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 Kitāb Hurūshiyūsh

(272 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
The book of Orosius Ibn Albar al-Qūṭī Date: Before 950 Original Language: Arabic Description A comparison of the Arabic Kitāb Hurūshiyūsh with Orosius’ Historiae adversus paganos, a universal history from the creation up to the 5th century, shows that the Arabic version was not a mere translation, but a revision of the Latin text. It was made by the Christian Ḥafṣ ibn Albar al-Qūṭī and the Muslim Qāsim ibn Aṣbagh (d. 951). Significance The cooperation between a Christian and Muslim in this translation is striking, and anticipates instances in later centuries. The wor…

 Kitāb al-Iʿlām bi-mā fī dīn al-Naṣārā min al-fasād wa-l-awhām wa-iẓhār maḥāsin dīn al-Islām wa-ithbāt nubuwwat nabiyyinā Muḥammad

(463 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
'Information about the corruptions and delusions of the religion of the Christians and the presentation of the merits of the religion of Islam and the affirmation of the prophethood of our prophet Muḥammad' Al-Imām al-Qurṭubī Date: Before 1258 Original Language: Arabic Description This work can be divided into two parts. The first preserves two treatises written by Andalusī Christians: Tathlīth al-waḥdāniyya (‘Trinitizing the oneness [of God]’) (q.v.) and Muṣḥaf al-ʿālam al-kāʾin (‘The Book of the world that is’). The second part contains a refutation of these two…

Rabīʿ ibn Zayd

(453 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Recemundo, Recemund Date of Birth: Unknown; early 10th century Place of Birth: Cordova Date of Death: Late 10th century or early 11th century Place of Death: Unknown Biography Rabīʿ ibn Zayd, whose baptismal name was Recemund (Recemundo), was a leader of the Christian communities in al-Andalus. He was a Christian official at the Cordovan court under the Caliph ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III (r. 912-61), and in 955-56 he was chosen to lead an embassy to the Emperor Otto I ( Hūtū) in Germany. This was in response to a mission sent by Otto to Cordova, led by John of Gorze (q.v.). He also…

Ibn Zurʿa

(428 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Abū ʿAlī ʿĪsā ibn Isḥāq ibn Zurʿa ibn Marqus ibn Zurʿa ibn Yūḥannā Date of Birth: 943 Place of Birth: Baghdad Date of Death: 1008 Place of Death: Baghdad Biography The Jacobite Ibn Zurʿa was one of the best-known students of the celebrated Christian Arab writer Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī (q.v.), with whom he studied physics, mathematics, philosophy and literature. He was a merchant who traded with the Byzantines and suffered the jealousy of Syrian merchants, but he was also an expert on philosophy and logic, and a distinguished translat…

A chronicle fragment

(53 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Unknown author Date of Birth: Unknown; 10th or 11th century Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown; 10th or 11th century Place of Death: Unknown Biography - Primary Sources of Information - Secondary Sources of Information - Works on Christian-Muslim Relations A chronicle fragment Juan Pedro Monferrer Sala

 Risāla fī l-Khāliq

(190 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Treatise on the Creator Elias of Nisibis Date: Before 1046 Original Language: Arabic Description This tract focuses on God as a substance ( jawhar) who subsists in himself ( qāʾim bi-nafsihi). In response to the Muslim accusation that Christians are ‘associators’ ( mushrikūn), Elias explains that the meaning of the statement that God is three hypostases ( thalāthat aqānīm) is that He is subsistent in himself, living by Life and articulating by a Word ( nāṭiq bi-nuṭq). The three hypostases are not simply divine accidents, but three actualities, Essence, Life and Word. Significance Elias …

