in the east by the chain of the Armenian Taurus; the site of the town itself lies in the Antitaurus. From the time of Diocletian this territory formed part of the Armenian districts incorporated in the Roman Empire and from the time of Justinian to the Roman province of „Fourth Armenia” which occupied the banks of the Arsanias (Murād Ṣu) and which the earliest Arab geographers still ¶ knew under this name. This district is often rec…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Lala

(381 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier under Aḥmad I. He was a Bosnian by origin and a relation of Muḥammad Soḳolli Pas̲h̲a. The year of his birth is not given. After having had his education in the palace, he was mīr-ak̲h̲or and became in 1595 ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries. Two years later he took part in the Austrian wars as beylerbey of Rūm-ili and was commander of Esztergom (Gran; Turkish: Usturg̲h̲on) when this town capitulated to the Austrian army in September 1595. During the following years Lala Muḥammad was several times ser-ʿasker in Hungary and when, in July 1604, the grand vizier Yawuz ʿAlī had di…

Osrūs̲h̲ana

(739 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a district in Transoxania. The form Osrūs̲h̲ana is the best known although Yāḳūt (i. 245) says that Os̲h̲rūsana is preferable. In the Persian versions of the text of al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī and in the Persian text of the Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam (ed. Barthold) we find more often Surūs̲h̲ana while Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih sometimes has S̲h̲urūsana; the original form may have been Srōs̲h̲ana. This district lies to the northeast of Samarḳand between this tow D and Ḵh̲od̲j̲and, to the south of the Sīr Daryā (Saiḥūn) so that it forms the approach to th…

Sahl b. Hārūn

(1,009 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Arab author and poet who flourished at the end of the second and beginning of the third century a. h. (= beginning of the ninth century a. d.). According to the Fihrist, he was of Persian descent and born in Dastmaisān, between Baṣra and Wāṣiṭ. Al-Ḥuṣrī makes him come from Maisān, which is quite near it, and gives him also the kunya Abū ʿAmr (on the margin of the ʿIḳd, ii. 190). The name of his grandfather is variously given: Rāmnūy, Rāhyūn (both in the Fihrist) or Rāhīyūnī (al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, Kitāb al-Bayān, i. 24; cf. also van Vloten’s note to p. 10 of his edition of al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ’ Kitāb al-Buk̲h̲alāʾ). S…

Ḳūṣ

(498 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town in Upper Egypt on the east bank of the Nile. The form Ḳūṣ (Ḳūs in al-Farg̲h̲ānī and Ibn Rusta) comes from the Coptic Kōs (or Kōs Berbir) which a popular etymology later connected with the Coptic verb meaning “to bury”. In the Roman period the town was ¶ called Apollinopolis Parva and sometimes Diocletianopolis. In the early centuries of Islām, Ḳūṣ seems to have been of much less importance than the adjoining town of Ḳifṭ [q.v.]. Some of the early geographers like Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih do not mention it although it is found in the tables of al-Ḵh̲wārizmī (ed. by von Mžik, p. 9) and al-Fa…

Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a Bairaḳdār

(699 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Turkish grand vizier in 1808, was the son of a wealthy Janissary at Rusčuḳ, born about 1750. He distinguished himself in the war with Russia under Muṣṭafā III, and acquired in these years the surname of bairaḳdār. After the war he lived on his estates near Rusčuḳ, and acquired the semiofficial position of aʿyān of Hezārgrād and later of Rusčuḳ. With other aʿyāns he took part in an action against the government at Adrianople, but became finally a reliable supporter of the government. ¶ Having already received the honorary offices of ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ bas̲h̲i̊ and of mīr ak̲h̲or, he was, in 1806,…

Ṣolaḳ

(194 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
was the name, in the old military organisation of the Ottoman Empire, of the archers of the Sulṭān’s bodyguard. The word ṣolaḳ is an old Turkish word meaning “left-handed”. The relation of this meaning to that of archer is not quite clear. The solaks belonged to the Janissaries, of which they formed four orta’s (60th -63rd), each of 100 men under the command of a Ṣolaḳ Bas̲h̲i̊, and two lieutenants ( rekiab ṣolag̲h̲i̊). They were, however, used exclusively as bodyguards, a duty they shared with the peik’s [q. v.]. They had the same uniform as the Janissaries, except that they wore a cap ( uskiuf) …

al-Ubulla

(758 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, a town of mediaeval ʿIrāḳ situated in the Euphrates-Tigris delta region at the head of the Persian Gulf and famed as the terminal for commerce from India and further east. It lay to the east of al-Baṣra [ q.v.] on the right bank of the Tigris and on the north side of the large canal called Nahr al-Ubulla, which was the main waterway from al-Baṣra in a southeastern direction to ¶ the Tigris and further to ʿAbbādān and the sea. The length of this canal …

