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(157 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, or Almugávares, a name, apparently derived from the Arabic al-mug̲h̲āwir "one who makes hostile incursions", which was given at the end of the Middle Ages to certain contingents of mercenaries levied from among the mountaineers of Aragon, a tough, sober but undisciplined race. Zurita ( Anales , iv, 24) gives a picturesque description of them. These were the troops, fighting on foot, in the service of the Kings of Aragon and Castille, who cut to pieces the French army of Philip III the Bold during his campaign of 1285,…

al-Nāṣir al-Salāwī

(1,220 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. K̲h̲ālid b. Ḥammād al-Nāṣirī , a Moroccan historian born at Salé on 22 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1250/20 April 1835, died in the same town on 16 D̲j̲umādā I 1315/13 October 1897. The genealogy of this writer can be traced in a direct line to the founder of the Moroccan brotherhood of the Nāṣiriyya [ q.v.], Aḥmad b. Nāṣir, who was buried in his zāwiya at Tāmgrūt in the valley of the Wādī Darʿa (Drā). He studied in his native town, which had in those days some reputation as a centre of learning, and was a mi…

Abu ’l-Maḥāsin Yūsuf b. Muḥammad b. Yūsuf al-Fāsī

(322 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Moroccan scholar, and Ṣūfī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of repute, born in 938/1530-31, the ancestor of the Fāsiyyūn (vernacular Fāsiyyīn) family, which, since the 16th century, has provided the town of Fās with a long succession of scholars and jurists. ¶ Abū’l-Maḥāsin al-Fāsī himself belonged to the Fihrite branch of the Banu ’l-Ḏj̲add, which, about 880/1473, had emigrated from Malaga, in Spain, to Morocco. He was born at al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr (or, in the Spanish form, Alcázarquivir), where his grandfather Yūsuf had settled after …


(263 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, arabicised form of Secunda, name of a little town opposite Cordova on the left bank of the Guadalquivir. According to al-Maḳḳarī and Ibn G̲h̲ālib, it was originally surrounded by a rampart. It was here that a decisive battle was fought in 129/747 between the Maʿaddī clan under Yūsuf al-Fihrī [ q.v.] and al-Sumayl b. Ḥātim [ q.v.] and the Yamanī clan commanded by Abu ’l-K̲h̲aṭṭār, who was defeated. Later, at the zenith of the Umayyad caliphate, Secunda became one of the richest suburbs of Cordova and was also called the “southern suburb” ( al-rabaḍ al-d̲j̲anūbī ). Th…

Abū Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ

(191 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Yanṣāran b. G̲h̲afiyyān al-Dukkālī al-Mād̲j̲irī , famous Moroccan saint of the 6th-7th century A. H., patron of the town of Āsfī [ q.v.], the present-day Safi. Born about 550/1155, his principal master was the famous Abū Madyan [ q.v.] al-G̲h̲awt̲h̲, patron of Tilimsān (Tlemcen). He went on pilgrimage to Mecca and is believed to have stayed in Alexandria twenty years to follow the teaching of the ṣūfī ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ al-Ḏj̲azūlī, who was of Moroccan origin. After his return to Morocco he became the propagandist among his fellow-countrymen of the ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ and ṭalab al-ʿilm


(286 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abū Yaḥyā Muḥammad b. Maʿn b. Muḥammad Ibn Ṣumādiḥ al-Tud̲j̲ībi , second ruler of the dynasty of Tud̲j̲ībids [ q.v.] of the kingdom of Almería [see al-mariyya ], reigned 443-484/1051-1091. Gifted like his contemporary al-Muʿtamid [ q.v.] of Seville with a certain amount of poetic talent, he made his capital during his long reign one of the great centres of culture in the Peninsula. But like the other mulūk al-ṭawāʿif [ q.v.] of Spain, he was for the most of his time at war with one or another of his neighbours. He was probably implicated in the conspiracy fomented…