 Revelatio S. Methodii de temporibus nouissimis

(852 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Revelation of St Methodius on the present timesThe Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius Unknown author Date: End of 7th c. or early 8th c. Original Language: Latin Description The preface of one of the four manuscripts used by Sackur for his edition (MS BNF ‒ Lat. 13348; this is of dubious authenticity) states that this translation was made from Greek into Latin by Peter the monk at the request of his brothers in the monastery. Some linguistic features of the text of this manuscript suggest that he may have been a Syrian or Greek (Sackur, Sibyllinische texte , pp. 56, 59). Like the Syriac and Greek…

Ibn ʿAtīq

(240 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Abū ʿAlī l-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAtīq ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn Rashīq al-Taghlibī Date of Birth: 1154 Place of Birth: Murcia Date of Death: 1235 Place of Death: Cairo Biography A native of Murcia, Ibn ʿAtīq was a renowned Andalusī scholar. As a boy he lived in Ceuta in northern Morocco, and then he went to Alexandria to study. He remained in Egypt, and taught there. Some reports state that he spent his last days in Granada and others that he died in Egypt. Similarly, some say that he died in 1235 and others in 1281, though the latter seems unlikely in view of the date of his birth. Ibn ʿAtīq wrote on a range of subj…

Ibn Barrajān

(317 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Abū l-Ḥakam ʿAbd al-Salām ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad al-Lakhmī l-Ishbīlī Date of Birth: Between 1058 and 1078 Place of Birth: Unknown; possibly Seville Date of Death: 1141 Place of Death: Marrakesh Biography Ibn Barrajān lived in Seville for most of his life. He studied Arabic language and literature, Qurʾan exegesis, arithmetic, geometry and other disciplines of the time. He was known as an ascetic ( zāhid), and was a famous Sufi, being known as Shaykh al-ṣūfiyya. Ibn Barrajān is known for five books. Apart from his best-known work, Sharḥ asmāʾ Allāh al-ḥusnā, he also wrote an un…

Ibn Saʿīd al-Maghribī

(374 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Mūsā ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Saʿīd Date of Birth: 1213 Place of Birth: Near Granada Date of Death: 1286 Place of Death: Tunis Biography Born near Granada, Ibn Saʿīd lived in Seville as a boy, and there he began his education. He left al-Andalus in 1241 for the ḥajj with his father, but the latter died in Alexandria in 1242, and Ibn Saʿīd then remained in Egypt for seven years, finally performing the ḥajj in 1249. He later travelled to Iraq and Syria, made a second pilgrimage, and worked in Tunis for the emir al-Mustanṣir. He died in Tunis in 1286 at the age of 73. Ibn Saʿīd…

Al-Qūṭī

(111 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Qissīs min al-Qūṭ Date of Birth: 12th century Place of Birth: Unknown; possibly Toledo Date of Death: 12th century Place of Death: Unknown Biography We have no information about this Christian author, except for a few details in the work associated with him. These indicate that he was from Toledo and a priest, and with the epithet al-Qūṭī he must have been of Visigothic descent. Primary Sources of Information Maqāmiʿ al-ṣulbān, ed. ʿA.-M. al-Sharfī, Tunis, 1975, pp. 30-39 Secondary Sources of Information T.E. Burman, Religious polemic and the intellectual history of the Mozarab…

 Risālat al-Qūṭī

(201 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
The letter of al-Qūṭī Al-Qūṭī Date: Mid-1140s Original Language: Latin Description The letter of al-Qūṭī survives in the form of quotations in the refutation made by al-Khazrajī (q.v.), who was presumably the translator of the original Latin into Arabic. It contains a brief refutation of Islam, the main topics of which include Christian salvation history, the divine Sonship of Jesus and the Incarnation, together with Islam as untruth, the errors of the Qurʾan, disagreements between the Bible and the Qurʾan, and the accusation of taḥrīf. Significance The most valuable feature of t…