Muṣṭafā I

(523 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the fifteenth Ottoman sultan (1026-7/1617-18 and 1031-2/1622-3), was born in the year 1000/1591 as son of Meḥemmed III [ q.v.]. He owed his life to the relaxation of the ḳānūn authorising the killing of all the brothers of a new sultan, and was called to succeed his brother Aḥmed I [ q.v.] at the latter’s death on 23 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 1026/22 November 1617. But his weakmindedness —which is said to have him made escape death on account of superstitious fear of Aḥmed— made him absolutely incapable of ruling. Aḥmed’s son ʿOt̲h̲mān, who felt himself e…

Murād II

(1,480 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(824-48, 850-5/1421-44, 1446-51), sixth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born in 806 (1403-4) and ascended the throne in D̲j̲umādā I 824/May 1421, when he arrived in Edirne some days after his father Meḥemmed I’s death; his decease had been kept secret on the advice of the vizier ʿIwaḍ Pas̲h̲a until the new sultan’s arrival. As crown prince he had resided at Mag̲h̲nisa, and he had taken part in the suppression of the revolt of Simawna-Og̲h̲lu Bedr al-Dīn [ q.v.]. Immediately after his accession he had to face the pretender known in Turkish history as Düzme Muṣṭafā [ q.v.] and his ally D̲j̲un…

al-Ṭaff

(265 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the desert region that lies west of Kūfa along the alluvial plain of the Euphrates. It is higher than the low-lying ground by the river and forms the transition to the central Arabian plateau. According to the authorities quoted by Yāḳūt, Buldān , iii, 359, al-ṭaff means an area raised above the surrounding country or fringe, edge, bank; the name is not found after the 13th century. The district contains a number of springs, the waters of which run ¶ southwest (cf. Ibn al-Faḳīh, 187). The best known of these wells was al-ʿUd̲h̲ayr. From its geographical position al-Ṭaff w…

Telk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i

(134 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, or in the official style, Telk̲h̲īṣī , was the individual of the Ottoman Turkish administration appointed to prepare the précis called telk̲h̲īṣ [ q.v.] and to take it to the palace, where it was handed over to the chief of the eunuchs. The telk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i was therefore an official of the Grand Vizier’s department; in addition to preparing the telk̲h̲īṣ, he took part in several official ceremonies. The telk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i of the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām was not—at least in the later period—in direct communication with the palace; documents presented by him had to pass first …

Muṣṭafā II

(906 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the twenty-second Ottoman sultan (1106-15/1695-1703), was a son of Meḥemmed IV [ q.v.]. Born in 1664, he succeeded to his uncle Aḥmed II on D̲j̲umādā II 1106/6 February 1695, at a time when the empire was at war with Austria, Poland, Russia and Venice. The new sultan in a remarkable k̲h̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲erīf proclaimed a Holy War and carried out, against ¶ the decision of the Dīwān , his desire to take part in the campaign against Austria. Before his departure a mutiny of the Janissaries had cost the grand vizier Defterdār ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a his life…

Ḳarā

(259 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the Turkish word for “black” or “dark colour” in general. It is commonly used with this meaning as the first component of geographical names e.g., Ḳarā Āmid (on account of the black basalt of which this fortress is built), Ḳarā Dag̲h̲ (on account of its dark forests), etc. Besides Ḳarā we find in place names the diminutive form Ḳarad̲j̲a. In personal names, ḳarā may refer to the black or dark brown colour of hair or to a dark complexion. It has, however, at the same time the meaning “strong, powerful”, and should be interpreted in th…

Ḳūhistān (p.) or Ḳuhistān

(2,458 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
is the arabicised form of the Persian name Kūhistān meaning a mountainous country (derived from kūh , “mountain” with the sufix -istān ) and corresponds to the Arabic designation al-D̲j̲ibāl. As the Iranian plateau is very mountainous, we find many more or less extensive areas in it to which the name Ḳūhistān has been given, as Yāḳūt has already remarked (iv, 204). Many of these names have disappeared in course of time. Thus Ḳazwīnī (ed. Wüstenfeld, 228) says that the term Ḳūhistān is used for Media, which other geographers always call al-D̲j̲ibāl. In the S̲h̲āh-nāma