(99 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, from Arabic madīna "town", is used in French ( médina ) to designate, above all in the Mag̲h̲rib, the ancient part of the great Islamic cities, beyond which have been constructed the modern quarters of the city. Moreover, Medina has survived in Spain in a certain number of toponyms. The main ones of these are: Medina de las Torres, in the province of Badajoz; Medina del Campo and Medina de Rioseco, in that of Valladolid; Medina de Pomar, in that of Burgos; and also, Medinaceli [see madināt salīm ] and Medina-Sidonia [see s̲h̲ad̲h̲ūna ]. (E. Lévi-Provençal)

Aḥmad al-Manṣūr

(950 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, sixth sovereign of the Moroccan dynasty of the Saʿdids [ q.v.], son of the second sultan of the dynasty, Muḥammad al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Mahdī (d. 964/1557), was born at Fez in 956/1549. He held various military commands, but was driven into exile at Algiers with his elder brother, ʿAbd al-Malik. The latter, on acceding to the throne in 983/1576, designated Aḥmad as his heir presumptive. Two years later Aḥmad took part in the famous battle of Wādi ’l-Mak̲h̲āzin, in the vicinity of al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr [ q.v.] in the N.W. of Morocco. This battle, which took place on the last day of Ḏj̲u…

Madīnat Sālim

(434 words)

Author(s): Lévi Provençal, E.
, the Arabic name, which has become Medinaceli , of a small town in north-eastern Spain, on the railway from Madrid to Saragossa, and almost equidistant from these two cities; it lies at an altitude of more than 3,280 feet/1,000 m., on the left bank of the Jalón. It owes its name to a Berber from the Maṣmūda, Sālim, who repaired a Roman fortress which Ṭāriḳ [ q.v.], according to Yāḳūt, iii, 13, had found in a ruinous state. The Arab geographers give brief descriptions of Medinaceli. According to al-Idrīsī, it was a large town built in a hollow with many large buildings, ga…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. Abī ʿĀmir

(278 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, nicknamed Sanchuelo (S̲h̲and̲j̲wilo), the "little Sancho" (as he was by his mother a grandson of Sancho Garcés II Abarca, Basque king of Pamplona), son of the famous "majordomo" al-Manṣūr [ q.v.] b. Abī ʿĀmir. He suceeded his elder brother ʿAbd al-Malik [ q.v.] al-Muẓaffar on his death, 16 Ṣafar 399/20 Oct. 1008, with the consent of the titular ¶ caliph, the Umayyad His̲h̲ām II al-Muʾayyad bi’llāh. Indifferently gifted, vain, debauched, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Sanchuelo, from the moment that he assumed power in Cordova, made one mistake after the other and alienated p…


(317 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a Spanish Arabic place-name corresponding to the Spanish Segura. This last name is now only applied to the river which waters Murcia and Orihuela and flows into the Mediterranean near Guardamar. In the Muslim geographers, this river is usually called the “white river” ( al-nahr al-abyaḍ ). It rises, like the Guadalquivir, in the range called D̲j̲abal S̲h̲aḳūra, but on the eastern slope. The mountains to which this name was given are of considerable extent. They were, according to the Arab geographers, covered with for…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(2,967 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name of the Marwānid prince who restored the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus, and of four of his successors. 1. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān I, called al-Dāk̲h̲il , ‘the Immigrant’, was the son of Muʿāwiya b. His̲h̲ām [ q.v.]. When his relatives were being hunted down by the ʿAbbāsids, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, still a youth—he was born in 113/731—contrived to escape secretly to Palestine, whence, accompanied by his freedman Badr, he made his way first to Egypt, and then to Ifrīḳiya. At Ḳayrawān, the hostile attitude of the governor, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b.…


(247 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Arabie Tarrākūna), a little town in the north-east of Spain on the Mediterranean and capital of the province of the same name. This town, which now has a population of 23,300, occupies the site of the ancient acropolis of Tarraco, which became one of the centres of Roman domination in Spain and from the time of Augustus, the capital of the province of Hispania Tarraconensis. The Muslims when they occupied Tarragona retained its old name. They sacked it in 724, then occupied it for the whole of the Umaiyad Caliphate of Cordova, not without having twice to re…


