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Sabt

(681 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.), the sabbath, and thus ( yawm al- ) sabt , Saturday (technically, Friday evening to Saturday evening); it is also suggested to mean "a week", that is from sabt to sabt, as well as a more general sense of a long period of time. The word has been the common designator of the day which follows yawm al-djumʿa [see d̲j̲umʿa ] since early Islamic times at least [see zamān ]. Clearly related to the Aramaic word s̲h̲abbetā and ultimately Hebrew s̲h̲abbāt , the word was given an appropriately Islamic sense by the Ḳurʾān and later Muslim theological interpretation. The Ḳurʾān associates Jews, the …

Ṣāliḥ

(828 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, a prophet who, according to the Ḳurʾān, was sent to the people T̲h̲amūd [ q.v.]. He is mentioned by name nine times in the Ḳurʾān, with the fullest versions of the story being told in VII, 73-9, XI, 61-8, XXVI, 141-59, and XXVII, 45-53; nineteen additional references to T̲h̲amūd by name, including extensive passages in LIV, 23-32 and XCI, 11-5, provide parallel accounts and specific details without mentioning the name Ṣāliḥ. The story of Ṣāliḥ follows the standard Ḳurʾānic pattern of commission, mission, rejection and punishment (see ḳurʾān. 6.d; J. Wansbrough, Quranic studies, Oxford…

Ubayy b. Kaʿb

(255 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
al-Anṣārī al-Madanī, a member of the Banū Ḥudayla of the Medinan clan of al-Nad̲j̲d̲j̲ār, secretary to Muḥammad in Medina and early collector of the Ḳurʾān; his date of death may have been anywhere between 19/640 and 35/656, according to Ibn al-Ḏj̲azarī, Ṭabaḳāt , no. 131. Known as sayyid al-ḳurrāʾ and renowned for his memory (he was able to recite the entire Ḳurʾān in 8 nights), Ubayy is said to have collected his own copy of the Ḳurʾān prior to the collection commanded by ʿUt̲h̲mān, while also having been involved in the latter’s collection. Both the contents and the sūra

al-Ṣāffāt

(350 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.), the title of sūra XXXVII of the Ḳurʾān, and a word used three times in the text including at XXXVII, 1, where it is generally understood by the early tafsīr authorities to mean “(angels) standing in ranks” (and translated as “Celles qui sont en rangs” [R. Blachère], “Those who range themselves in ranks” [A. Yusuf Ali], and “Die in Reih und Glied stehen” [R. Paret]). The meaning is derived from the verb ṣaffa referring to camels (or military units) lined up in a row (for sacrifice, as in Ḳurʾān, XXII, 36, using the broken plural ṣawāff ). The sense of the terse oath phrase wa ’l-ṣāffāti ṣaffan

Sad̲j̲da

(965 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.) "bowing down", the name of two Ḳurʾānic sūras (XXXII, also called tanzīl al-sad̲j̲da , and XLI, more commonly called fuṣṣilat or ḥā-mīm ) and within the technical phrase sad̲j̲dat (or sid̲j̲dat , or plural sud̲j̲ūd ) al-tilāwa , in reference to the 14 Ḳurʾānic passages (variant traditions suggest 16, 15, 11, 10, or 4 passages) which require a ritual of bowing to be performed at the end of their recitation. The passages are marked in the margin of the Ḳurʾān text, usually with the word al-sad̲j̲da . The practice is generally considered wād̲j̲ib "required", in the Ḥanafī mad̲h̲hab

Salsabīl

(474 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.), the name of a fountain in paradise. It is mentioned only once in the Ḳurʾān, in LXXVI, 18: the righteous who are in paradise in the hereafter “will be given there a cup to drink in which has been mixed ginger ( zand̲j̲abīl ), (from) a fountain therein named Salsabīl”. Exegetes approached the word from two directions: etymology linked to meaning, and grammar. The word was postulated to have been derived from salla , salisa , or salsala and all these roots were connected with the idea of being "easy to swallow” or “delightful in taste", attribute…