Al-Dāwudī

(343 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Abū Jaʽfar Aḥmad ibn Naṣr al-Dāwudī al-Asadī Date of Birth: Unknown; mid-10th century Place of Birth: Ifrīqiya Date of Death: 1011-12 Place of Death: Tilimsān Biography Al-Dāwudī was a Mālikī jurist born in the north of Ifrīqiya. He travelled to Tripoli in Libya, where he started to write his commentary on Mālik’s Al-muwaṭṭaʾ, and later moved to Tilimsān, where he was the faqīh of the city. (Qaddūrī, pp. 169-70, shows that his shuhra is not al-Rawādī, but al-Dāwudī. The mistaken reading is given by Steinschneider and Brockelmann, and copied by Epalza and Devillard. Pace Steinschneider, …

 Kitāb al-fiṣal fī l-milal wa-l-ahwāʾ wa-l-niḥal

(805 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Judgement regarding the confessions, inclinations and sects Ibn Ḥazm Date: Unknown; before 1064 Original Language: Arabic Description Ibn Ḥazm’s Kitāb al-fiṣal is a work of Islamic theology, and has a structure that bears some resemblance to systematic theological works from about the same time, such as al-Bāqillānī’s Kitāb al-tamhīd (q.v.) and ʿAbd al-Jabbār’s Mughnī (q.v.). It also shares the same characteristic of refuting views held both outside and within Islam that oppose the particular theological points it makes. Where it differs from thes…

 Risāla fī waḥdāniyyat al-Khāliq wa-tathlīth aqānīmihi

(270 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Epistle on the oneness of the Creator and threeness of his hypostases Elias of Nisibis Date: Between 13 September and 12 October 1029 Original Language: Arabic Description This work, which Elias composed in Mosul in response to a request from a judge, has an introduction and two chapters. In the introduction Elias establishes God’s oneness as substance ( kiyān wāḥid) and threeness as hypostases ( thalāthat aqānīm). In the first chapter he goes on to justify the three hypostases by arguing that God subsists in himself ( qāʾim bi-nafsihi), and is wise ( ḥakīm) and living ( ḥayy), while in the…

Elias of Nisibis

(565 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Iliyyā ibn Shīnā, Bar Shīnāyā Date of Birth: 11 February 975 Place of Birth: Al-Sinn, Shennā (Syriac) Date of Death: 18 July 1046 Place of Death: Mayyāfāriqīn Biography The Nestorian Elias of Nisibis is undoubtedly the most significant eastern Christian writer of the 11th century. His reputation spread throughout the Islamic world for his expertise in medicine, mathematics, philosophy and philology, for his deep knowledge of Christian and Muslim theology, and for his participation in a series of sessions ( majālis) with the Muslim vizier Abū l-Qāsim al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī al-Ma…

Abū Marwān ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Ḥabīb ibn Sulaymān ibn Hārūn/Marwān ibn Julhuma ibn ʿAbbās ibn Mirdās al-Sulamī

(518 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Ibn Ḥabīb Date of Birth: c. 790 Place of Birth: A village near Granada Date of Death: 852-53 Place of Death: Cordova Biography ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Ḥabīb was born in kūrat Ilbīra, a small village near Granada, where he may have started his studies. He was a druggist ( ʿaṭṭār) like his father, and he had a brother whom he defended against a charge of blasphemy before the judge of Ilbīra. He fathered two sons and a daughter. At some point Ibn Ḥabīb moved to Cordova, where he studied ḥadīth and fiqh with three scholars. When he was 33, he spent three years studying in the Middl…

 Maqāla ʿan al-tāthlīth

(287 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Treatise on the Trinity Ibn Zurʿa Date: 979 Original Language: Arabic Description This brief treatise on the key Christian doctrine of the Trinity was composed by Ibn Zurʿa according to Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī’s model of the three Persons as ‘intellect’-‘intelligent’-‘intelligible’, ʿaql-ʿāqil-maʿqūl. Significance The work attests to the continuing debates between Christians and Muslims in the 10th century, and to the need for Christians to find means of explaining their doctrine in ways that Muslim interlocutors would find comprehensible and compelling. His…