(102 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
The study of the Latin and Catalan documents by R. Menéndez Pidal ( La España del Cid, Madrid 1929) as well as the discovery of new Arabic documents by E. Lévi-Provençal, have thrown new light on the story of the adventurous career of the Cid Campeador. Apart from the work cited above — which is fundamental, but too apologetical — the reader may be referred, for a survey of the question, to E. Lévi-Provençal, Le Cid de l’histoire (in Revue Historique, Paris 1937) and Nouveaux documents arabes sur le Cid, in Etudes d’histoire hispano-musulmane, first series [under the press]. (E. Lévi-Provença…

Tud̲j̲īb (Banū)

(414 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name of an Arab family several members of which attained distinction during Muslim rule in Spain in the period of the Mulūk al-Ṭawāʾif as well as under the Omaiyad caliphs. The family became divided into two branches, the Banū Hās̲h̲im of Saragossa and the Banū Ṣumādiḥ of Almeria. The family of the Banū Tud̲j̲īb had settled in Aragon at the conquest In the reign of the emīr Muḥammad I (239—273 = 852—886), its head was ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Tud̲j̲ībī and his authority over his fellow-tribesmen was rec…


(1,034 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm, Moroccan statesman and historian of the 18th century. Al-Zayyānī, a member of the great Berber tribe of ¶ the Zayyān in central Morocco, was born in Fās in 1147/1734-5. He received his education in this city. At the age of 23, he accompanied his parents on the Pilgrimage to Mecca and after an exciting journey, coming as well as going, which lasted over two years, he returned to Fās, where he obtained a position as secretary to the mak̲h̲zan [ q.v.] of sultan Muḥammad III b. ʿAbd Allāh. His ability, his knowledge of Berber dialects and the …

ʿAbd al-Malik b. Muḥammad b. Abī ʿĀmir

(537 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
al-Maʿāfirī Abū Marwān al-Muẓaffar , son and successor of the famous "major domo" ( ḥād̲j̲ib ) al-Mansūr [ q.v.] under the reign of the Umayyad caliph of al-Andalus His̲h̲ām II al-Muʾayyad biʾllāh. He was the real sovereign of Muslim Spain after the death of his father in Medinaceli (Madīnat Sālim) in 392/1002. ʿAbd al-Malik, second son of al-Manṣūr, was born in 364/975; his mother, an umm walad called al-Ḏh̲alfāʾ, survived him several years. Even before succeeding his father he gained experience as general in several campaigns, both in t…

Abū Ḥāmid al-G̲h̲arnāṭī

(465 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Muḥammad b. ʿabd al-Raḥmān (variant al-Raḥīm ) b. Sulaymān al-Māzinī al-Ḳaysī , Andalusian traveller and collector of ʿad̲j̲āʾib [ q.v.] at the beginning of the 6th/12th century, the perfect type of the Occidental raḥḥāla , drawn by the desire of ṭalab al-ʿilm and the spirit of adventure to the farthest limits of the lands of Islam. There is little biographical information about him and the main dates of his adventurous life are given by himself in his works. He was born in Granada in 473/1080, no doubt studied i…


(142 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Lorca, a town of Eastern Spain lying between Granada and Murcia and having a population at present of 58,600. It is the ancient Iluro or Heliocroca of the Romans. In the Islamic period, it formed part of the kūra of Tudmīr [ q.v.], and was famous both for the richness of its soil and subsoil and for its strategic position. Its ḥiṣn was one of the most substantial in Andalusia. It is situated at 1,200 feet above sea-level on the southern slope of the Sierra del Cáno, and dominates the course of the river Guadalentín. Under Arab rule …

Abū ʿUbayd al-Bakrī

(2,309 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Muḥ. b. Ayyūb , was, with al-S̲h̲arīf al-Idrīsī [ q.v.], the greatest geographer of the Muslim West, and one of the most characteristic representatives of Arab Andalusian erudition in the 5th/11th century. Although little is known about the details of the life of Abū ʿUbayd al-Bakrī, it is possible to describe the various aspects of his scientific activity, all of which seems to have taken place in his own country; in fact, he appears never to have travelled in the East, or even North Africa, which he …