S̲h̲aʿyā

(325 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(also As̲h̲aʿyāʾ), Isaiah, son of Amos, a prophet sent to Israel, unmentioned by name in the Ḳurʾān (although tafsīr works mention him in connection with Ḳurʾān, XVII, 4), but well known in ḳiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ literature, notably for his predictions of the coming of Jesus (ʿĪsā [ q.v.]) and Muḥammad. The story of Isaiah falls into three periods of prophecy. The account provided by al-Ṭabarī is typical. First, Isaiah is named as a prophet during the reign of Zedekiah (or Hezekiah, as in the Bible) and prophesies the king’s death. The second per…

al-Zarkas̲h̲ī

(884 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Badr al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Bahādur (or Muḥammad b. Bahādur b. ʿAbd Allāh, according to some), prolific writer who lived in Mamlūk Cairo at a time of flourishing intellectual activity. Born in Cairo in 745/1344, he studied ḥadīt̲h̲ in Damascus with ʿImād al-Dīn Ibn Kat̲h̲īr (d. 774/1373 [ q.v.]), fiḳh and uṣūl in Aleppo with S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn al-Ad̲h̲raʿī (d. 783/1381; see Brockelmann, S II, 108), and Ḳurʾān and fiḳh in Cairo with the head of the S̲h̲āfiʿī school in Cairo at the time, Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn al-Asnawī (d. 772/1370, see Gilliot, Textes arabes anciens édités en Ég…

Yaḥyā b. Zakariyyāʾ

(1,096 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, the New Testament John the Baptist, mentioned by name five times in the Ḳurʾān. The spelling of the name is evidenced from pre-Islamic times and is probably derived from Christian Arabic usage (see J. Horovitz, Koranische Untersuchungen , Berlin 1926, 151-2; A. Jeffery, Foreign vocabulary of the Quran , Baroda 1938, 290-1); Muslim exegetes frequently trace the name from a root sense of “to quicken” or “to make alive” in reference to John’s mother’s barrenness and his people’s absence of faith. In Ḳurʾān, III, 39, John i…

Tafsīr

(5,328 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.), pl. tafāsīr "interpretation" (as a process and a literary genre), generally, but not always, of the Ḳurʾān. The word is used for commentaries on Greek scientific and philosophical works, being equivalent to s̲h̲arḥ [ q.v.]; the term is applied to the Greek and Arabic commentaries on the works of Aristotle, for example. Jews and Christians writing in Arabic also use the word in the context of translations and commentaries on the Bible, as some of the works of Saadia Gaon demonstrate. The most significant usage of the word, h…

S̲h̲amwīl

(361 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(also As̲h̲amwīl / As̲h̲mawīl , S̲h̲amʿūn , Samʿūn ), the Samuel of Biblical history (I Sam. i-xxviii), perhaps referred to in Ḳurʾān, II, 246-7, in connection with the appointment of Saul [see ṭālūt ] as king over Israel (although some exegetes see the reference to be to Joshua (Yūs̲h̲aʿ), the “prophet after Moses”). The form of the name S̲h̲amwīl is closer than S̲h̲amʿūn to the Hebrew S̲h̲emuʾel; S̲h̲amʿūn may be the result of some confusion between the names Simeon (Hebrew S̲h̲imʿon; see Gen. xxix, 33, etc.) and Samuel, but that is unclear and confused furt…

Wars̲h̲

(286 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Saʿīd b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī al-Miṣrī al-Ḳayrawānī, transmitter of the Ḳurʾān reading of Nāfiʿ al-Layt̲h̲ī [ q.v.], born in 110/728 in Egypt where he also died in 197/812. A Copt in origin, Wars̲h̲ was a student of Nāfiʿ and it was from his teacher that he is said to have received his laḳab ; the name Wars̲h̲ was given to him either because of his extreme whiteness or because of his similarity to a bird called waras̲h̲ān . Wars̲h̲ taught his transmission of the Ḳurʾān to a number of his Egyptian students, and from there it spread esp…

al-Sid̲j̲istānī

(322 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, ʿAbd Allāh b. Sulaymān b. al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲, Abū Bakr Ibn Abī Dāwūd, early Islamic traditionist, born 230/844 in Sid̲j̲istān, died 316/929 in Bag̲h̲dād. He was the author of Kitāb al-Maṣāḥif , a work on uncanonical readings of the Ḳurʾān [see ḳirāʾa ] organised by “codex” and apparently the only book of its type still in existence. Famed as a mémoriser of ḥadīt̲h̲ , he wrote books mainly on Ḳurʾānic topics, including a book of tafsīr and work on nask̲h̲ (perhaps used as a source by Ibn al-D̲j̲awzī in his Nawāsik̲h̲ al-Ḳurʾān ). While he is reputed to have composed several ḥadīt̲h̲ collections (…