Müteferriḳa

(311 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(t.), the name of a corps of guards, who were especially attached to the person of the sultan at the Ottoman Turkish court. The name is also applied to a member of the guard. Their occupations were similar to those of the Čawus̲h̲ [ q.v.], not of military character, nor for court service only, but they were used for more or less important public or political missions. Like the Čawus̲h̲, the Müteferriḳa were a mounted guard. The name appears early, e.g., in a waḳfiyya of 847/1443, one Ibrāhīm b. Isḥāḳ is mentioned as being one. In later times there were ¶ two classes, the gedi…

Muṣṭafā IV

(643 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the twenty-ninth sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1222-3/1807-8), was a son of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd I and was born on 26 S̲h̲aʿbān 1193/19 September 1778 (Meḥmed T̲h̲üreyyā, Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , i, 81). When the anti-reform party, headed by the ḳāʾim-maḳām Mūsā Pas̲h̲a and the muftī, and supported by the Janissaries and the auxiliary troops of the Yamaḳs, had dethroned Selīm III [ q.v.] on 21 Rabīʿ I 1222/29 May 1807, Muṣṭafā was proclaimed sultan. Immediately afterwards, the niẓām-i d̲j̲edīd ¶ [ q.v.] corps was dissolved and Ḳabaḳd̲j̲i-og̲h̲lu, the leader of the Yamaḳs, was mad…

Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a, Lala

(671 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, famous Ottoman commander of the 10th/16th century, d. 988/1580. The date of his birth is not given. He was a native of Soḳol, and began his service in the imperial palace. He rose in rank under the grand vizier Aḥmed (960-2/1553-5), but was not in favour with the latter’s successor Rüstem Pas̲h̲a, who made him in 963/1556 lālā to prince Selīm with the object of ruining him. The outcome of this nomination was the contrary of what was expected; Muṣṭafā became the chief originator of the intrigues by which Selīm came into conflict …

al-Mahalla al-Kubrā

(600 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
or maḥalla kabīr is the modern name of an important town in the Delta of the Nile at some distance to the west of the Damietta arm, north-east of Ṭanṭa. It ¶ lies on the Turʿat al-Milāḥ canal, a branch of the Baḥr S̲h̲ībīn. In view of the large number of Egyptian geographical names compounded with Maḥalla (see these listed in Muḥammad Ramzī, al-Ḳāmūs al-d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfī li ’l-bilād al-Miṣriyya , Cairo 1953-68, i, 404-9), the identification of the town with the names mentioned by earlier Arabic writers is a matter of some difficulty. Maspero an…

Ṣart

(592 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the form of the name in Ottoman Turkish of the small village in Lydia in Asia Minor, the ancient Sardes (αἱ Σάρδεις of the classical authors, which makes Sāmī Bey write Sārd), capital of the Lydian kingdom, situated on the eastern bank of the Sart Çay (Paktōlos) a little southward to the spot where this river joins the Gediz Çay (Hermos). Although in the later Byzantine period Sardes had lost much of its former importance (as a metropolitan see) and been outflanked by Magnesia (Turkish Mag̲h̲nīsa [ q.v.]) and Philadelphia (Ala S̲h̲ehir [ q.v.]), it still was one of the larger towns, wh…

Usrūs̲h̲ana

(747 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the name of a region lying to the west of Farg̲h̲āna [ q.v.] in mediaeval Islamic Transoxania, now falling in the region where the eastern part of the Uzbekistan Republic, the northernmost part of the Tajikistan Republic and the easternmost part of the Kirghiz Republic meet. The form Usrūs̲h̲ana is the best known, although

Meḥemmed IV

(1,147 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, nineteenth sultan of the Ottoman dynasty in Turkey, known as awd̲j̲i̊ "the hunter" from his excessive passion for the chase, reigned 1058-99/1648-87. Born on 30 Ramadan 1051/2 January 1642, he was the son of Sultan Ibrāhīm [ q.v.] and Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a Turk̲h̲ān Sulṭān. He was placed on the throne in Istanbul at the age of seven after the deposition in 18 Rad̲j̲ab 1058/8 August 1648 of the sensualist and possibly mentally deranged “Deli” Ibrāhīm, at a moment when Ibrāhīm was the sole surviving adult male of the house of ʿOt̲h̲mān, but i…