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. ʿAlī b. Yūsuf al-Fāsī

(120 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the most famous representative of the Moroccan family of the Fāsiyyūn, b. in al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr 1077/1599, d. 1091/1680. He was the head of the zāwiya of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya in al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr. He wrote a fahrasa and some books on ḥadīt̲h̲ , but he is best known as one of the main representatives of Moroccan ṣūfism at the beginning of the 17th century. His descendants form today a very numerous and important branch of the religious and scholarly aristocracy of Fez (the inhabitants of the town being called, in order to avoid a confusion with the family of the Fāsiyyūn, ahl Fās ). (E. Lévi-Provenç…

Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar b. S̲h̲uʿayb al-Ballūtī

(344 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, native of Pedroche (Bitrawd̲j̲) in the Faḥṣ al-Ballūt, a district to the north of Cordova, founder of a minor dynasty which ruled over the island of Crete (Iḳrītis̲h̲ [ q.v.]) between 212/827 and 350/961, when his descendant ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. S̲h̲uʿayb was dethroned and the island recaptured by the general and future Byzantine emperor Nicephorus Phocas. After the celebrated revolt of the Suburb which broke out in Cordova in 202/818 and was harshly suppressed by the amīr Ḥakam I (cf. umayyads of spain), a group of Andalusians, several thousand in number, who had been expelled …


(198 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad , a Moroccan writer, a native of Tamgrūt [ q.v.], died at Marrākus̲h̲ in 1003/1594-5 and was buried in the sanctuary of Ḳāḍī ʿIyāḍ. He held an official position at the court of the Saʿdian Sultan Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad al-Manṣūr al-D̲h̲ahabī (986-1012/1578-1602). He was placed by this ruler in charge of the embassy to Sultan Murād III in Istanbul along with another court dignitary, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Fis̲h̲tālī, d. 1021/1612-13. Al-Tamgrūtī prepared an account of his journey ( riḥla ) which he called al-Nafaḥāt al-miskiyya fi ’l…


(289 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, from the Latin serra through the Spanish sierra , is the term applied by certain geographers of Muslim Spain to the mountains which stretch from east to west in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The best definition is given by Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī. According to this author, the mountain range called al-S̲h̲ārāt stretches from the country behind Madīnat Sālim (Medinaceli) to Coimbra. This term therefore describes the mountains now known under the names of Sierra de Guadarram…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Buluggīn

(560 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Bādīs b. Ḥabūs b. Zīrī , third and last ruler of the kingdom of Granada, of the Ṣinhād̲jī Berber family of the Banū Zīrī [see zīrīds of spain ]. Born in 447/1056, he was appointed at the death of his father Buluggīn Sayf al-Dawla, in 456/1064, as the presumptive heir of his grandfather Bādīs b. Ḥabūs. He succeeded him on the throne of Granada, while his brother Tamīm al-Muʿizz became independent ruler of Malaga. His reign consisted of a long series of troubles inside his kingdom, of armed conflicts …

Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar b. Yaḥyā al-Hintātī

(483 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(an Arabic relative adjective formed from the name of a Berber tribe of the Anti-Atlas in Morocco, the Hintāta), or, according to the more current Berber form, Īntī, the chief companion of the Almohade Mahdī, Ibn Tūmart [ q.v.], and the most active supporter of the dynasty of the Muʾminids (see ʿabd al-muʾmin ). It was his own grandson, the amīr Abū Zakarīyāʾ Yaḥyā b. ʿAbd al-Wāḥid who, in 634/1236-37, renounced his allegiance to the Muʾminids in Ifrīḳiya and founded, with himself and his descendants as rulers, the dynasty of the Ḥafṣids [ q.v.], which was to be called after this their …


(188 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, mark of ratification or initialling used in the Muslim west, from the time of the Muʾminid dynasty, on all official chancery documents. This ʿalāma , in principle inscribed by the sovereign’s own hand in the space provided for the purpose at the head of the document, beneath the basmala , consisted of a doxology, which varied under the different dynasties: al-ḥamdu li’llāh , under the Muʾminids and Saʿdids; al-ḥamdu li’llāh wa ’l-s̲h̲ukru li’llāh , under the Ḥafṣids; lā g̲h̲āliba illa’llāh under the Naṣrids of Granada. The ʿalāma was gradually replaced by illegible arabesque ini…