Taṣliya

(598 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.), the invocation of God’s blessing upon the Prophet Muḥammad. The word has many applications, but commonly refers to the section of the tas̲h̲ahhud [ q.v.] in the ritual ṣalāt [ q.v.], following the taḥiyya (“greeting”) and ¶ s̲h̲ahāda [ q.v.], in which the worshipper recites the ṣalāt ʿalā ’l-nabī ( taṣliya being derived from this sense of “performing the ṣalāt ”, perhaps). One typical formulation of the taṣliya is known as al-ṣalawāt al-ibrāhīmiyya , see ṣalāt . III. B. A taṣliya is also a part of the response to the ad̲h̲ān [ q.v.], also known as the duʿāʾ al-wasīla

Nāfiʿ b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Nuʿaym al-Layt̲h̲ī

(216 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, one of the seven canonical Ḳurʾān “readers” who was born in Medina and died there in 169/785 (other dates between 150/767 and 170/786 are also mentioned in biographies). He is reported to have studied with 70 of the tābiʿūn in Medina. He transmitted one of the seven Ḳurʾān readings [see Ḳirāʾa ] which were recognised by Ibn Mud̲j̲āhid [ q.v.]. Two of his pupils, Wars̲h̲ (d. 197/812) and Ḳālūn (d. 220/835), are recognised as the main transmitters of his reading. The transmission of the Ḳurʾān from Wars̲h̲ on the authority of Nāfīʿ is still used in the M…

al-Ṣiddīḳ

(563 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.), a name applied to the first caliph Abū Bakr meaning “the eminently veracious” and “he who always confirms the truth”. The lexicographical tradition understands the form of the word to be an intensive adjective (W. Wright, Grammar , i, 137-8) indicating the extremes of ṣidḳ [ q.v.], truth. The word appears in the Ḳurʾān six times and has ¶ a technical sense suggesting an etymology derived from the Aramaic-Hebrew ṣaddīḳ , which has the meaning “pious” in Rabbinic literature. Those who believe are ṣiddīḳūn in Ḳurʾān IV, 69 and LVII, 19 (both times in conjunction with being s̲h̲uhadāʾ

Sidrat al-Muntahā

(438 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.), “the lote tree on the boundary” as described in Ḳurʾān, LIII, 14: “Indeed, he [Muḥammad] saw him [D̲j̲ibrīl] another time [other than that referred to in Ḳurʾān, LIII, 1-12] by the lote tree of the boundary nigh which is the garden of the refuge ... Indeed, he saw one of the greatest signs of his Lord.” The full exegesis of this passage arises in a prominent ḥadīt̲h̲ report (repeated, for example, in al-Buk̲h̲ārī, K. manāḳib al-anṣār and K. badʾ al-k̲h̲alḳ Muslim, K. al-īmān also see al-Ṭabarī, i, 1158-9) which speaks at length of the miʿrād̲j̲ [ q.v.]. After Muḥammad (who was accompa…

Mud̲j̲āhid b. D̲j̲abr al-Makkī

(450 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, Abu l-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ , a Successor, born 21/642, died between 100/718 and 104/722 in Mecca, mawla of al-Sāʾib (or ʿAbd Allāh or Ḳays) b. Abi ’l-Sāʾib al-Mak̲h̲zūmī. Famed as a muḳriʾ and as a source of tafsīr , he is connected to the school of ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbbās [ q.v.], but is said to have studied with many other companions as well (al-D̲h̲ahabī, Ṭabaḳāt al-mufassirīn , ii, 306). A report is found that he read the Ḳurʾān with Ibn ʿAbbās three times, stopping each time after each verse and asking about its interpretation, specificall…

Sāra

(614 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, wife of the Biblical patriarch Abraham [see ibrāhīm ]. Sarah enters the text of the Ḳurʾān only in its rendition of the etiological narrative surrounding the name Isaac (Hebrew wayyiṣḥaḳ “and he laughed”) from Gen. xvii, 15-22, xviii, 11-15 and xxi, 5-7; thus in Ḳurʾān, XI, 71-3, and LI, 29-30, Sarah laughs at the messengers who bring the news that she will bear a son in her (and Abraham’s) old age, but she remains unnamed and is referred to simply as imraʾatuhu “his [Abraham’s] wife”. The issue of Sarah’s laughing (and thus doubt…