Al-Khazrajī

(249 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Abū Jaʿfar Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Ṣamad ibn Abī ʿUbayda (ʿAbīda) al-Khazrajī al-Ṣāʿidī al-Anṣārī al-Qurṭubī Date of Birth: 1125-26 Place of Birth: Possibly Cordova Date of Death: 1187 Place of Death: Fes Biography As his nisba al-Qurṭubī indicates, al-Khazrajī appears to have been born in Cordova. He died in Fes, after living in Granada and Bijāya. He received a complete education in the Islamic sciences, especially Prophetic traditions, and he studied with the most learned scholars of his day. In his turn, he taught many students, who transmitted traditions from him. Among the scant deta…

 Radd Abī l-Qāsim ʿAbdallāh ibn Aḥmad al-Balkhī ʿalā l-Naṣārā fī kitābihi l-musammā Awāʾil al-adilla

(330 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Abū l-Qāsim ʿAbdallāh ibn Aḥmad al-Balkhī's refutation of the Christians in his book entitled 'Fundamentals of the proofs' Ibn Zurʿa Date: 997 Original Language: Arabic Description The work replies to selected arguments that appeared in a lost theological compendium of the early 9th-century Baghdad Muʿtazilī Abū l-Qāsim al-Balkhī (d. 931) (q.v.). They include attacks on the Trinity, the anthropomorphization of God ( tashbīh) through comparing him with creatures, and the prophethood of Muḥammad. By the 10th century, all these topics had become familiar features of deba…

 Kitāb al-majālis

(771 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
The sessions Elias of Nisibis Date: Possibly 1026 Original Language: Arabic Description This work contains accounts of the seven debates that took place in seven sessions ( maj ā lis) between Elias and Abū l-Qāsim al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī l-Maghribī, the vizier of the Marwānid ruler Naṣr al-Dawla ibn Aḥmad in Mayyāfāriqīn. Since the latter died in 1027, the meetings must have taken place before this. The topics covered are as follows: 1st session: God’s Unity ( tawḥīd), and Trinity, including the divine substance and hypostases (introduction and five chapters). 2nd session: the Incarnatio…

Unknown author

(56 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
The Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius (Latin) Date of Birth: Unknown, probably 7th c. Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown, probably 8th c. Place of Death: Unknown Biography -- Primary Sources of Information -- Secondary Sources of Information -- Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Revelatio S. Methodii de temporibus nouissimis Juan Pedro Monferrer Sala

 Kitāb al-radd ʿalā l-Yahūd wa-l-Naṣārā

(201 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
‘Refutation of the Jews and Christians’ Al-Bājī Date: Unknown; before 1315 Original Language: Arabic Description The work has not survived, and is only known from a passing reference in al-Subkī, Ṭabaqāt, vi, p. 228. Since it would have been written at a time of virulent anti-Jewish and anti-Christian feeling in Cairo, it may well have rehearsed familiar accusations against the client communities and complained about their arrogance and flouting of the regulations imposed upon them by the Pact of ʿUmar. It possibly incorpora…

 Tafṣīl al-zamān wa-maṣāliḥ al-abdān

(631 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Division of seasons and benefits of bodies Rabīʿ ibn Zayd Date: About 961 or soon after Original Language: Arabic Description Rabīʿ ibn Zayd’s Kitāb tafṣīl al-zamān wa-maṣāliḥ al-abdān (also known as Kitāb al-azmān), which was evidently a liturgical calendar, is extant only as a series of quotations in the Kitāb al-anwāʾ of ʿArīb ibn Saʿīd al-Kātib (d. 980) (q.v.). This work is preserved in an Arabic version written in Hebrew letters, and also in a Latin translation, the Liber anoe. This translation contains more saints’ names than the Arabic. Many of the passages about Ch…