(614 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Spanish Mérida, from the Latin Emerita, ¶ a town in the south-west of Spain, in the modern province of Badajoz, where it is the capital of a partido , on the right bank of the Guadiana. Now somewhat decayed, it has only about 35,000 inhabitants. It is on the Madrid-Badajoz railway and is also connected by rail with Cáceres in the north and Seville in the south. The ancient capital of Lusitania, Augusta Emerita, was founded in 23 B.C., and under the Roman empire attained remarkable importance and prosperity. Numerous remains of Roman buildings still testify to …


(1,241 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Murcia , a town in the south-east of Spain, 43 m/140 feet above sea level in the centre of the famous huerta de Murcia (“gardens of Murcia”) watered by the river Segura (Ar. Wādī S̲h̲aḳūra [ q.v.] or Wādi ’lAbyaḍ , “the white river”). Murcia has a large population, 265,000 people (1980), and is the capital of the province of the same name and the see of a bishop; it has also a university; this province has over a million inhabitants, with an area of 11,317 km2. Its port, 40 miles to the south on the Mediterranean coast, is Cartagena, the Ḳarṭād̲j̲anna [ q.v.] or Ḳarṭād̲j̲cinnat al-K̲h̲ulafāʾ

Ak̲h̲bār Mad̲j̲mūʿa

(222 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, title of a short anonymous chronicle recording the conquest of al-Andalus by the Arabs, the period prior to the foundation of the Marwānid amirate of Cordoba, and the history of the amirate itself up to the reign of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III al-Nāṣir. This text, published on the basis of the unicum of the Bibl. Nat. in Paris, and translated into Spanish by Lafuente y Alcantara (Madrid 1867), has had little documentary ¶ interest since the discovery of the greater part of the Muḳtabis of Ibn Ḥayyān. It is an ill-proportioned and relatively late work, probably c…

Aḥmad Bābā

(550 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, otherwise Abu ’l-ʿabbās aḥmad b. aḥmad al-takrūrī al-massūfī , Sudanese jurist and biographer belonging to the Ṣinhād̲j̲ī family of the Āḳīt, born at Tinbuktū (now Timbuktu) 21 Ḏh̲u’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 963/26 Oct. 1556. All his ancestors in the male line were imāms or ḳāḍīs in the Sudanese capital in the 15th and 16th centuries, and he himself rapidly became a faḳīh of repute in learned circles in his country. At the time of the conquest of the Sudan by the Saʿdid Sulṭān of Morocco Aḥmad al-Manṣūr [ q.v.] in 1000/1592, Aḥmad Bābā refused ¶ to recognise the authority of the court of Marrāku…

al-Muʿtaḍid Bi ’llāh

(1,186 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abū ʿAmr ʿAbbād b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbbād , the most important and most powerful sovereign of the ʿAbbādid dynasty [ q.v.] who reigned over the little kingdom formed by his father Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Muḥammad b. ʿAbbād, with Seville [see is̲h̲bīliya ] as his capital, at the time of the break up of the Umayyad caliphate of Spain and the rise of the reyes de taifas ( mulāk al-ṭawāʾif [ q.v.]). In the course of a reign of more than 25 years (433-60/1042-69), he very considerably increased his territory by making himself the champion of the Spanish Arabs against the Berbers in…


(624 words)

Author(s): Lévi Provençal, E.
(a., pl. arbāḍ ), district or quarter of a town situated outside the central part or madīna [ q.v.]. This term, which is very frequently found in mediaeval Islamic historical texts of both the Occident and Orient, lies at the origin of the Spanish word ar-rabal, which has the same meaning. In the strongholds ( ḥiṣn or ṣak̲h̲ra ) of Muslim Spain, the name rabaḍ was given to the civil quarter situated below the strictly ¶ military quarter; it was also applied to the quarters of the lepers and of prostitutes, whilst amongst the Spanish Christians, it designated a parish. These quarters of a town …


(384 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
or Mārtula/Martula , Arabic forms of the name Mertola (Span. Mértola), a small town of southern Portugal, situated on the Guadiana (Wādī Ana) at 35 miles/55 km. from the mouth of that river. This place, the ancient Myrtilis of the Romans, enjoyed a certain importance during the period of Islamic domination. It depended administratively on Béja [see bād̲j̲a ] and, according to Yāḳūt and other geographers, was the best-defended stronghold of all the west of the Iberian peninsula. At the end of the 3rd/9th century, it was the headquarters of an independen…


