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Rusčuk

(1,940 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Lory, B.
, an administrative district and a port on the Danube in Bulgaria (often wrongly called and written as Rus̲h̲čuk), officially in Bulgarian Ruse (Pyce). It is situated at the confluence of the Rusenski Lom (Tk. Ḳara Lom) and the Danube, which then reaches a width of 1,300 m/4,264 feet. It faces the Rumanian port of Giurgiu (Tk. Yer Köki) and spreads out along terraces of loess, above the level of flooding. It is the main port on the Danube and the fourth largest town of Bulgaria, being a rail and…

Tatar Pazarcik

(660 words)

Author(s): Lory, B.
, a town of central Bulgaria, on the upper reaches of the Marica, 120 km/75 miles from Sofia and 36 km/22 miles from Plovdiv. It had 88,000 inhabitants in 1991; since 1934 it has been officially known as Pazard̲j̲ik (Πaзaрджик). Situated on the great Belgrade-Istanbul axis, only a short distance from Plovdiv (Filibe [ q.v.]), Tatar Pazarcik could only emerge as an urban centre in the imperial Ottoman context. After the conquest of Bosnia (1463), a caravan route was established between Sarajevo and Istanbul, via Priština, Skopje, Kjustendil and Samo…

Ṭuna

(1,011 words)

Author(s): Lory, B.
, in Ottoman orthography Ṭūna, the Turkish name for the Danube/Donau river, and also, from 1282/1864, the name of a wilāyet under the new provincial reorganisation of that time, comprising five sand̲j̲aḳ s in the northern part of what became in 1878 Bulgaria [ q.v., and A. Birken, Die Provinzen des Osmanischen Reiches , Wiesbaden 1976, 82]. Ṭuna as a frontier region and its economic aspects. Two contradictory logics have shaped the destiny of the Danube. Geography makes it the second longest river in Europe (2,857 km/1,775 miles) and gives it the role of a uni…