 Maqāla fī l-ājāl

(932 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Kitāb al-ājāl, Fī l-aʿmār wa-l-ājāl, Kayfiyyat al-iʿtiqād fī l-aʿmār wa-l-ājālTreatise on lifespansBook on lifespans, On ages and lifespans, How to believe in ages and lifespans Abū Zayd Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq al-ʿIbādī Date: Unknown Original Language: Arabic Description Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq's Fī l-aʿmār wa-l-ājāl is preserved in Ch. 58 of the Majmūʿ uṣūl al-dīn ('Encyclopaedia of the fundamentals of religion') by the 13th-century Copto-Arabic author al-Muʾtaman ibn al-ʿAssāl. It deals with the general topic of the limitation ( ḥadd) of human beings' lives by God, and addresses th…

 Kitāb al-amwāl

(214 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Property Al-Dāwudī Date: Early 11th century Original Language: Arabic Description As is suggested by its title, this work is concerned with legal questions, including the system of poll tax, which is dealt with from a Mālikī point of view. Significance The work specifies the rights and duties of Christians and Jews, who as ‘protected people’ are given the freedom to follow their own beliefs and rituals, though not allowed full political rights and sovereign status. It also refers polemically to their religious teachings, using general…

 Sharḥ asmāʾ Allāh al-ḥusnā

(182 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Explanation of the beautiful names of God Ibn Barrajān Date: 12th century; before 1141 Original Language: Arabic Description Ibn Barrajān’s Sharḥ asmāʾ Allāh al-ḥusnā includes accounts of more than 113 names of God. Each is structured in three sections. In the first, the verbal root of each name is explained; in the second, mentions of the names in the Qurʾan and Hadiths are set out; and in the third, attaining the power of God’s names is explored. Significance In his explanations of the divine names, Ibn Barrajān makes frequent use of biblical quotations, showing no appa…

Llibre de la çuna e xara dels Moros

(101 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Unknown author Date of Birth: Unknown; 14th century Place of Birth: Unknown; Catalonia Date of Death: Unknown; 15th century Place of Death: Unknown; probably Catalonia Biography Nothing is known about this translator, except the very few details that can be inferred from his work. He was a legal scholar who worked in Valencia, and was acquainted with both the Christian and the Islamic Mālikī legal codes. Primary Sources of Information - Secondary Sources of Information - Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Llibre de la çuna e xara dels Moros Juan Pedro Monferrer Sala

 Taʾrīkh iftitāḥ al-Andalus

(477 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
The history of the conquest of al-Andalus Ibn al-Qūṭiyya Date: After 977 Original Language: Arabic Description The Taʾrīkh iftitāḥ al-Andalus deals with the history of al-Andalus from the early days of the conquest up to the reign of the Caliph ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III. It prefaces this with a description of the Iberian Peninsula before the conquest. This work is thought to be by a disciple of Ibn al-Qūṭiyya, based on notes that contain his views about relations between the Umayyad rulers and their subjects. The various accounts offer a moralizing vision o…

The Chronicle of Se'ert

(27 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Biography - Primary Sources of Information - Secondary Sources of Information - Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Taʾrīkh al-Siʿīrd Juan Pedro Monferrer Sala

 Kitāb al-rasāʾil wa-l-wasāʾil

(225 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
‘Treatises and devices’ Ibn ʿAtīq Date: Unknown; before 1235 Original Language: Arabic Description Kitāb al-rasāʾil wa-l-wasāʾil has survived in al-Wansharīsī’s Miʿyār (q.v.). This short polemical text gives an account of a debate that took place in the town of Tudmīr (Murcia) between a Muslim, Ibn Rashīq, and some Christian priests and monks concerning the inimitability of the Qur’an. The Christians compare the Qur’an with the Arab genre of the maqāma (which may be understood as an account of an individual’s activities related by a second person to a wider audience, and typically in sa…

 Al-mughrib fī ḥulā l-Maghrib

(665 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
'The wondrous work, on gems of the West' Ibn Saʿīd al-Maghribī Date: 1250 Original Language: Arabic Description This work contains nearly 900 biographies of Muslim authors, giving important information about lost works and quoting from them. It comprises 15 books ( asfār), the first six devoted to Egypt, the next three to Tunis ( Ifrīqiya) and North Africa ( bilād al-Barbar), and the remaining six to al-Andalus. This third group contains details about Christian al-Andalus, as well as Europe north of the Pyrenees ( al-arḍ al-kabīra). Significance In the last six books Ibn Saʻīd giv…