(1,186 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(valencia), a town in Spain, the third in size as regards population, which exceeds 500,000, lying on the east of the Peninsula, 3 miles from the Mediterranean and from its port, el Grao. It is connected with Madrid by two railway Unes, one via Albaceta, 306 m. (490 km.) in length, the other via Cuenca, 251 m. (402 km.) in length, and by road (218 m. = 350 km.); the distance as the crow flies is however only 188 miles. ¶ Valencia is the capital of the province of the same name and the diocese of an archbishop. Its situation is a striking one, in the ce…

ʿAbd al-Wāḥid b. ʿAlī al-Tamīmī al-Marrākus̲h̲ī

(307 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abū Muḥammad , Maghribi chronicler from the beginning of the 13th century, b. Marrākus̲h̲ 7 Rabīʿ II 581/8 July 1185. We have no ¶ information about his life except for a few autobiographical data that allow us to some degree to piece together his career. He left, at an early age, his native town for Fez, where he made his studies, but returned several times to the Almohad capital before going to Spain. He stayed in Seville in 605/1208-9 and stopped for two years in Cordova. After a short visit to Marrākus̲h̲ he esta…

ʿAlī b. Yūsuf b. Tās̲h̲ufīn

(1,758 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Almoravid amīr and second sovereign of the Tās̲h̲ufīnid dynasty, who ruled over a large part of the Mag̲h̲rib and of southern Spain from 500/1106 to 537/1143. The reign of ʿAlī, who succeeded his father Yūsuf b. Tās̲h̲ufīn at the moment when Almoravid power was at its greatest on both sides of the Straits of Gibraltar, was marked by a series of events of which hitherto the main facts were known, but the exact course of which was not always clear, owing to a lack of detailed sources old enough to be reliable. To-day, there is available on the one hand the volume of the Naẓm al-Ḏj̲umān


(379 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, honorific of the fourth sovereign of the dynasty of the Almohads [see al-muwaḥḥidūn ], Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. YaʿḲūb al-Manṣūr b. Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Muʾmin . He was proclaimed on the death of his father on 22 Rabīʿ I 595/25 Jan. 1199. The beginning of his reign was marked by the suppression of a rising led by an agitator in the mountainous country of the G̲h̲umāra [ q.v.] and a long stay at Fās, during which the rebuilt a part of the wall of the ḳaṣaba of the city. Hearing of the rising of Yaḥyā b. Isḥāḳ Ibn G̲h̲āniya [see g̲h̲āniya , banū ] in Ifrīḳiya, he set out for the eastern part of his e…


(317 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, arabicised form of the Berber amzwaru , “he who precedes, he who is placed at the head”, equivalent to the Arabic muḳaddam and, like this, frequently has in North Africa the meaning of chief of a religious brotherhood ( ṭarīḳa [ q.v.], the superintendent of a zāwiya [ q.v.] or the chief of a body of s̲h̲orfā [ q.v.]. In those districts of the Mag̲h̲rib where the old Berber organisation has survived, mainly in the Great Atlas and Central Atlas, amzwār is sometimes the equivalent of anflūs , the political adviser to a body (cf. R. Montagne, Les Berbères et le Makhzen dans le Sud du Maroc

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Fāsī

(149 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Moroccan scholar, b. at Fez 1040/1631, d. in the same town 1096/1685. He was the pupil of his father, ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. ʿAlī [ q.v.] and of numerous other masters. He became a famous polygraph, celebrated by all his biographers for the breadth and the variety of his knowledge. He is said to have compiled more than 170 works on Malikite


(865 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Muḥammad b. his̲h̲ām b. ʿabd al-D̲j̲abbār b. ʿabd al-Raḥmān al-Nāṣir , abu ’l-Walīd , eleventh Umayyad caliph of Spain. He held power on two occasions, first as successor to His̲h̲ām II al-Muʾayyad [ q.v.], and again in Sulaymān b. Ḥakam al-Mustaʿīn’s [ q.v.] place in the period of general rebellion which at the end of the 4th-beginning of the 5th/11th century immediately preceded the establishment throughout Muslim Spain of petty independent rulers, the Mulūk al- Ṭawāʾif [ q.v.]. The third of the ʿĀmirid

al-Sūs al-Aḳṣā

(2,555 words)