Murād I

(2,118 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(761-91/1360-89), according to the common tradition the third ruler of the Ottoman state, was a son of Ork̲h̲ān and the Byzantine lady Nīlūfer. Although some Ottoman sources profess to know the year of his birth ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , i, 74, gives the year 726/1326), this date, like all dates given by Turkish sources relating to this period, is far from certain. The name Murād (Greek sources such as Phrantzes have ’Αμουράτης, from which later Latin sources make Amurath, while contemporary Latin sources from…

ʿOt̲h̲mān II

(887 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, sixteenth sultan of the O…

Muṣṭafā III

(1,475 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the twenty-sixth sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1171-87/1757-74), was one of the younger sons of Aḥmed III [ q.v.] and was born on 14 Ṣafar 1129/28 January 1717 ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , i, 80). When he succeeded to the throne, after ʿOt̲h̲mān III’s [ q.v.] death, on 16 Ṣafar 1171/30 October 1757, his much more popular brother and heir to the throne, Meḥemmed, had recently died, in Rabīʿ I 1170/December 1756. Turkey enjoyed at that time, since the peace of Belgrade of 1739, a period of peace with her neighbours. Since December 1756 the very able Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] was grand vizier and …

Marzubān

(423 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Arabic form of the title of provincial governors in the Sāsānian empire, especially of the “wardens of the marches”, the “markgraves”. The word is derived from marz which still means in Persian a frontier district (Horn, Grundriss der neupersischen Etymologie, p. 218) and is found in Pehlevi in the form maržpān (in the Kār-nāmak; cf. H. S. Nyberg, Hilfsbuch des Pehlevi, i., Upsala 1928, p. 54) which suggests a north Īrānian origin (cf. Lentz, Z. I. I., iv. 255, 295), as we find alongside of marz also mard̲j̲ in Persian (Horn, loc. cit.). The ¶ title is not found, however, before the Sās…

K̲h̲āḳānī

(300 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a Turkish poet of the second half of the xvith century. His proper name was Muḥammad Bey and he was a descendant of Āyās Pas̲h̲a [q. v.] who was Grand Wazīr under Suleimān I. His life was not eventful; according to

Talk̲h̲īṣ

(87 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Arabic maṣdar meaning to make a précis, means in the official language of Turkey a document in which the most important matters are summed up for presentation to the Sulṭān. The officials who had these papers prepared and presented them to the Sulṭān were the grand vizier and the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām. On account of its change of significance, talk̲h̲īṣ is included among the g̲h̲alaṭāt-i mas̲h̲hūra, cf. Muḥammad Hafīd, al-Durar al-muntak̲h̲abāt al-mant̲h̲ūra fī Iṣlāḥ al-G̲h̲alaṭāt al-mas̲h̲hūra (1221 a. h., p. 115). (J. H. Kramers)

Ḳismet

(171 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(a., t.); this word, the Arabic meaning “distribution” of which is a synonym of iḳtisām later came to mean lot, portion and developed as a third meaning “the lot which is destined for every man°. It is this meaning of the Turkish that is best known. In Turkish however ḳismet is not so much an expression of theological doctrines concerning predestination (cf. ḳadar) as of a practical fatalism which accepts with resignation the blows and vicissitudes of fate. The same sentiment is often expr…

Sulṭān

(2,943 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(a.), 1. a title which first appears in the fourth (xith) century in the sense of a powerful ruler, an independent sovereign of a certain territory. The word is of frequent occurrence in the Ḳurʾān, most often with the meaning of a moral or magical authority supported by proofs or miracles which afford the right to make a statement of religious import. The prophets received this sulṭān from Allāh (cf. e. g. Sūra xiv. 12, 13) and the idolators are often invited to produce a sulṭān in support of their beliefs. Thus the dictionaries (like the Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs, v. 159) explain the word as synony…

Skanderbeg

(850 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
is the name by which the national hero of Albania is generally known in Europe. It is based on an Italianised or Latinised form of the name Iskandar Beg, which was given him in his youth when he was serving at the Ottoman court; the name contains an allusion to that of Alexander the Great. His real name was George Kastriota,…

Sulaimān II

(746 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, twentieth Ottoman Sulṭān, reigned from 1687 to 1691. He was born in 1052 (1642) (on 15th Muḥarram = April 15, according to von Hammer, G. O. R., the Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī gives the 25th Ṣafar = May 25), and was the son of Sulṭān Ibrāhīm; from the accession of his brother Muḥammad IV he lived the life of a prisoner in the palace with his brother Aḥmad. On the deposition of Muḥammad IV, the result of the defeat of the Turkish army at Mohács, Sulaimān was placed on the throne on Nov. 8, 1637, mainly through the efforts of the ḳāʾim-maḳām Köprülü Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a. In the precarious position of the empire, great hopes were placed upon a second Sulaimān but the latter had not the necessary qualities. He is described as being of a resolute and warlike character, and indeed he twice took the field at the head of the army; a weak constitution however prevented him from carrying out his good intentions. Soon after his accession the mutinous army returned from Hungary, invaded the capital and committed unprecedented exc…