Fray Anselmo Turmeda

(720 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
ʿAbd Allāh al-Tarjumān, ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd Allāh al-Tarjumān al-Mayūrqī al-Muhtadī (al-Tūnisī), Turmeda Date of Birth: Approximately 1352 Place of Birth: Palma de Mallorca Date of Death: Between 1424 and 1430 Place of Death: Tunis Biography Anselmo Turmeda (Ancelm Turmeda in Catalan) was born in Palma, Mallorca. According to the Tuḥfa, at the age of six he started to study the Gospel with a learned priest, and two years later he started on Greek (‘the language of the Gospel’) and also logic. At the age of 14 he went to the University of Aragon in Lerida to study natural scie…

Al-Yabrūdī

(433 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Abū l-Faraj Jirwajīs ibn Yūḥannā ibn Sahl ibn Ibrāhīm al-Yabrūdī Date of Birth: Unknown; late 10th c. Place of Birth: Yabrūd (Syria) Date of Death: Unknown; perhaps around 1050-60 Place of Death: Damascus Biography The Syrian Jacobite al-Yabrūdī was an expert in medicine. Born in humble circumstances in Yabrūd, he moved to Damascus to study. He travelled to Baghdad to increase his medical knowledge under the Nestorian Ibn al-Ṭayyib (q.v.), and he also studied other sciences such as logic. Finally, he returned to Damascus, where …

 Maqāla fī l-radd ʿalā l-Muslimīn

(82 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Treatise in refutation of the Muslims Al-Yabrūdī Date: First half of the 11th century Original Language: Arabic Description The work is not extant, and is known only from Sbath, F ihris, Supplemente, ii, p. 32. Significance It is not possible to comment on the significance of this work. Manuscripts Inaccessible MS once in a private collection in Aleppo; see Sbath, F ihris, Supplemente, ii, p. 32. Editions & Translations Studies Keywords Chronological Category: 1000-1100 Juan Pedro Monferrer Sala

 Maqāmiʿ al-ṣulbān wa-marātiʿ (rawātiʿ) riyāḍ (rawḍat) ahl al-īmān

(593 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Maqāmiʿ al-ṣulbānMallets for crosses and provender in the meadows of the faithful, Mallets for crosses Al-Khazrajī Date: Mid-1140s Original Language: Arabic Description Al-Khazrajī’s Maqāmiʿ al-ṣulbān was written when the author was around 20 years old (though al-Sharfī thinks that perhaps it was written by one of his pupils). The text, which belongs to the broad genre of polemics ( radd), was written by al-Khazrajī during his two years of captivity in Toledo in 1145-46/1147-48. The book comprises an attack on Islam by a Visigothic priest of Toledo ( qissīs min al-Qūṭ) and the answer…

 al-Mustakhraja min al-asmiʿa

(595 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Al-ʿUtbiyyaThe Selection from what is heard, The ʿUtbiyya Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Umawī l-Sufyānī l-ʿUtbī l-Qurṭubī Date: Before 869 Original Language: Arabic Description Al-mustakhraja or al- ʿ Utbiyya contains legal questions ( masāʾil) on the authority of Mālik ibn Anas and his pupils, some of which relate to the process of Islamization. The work is preserved in Ibn Rushd al-Jadd, al-Bayān wa-l-taḥṣīl (12th c.). Al-ʿUtbī gathered more than 280 masāʾil dealing with Christians and Jews, most of which are related to the Christians of al-Andalus. Apart …

 Risāla ilā l-wazīr al-kāmil Abī l-Qāsim al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿĀlī

(223 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Letter to the vizier, the most excellent Abū l-Qāsim al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿĀlī Elias of Nisibis Date: 1027 Original Language: Arabic Description Only three letters of the more extensive correspondence between Elias and Abū l-Qāsim ʿAlī l-Maghribī have survived: one addressed to Elias by the vizier; a long reply from Elias containing a summary of the ‘Sessions’ that had taken place the previous year (1026); and finally the vizier’s answer in which he applauds the fine style of Elias’ reply. Significance The texts of these three letters, together with the ‘Sessions’, represent the m…

Ibn al-Qūṭiyya

(367 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Muḥammad ibn ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Ibrāhīm ibn ʿĪsā ibn Muzāḥim Date of Birth: After 900 Place of Birth: Unknown; possibly Cordova Date of Death: 977 Place of Death: Cordova Biography As is indicated by his laqab, ‘son of the Goth’, Ibn al-Qūṭiyya came from a noble Visigothic family of Seville. He himself says that he was descended from the Visigothic King Witiza. He was educated in Seville and Cordova by some of the most famous scholars of the period, including Qāsim ibn Aṣbagh, and he became known as a philologist, jurist a…

 Kitāb al-masāʾil al-sabʿ wa-l-khamsīn

(196 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
The book of fifty-seven questions Ibn Albar al-Qūṭī Date: End of the 9th or beginning of the 10th century Original Language: Arabic Description The book is no longer extant. A few fragments are preserved in quotations by al-Imām al-Qurṭubī, which suggest that it was an anti-Muslim polemical treatise in which the doctrine of the Trinity was explained in order to describe the various heresies that had arisen over it. Significance The main interest of this work lies in the evidence it gives of the influence of Eastern Christian theological terminology used for the Tr…

Ibn Ḥazm

(983 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥazm Date of Birth: 994 Place of Birth: Cordova Date of Death: 1064 Place of Death: Manta Līsham (Niebla, Huelva) Biography Ibn Ḥazm of Cordova, one of the best-known authors of al-Andalus, was famous as a theologian, philosopher, and jurist. He was probably descended from a Christian convert to Islam, and could trace his genealogy back to a Persian mawlā of Yazīd ibn Abī Sufyān. His father was vizier at the Umayyad court under the royal chamberlain al-Manṣūr ibn Abī ʿĀmir (d. 1002) and his son al-Muẓaffar (d. 1008). He…

Abū Zayd Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq al-ʿIbādī

(1,499 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq Date of Birth: 809 Place of Birth: al-Ḥīra Date of Death: 873 Place of Death: Baghdad Biography As can be inferred from his nisba, al-ʿIbādī, Ḥunayn’s father belonged to the Arab Christian community of the ʿIbād in the southern Iraqī town of al-Ḥīra, the provincial capital of the Lakhmids. Ḥunayn started the practice of medicine with his father, who was a druggist. He learned Syriac in al-Ḥīra and was ordained deacon ( shammās) of the East Syrian church in that city. He moved to Gundishāpūr, where he learned Persian. Then he went to Baghdad and studied…

 Maqāla fī l-tawḥīd wa-l-tathlīth

(99 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Treatise on the Unity of God and the Trinity Al-Yabrūdī Date: First half of the 11th century Original Language: Arabic Description The work is not extant, and is known only from P. Sbath, F ihris, Supplemente, p. 32. Its title suggests that it was probably a polemical comparison between the Muslim and Christian perceptions of God. Significance It is not possible to comment on this. Manuscripts Inaccessible MS once in a private collection in Aleppo; see Sbath, Fihris, Supplemente, p. 32 Editions & Translations - Studies - Keywords Chronological Category: 1000-1100 Juan Pedro Monferrer …

 Llibre de la çuna e xara dels Moros

(411 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Book of the tradition and law of the Moors Llibre de la çuna e xara dels Moros Date: Uncertain; late 14th century Original Language: Catalan Description This text, the only Catalan work of its kind that is currently known, is a translation from an unknown Arabic original into Catalan made in Valencia at the end the 14th century. As its title, which is known from the start of the index page, suggests, it is concerned with major Islamic religious and legal regulations ( sunna and sharīʿa), and it includes references that reflect Mālikī legal opinions. Although the index has 366 he…