Author(s): Lévi Provençal, E.
, a district in the south of Morocco, forming a triangular plain about 120 miles long by 25 to 26 miles broad with an area of about 7,500 square miles. On the west it is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean and on the north by the last slopes of the Great Atlas and on the south by the Anti-Atlas, gradually narrowing till it reaches the junction of these two ranges. It is watered by the Wādī Sūs and its tributaries. The Arab geographers of the middle ages usually distinguish between al-Sūs al-aḳṣā, “Farther Sūs” and al-Sūs al-adnā “Hither Sūs”. Al-Sūs al-adnā seems in those days to have meant the whol…


(144 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
( nisba from S̲h̲āwiya; q. v.), Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad Muḥammad, one of the most popular saints ( saiyid) of Fās, died there on Muḥarram 26, 1014 = June 13, 1605 and was buried in the Zāwiya which still bears his name, in the al-Siyād̲j̲ (el-Siāj) quarter. Many notices of him are given by the Moroccan hagiographers, and a collection of his manāḳib was made by the famous Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Salām al-Ḳādirī (1058—1110/1648—1698), entitled Muʿtamad al-rāwī fī manāḳib walīy Allāh saiyidī Aḥmad al-S̲h̲āwī. (E. Lévi-Provençal) Bibliography al-Ifrānī, Ṣafwat man intas̲h̲ar, lith. Fas, …

S̲h̲ant Yāḳub

(348 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Yāḳū, in Abu l-Fidāʾ), Arab transcription of the Spanish Santiago, in French St. Jacques de Compostelle, is the most celebrated place of pilgrimage in Christian Spain, the former ¶ capital of the kingdom of Galicia, situated 760 feet above sea-level, between Vigo and La Coruña, to the east of Cape Finisterre. It is there that according to the legend are the relics of the apostle St. James the Greater, the patron-saint of Spain, who landed on the coast near Santiago to convert the peninsula. There was, before the ele…


(296 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, leader of the first Muslim forces to land in Spain in 91 (710). The Arab historians are not agreed as to the origin of this client of the famous general Mūsā b. Nuṣair [q. v.]: some say he was a Berber, others an Arab. Al-Rāzī calls him: Abū Zurʿa Ṭarīf b. Mālik al-Maʿāfirī and Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn: Ṭarīf b. Mālik al-Nak̲h̲aʿī. He has also occasionally been confused with the other client of Mūsā b. Nuṣair, Ṭāriḳ b. Ziyād [q. v.].…


(455 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Ar. Sammūra), a town in the N. W. of Spain, capital of the province of the same name, 2,130 feet above sea-level on the left bank of the Duero, has now a much reduced population (16,000). The Arab geographers of Spain describe it as a town in the country of the Galicians (al-Ḏj̲alāliḳa). It was, after the conquest of al-Andalus, peopled by Berbers and had to be evacuated at the beginning of the viiith century as a result of the territorial gains of the Christian kingdom of Leon. Retaken by the Muslims, it was reconquered and rebuilt in 280 (893) by Alfonso III. ʿAbd…


(870 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name given in the middle ages to those Christians who lived in districts under Muslim rule and bore the stamp of Spanish Moorish culture. The word comes from the Arabic mustaʿrib, the meaning of which is exactly that of the Spanish mozárabe; the Arabic form itself is found in documents in the archives of mediaeval Spain. We know that in principle at the time of conquest the new subjects of the Muslim conquerors could either a…


(481 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the principal town in the Wādī Darʿa (Dra [q. v.]), in the south of Morocco and the site of the mother- zāwiya of the religious brotherhood of the Nāṣirīya [q.v.]. It is a fair-sized town with houses of red clay, surrounded by groves of palm and fruit trees, on the left bank of the Wādī Darʿa, which is here 120 to 250 feet broad but of no depth and runs between hills…
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