Seerd

(780 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Siʿird or Saïrd, a little town in the frontier region between Armenia and Turkish Kurdistān, situated in a valley formed by the Bohtān Ṣu and the river of Bidlis about 30 miles S.W. of Bidlis and about 18 north of the Tigris. The little river Kezer runs near Seʿerd; but it is the Bohtān Ṣu which is sometimes called Seʿerd Ṣu (Söʿörd Su in von Moltke). litis name is also found in al-Masʿūdī, the earliest Arab geographer to mention Seʿerd; he calls the Bohtān Ṣu ¶ (ed. Paris 1840, i. 227); likewise al-Idrīsī (transl. Jaubert, ii. 172). The orthography varies much: (al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, Ibn al-At̲h̲īr…

S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām

(3,638 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
is one of the honorific titles which first appear in the second half of the fourth century a. h. While other honorific titles compounded with Islām (like ʿIzz-, Ḏj̲alāl-, Saif al-Islām) were borne by persons exercising secular power (notably the viziers of the Fāṭimids, cf. van Berchem, Z. D. P. V., xvi., p. 101), the title of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām has always been reserved for ʿulamāʾ and mystics, like other titles of honour whose first part is S̲h̲aik̲h̲ (e. g. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Dīn; the surname of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Fatyā is given by Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn to the jurist Asad b. al-Furāt; cf. Muḳaddima, transl.…

Kisāʾī

(369 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Ḥakīm Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Abū Isḥāḳ (or Abu ’l-Ḥasan) Kisāʾī, a Persian poet of the second half of the fourth century a. h. belonging to the first period of Persian poetry. He was ¶ born in Merw on Wednesday 26th S̲h̲awwāl 341 (March 16, 953) and according to most authorities died in 392 (1002); one source however (Wāliḥ, quoted by Ethé), says that he reached a very advanced age. A few of his poems have been preserved in the different tad̲h̲kīra: they have been published by Ethé ( Die Lieder des Kisâʾî, S.-B. Bayr. Ak., 1874, p. 133—149). These poems illustrate the whole repertory of Persian poets of the time; the best known is the ḳaṣīda in which the poet gives th…

Kirmān

(5,340 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a Persian province and of its present capital. The name of the town was derived later from that of the province. The usual pronunciation is Kirmān, although, according to the tradition of Arab scholarship (Yāḳūt, iv. 263) the form Karman is more correct; the name, in any case, goes back to the form Carmania, which is found in Strabo (xv. 2, 14), and which in its turn is said to be derived from the name of an ancient capital, Carmana (Ptolemy, Geography, vi. 8; Ammianus Marcellinus, xxiii. 6, 48). According to Marquart ¶ ( Ērānšahr, p. 30) the name Carmania replaced that of Yūti…

Muṣṭafā II

(872 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the twenty-second Ottoman sulṭān, was a son of Muḥammad IV. Born in 1664, he succeeded to his uncle Aḥmad II on February 6, 1695, at a time when the empire was at war with Austria, Poland, Russia und Venice. The new sulṭān in a remarkable k̲h̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲erīf proclaimed a Holy War and carried out, against the decision of the Dīwān, his desire to take part in the campaign against Austria. Before his departure a mutiny of the Janissaries had cost the grand vizier Defterdār ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a his life (April 24, 1693) and the campaign was led by the new grand vizier Elmās Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a [q. v.]. The Turkish army operated not without success in the region of Temesvár, taking Lippa, Lugos and Sebes. The Venetians had been beaten in Februar…

al-Muḳaddasī

(857 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Bannāʾ al-S̲h̲aʾmī al-Muḳaddasī al-maʿrūf bi ’l-Bas̲h̲s̲h̲ārī as he is called on the first page of the Berlin manuscript (Cat. Ahlwardt, N°. 6034), is the author of the most original and at the same time one of the most valuable geographical treatises in Arabic literature. The name-form al-Muḳaddasī, denoting his origin from Jerusalem, goes back to Sprenger, who brought the Berli…
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