 Taʾrīkh al-Siʿīrd

(537 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
The Chronicle of Seʿert The Chronicle of Se'ert Date: Before 1023 Original Language: Arabic Description This work is a universal history. It is divided into two parts, the first narrating the events of the years 251 to 422, and the second dealing with the period 484 up to 650, at which point the MS containing this part breaks off. The remainder of the Chronicle may have followed events up to the 11th century. The author, who is anonymous, was evidently a Nestorian priest who must have finished writing before the year 1023 (see Youssif, Chroniqueurs, p. 280). The Chronicle is based on a numbe…

Ibn Albar al-Qūṭī

(491 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Biography We have very little information about the exact identity of this Arabized Christian author. All we know about him is that he was the qāḍī of the Christian community in Cordova and one of the most outstanding intellects of all Christian priests. He was probably born in Cordova in the 9th century and probably died there in the 10th century. Two suggestions have been made about the identity of Ḥafṣ ibn Albar al-Qūṭī: first, that he was the well-known Paul Alvarus (q.v.), one of the leaders of the Christian community in Cordova in the mid-9th century; and second, from information gi…

 Tafsīr al-amāna al-kabīr

(192 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Commentary on the Creed Elias of Nisibis Date: Before 1046 Original Language: Arabic Description This work is divided into 19 parts ( fuṣūṣ) corresponding to the elements into which Elias divides the Creed. Each is given in Syriac, together with what is an Arabic paraphrase ( tafsīr) followed by a commentary ( taʾwīl). Significance It is clear that Elias writes about the Trinity and Incarnation with the views of Muslims, as well as Jacobites and Melkites, in mind. Manuscripts MS Vat - Ar. 143, fols 127r-148v (12th-13th century; missing some folios) MS Beirut, Bibliothèque orientale – …

 Risāla fī maʿānin saʾalahu ʿanhā baʿḍ ikhwānihi

(230 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Epistle on the meanings about which one of his brothers asked him Ibn Zurʿa Date: 989 Original Language: Arabic Description This letter or treatise, which is addressed to a Muslim friend, is concerned with God's essential attributes of knowledge and power, as well as his active attributes ( ṣifāt al-fiʿl) and the transcendent mystery of God. Significance As in his other works, Ibn Zurʿa readily resorts to the use of theological and philosophical analogies to explain the Christian concept of the Godhead. Manuscripts MS Vat - Ar. 127, fols 5r-15r MS Aleppo, Fondation Georges et Mathild…

 Kitāb al-burhān ʿalā ṣaḥīḥ al-īmān

(232 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
The demonstration of the correctness of the faith Elias of Nisibis Date: Before 1046 Original Language: Arabic Description This theological treaty is divided into four parts, subdivided into ten chapters. Part 1 is addressed to non-Christians, of which the first chapter addresses Muslims (fols 131r-134r), and the second chapter addresses mainly Jews, but is also concerned with Muslims. Significance In ch. 1 of part 1 Elias demonstrates that Christians believe in one God by citing New Testament passages, and also by showing that the three persons can be …

 Maqāla fī maʿnā kalimatān kiyān wa-ilāh

(228 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Treatise on the meaning of the two terms kiyān and ilāh Elias of Nisibis Date: Before 1046 Original Language: Arabic Description This tract focuses on two theological and linguistic items. The first is the triune and single nature of God in relation to the term kiyān, ‘being’ or ‘existence’, with an appendix on the meaning of the term jawhar. The second is the meaning of the term ilāh, which Elias argues has only one significance in Muslim usage, but for Jews and Christians has multiple significances, since the terms ilāh and Allāh are used for beings other than God, such as Moses in Exodus 4:6. Si…
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