S̲h̲amsūn

(386 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, the Biblical Samson of Judges, xii-xvi (12th century B.C. according to Biblical chronology), unmentioned in the Ḳurʾān. Al-Ṭabarī, i, 793-5, locates him historically in the Christian era, just before St. George (D̲j̲urd̲j̲īs); al-T̲h̲aʿlabī, ʿArāʾis al-mad̲j̲ālis , Cairo n.d., 392-3, situates him just after St. George and understands him to have been a Christian. The chronology is probably the result of the use of Christian sources for the story. The story of Samson was very popular in Christian circles, wi…

S̲h̲uʿayb

(420 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, a prophet mentioned in the Ḳurʾān, who, on the basis of XI, 91, was understood to have come after Ḥūd, Ṣāliḥ and Lot (Lūṭ) [ q.vv.]. According to XXVI, 176-91, S̲h̲uʿayb was sent to the “People of the Thicket”, aṣḥāb al-ayka , a group which is also mentioned in XV, 78, XXXVIII, 13, and L, 14. Furthermore, S̲h̲uʿayb is spoken of as sent to Madyan in VII, 85, XI, 84, 94-5, and XXIX, 36. This location is also mentioned in IX, 70, XX, 40, XXII, 44, and XXVIII, 22-3, 45. On the historical and geographic identity of these people and places, see madyan s̲h̲uʿayb. As a result of the mention of Madyan in…

al-T̲h̲aʿlabī

(297 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm Abū Isḥāḳ al-Nīsābūrī, Ḳurʾān exegete and collector of stories, d. Muḥarram 427/November 1035. Al-T̲h̲aʿlabī is famous today for two works. His massive tafsīr , al-Kas̲h̲f wa ’l-bayān ʿan tafsīr al-Ḳurʾān , remains unpublished except for the bibliographical introduction (ed. I. Goldfeld, Quranic commentary in the Eastern Islamic tradition of the first four centuries of the hijra: an annotated edition of the preface to al-T̲h̲aʿlabī’s “Kitāb al-kas̲h̲f wa ’l-bayān ʿan Tafsīr al-Qurʾān” , Acre 1984). The work raised conc…

Yaḥyā b. Zakariyyāʾ

(1,114 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, Jean-Baptiste dans le Nouveau Testament, dont le nom est mentionné cinq fois dans le Ḳurʾān. L’orthographe de ce nom est attestée depuis l’époque préislamique et dérive probablement de l’usage arabe chrétien (voir J. Horovitz, Koranische Untersuchungen, Berlin 1926, 151-2; A. Jeffery, Foreign vocabulary of the Quran, Baroda 1938, 290-91); les exégètes musulmans font souvent remonter le nom à une racine dont le sens est «stimuler» ou «donner vie», allusion à la stérilité de la mère de Jean et à l’absence de foi de son peuple. Dans Ḳurʾān, III, 39, il est dit de Jean qu’il est noble, chaste et qu’il est un prophète qui sera le «témoin de la véracité du verbe de Dieu», c’est-à-dire Jésus. VI, 85 parle de Jean à côté de Zacharie, de…

Nāfiʿ b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(216 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
b. Abī Nuʿaym al-Layt̲h̲ī, l’un des sept «lecteurs» canoniques du Ḳurʾān, né à Médine, mort dans sa ville natale en 169/785 (d’autres dates allant de 150/767 à 170/786 sont mentionnées dans les biographies). Il …

Tafsīr

(5,365 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.), pl. tafāsīr «interprétation» (procédé et genre littéraire), généralement, mais pas toujours, du Ḳurʾān. Le mot, employé pour désigner des commentaires d’œuvres scientifiques et philosophiques grecques, est équivalent à s̲h̲arḥ [ q.v.]; le terme s’applique, par exemple, aux commentaires en grec et en arabe des ouvrages d’Aristote. Des Juifs et des Chrétiens, écrivant en arabe, utilisent aussi le mot à propos de traductions et de commentaires de la Bible, comme le montrent certains des ouvrages de Saadia Gaon. Cependant, …

S̲h̲amwīl

(365 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(également As̲h̲amwīl, As̲h̲mawīl, S̲h̲amʿūn, Samʿūn), le Samuel de la Bible (I Sam. I-XXVIII), dont il est peut-être question dans Ḳurʾān, II, 246-7, en relation avec la désignation de Saül [voir Ṭālūt] comme roi d’Israël (certains exégètes y voient pourtant une référence à Josué [Yūs̲h̲aʿ], le «prophète après Moϊse»). La forme du nom S̲h̲amwīl est plus proche de l’hébreu S̲h̲ʿmuʾel que S̲h̲amʿūn; S̲h̲amʿūn peut être le résultat d’une confusion entre les noms de Siméon (hébr. S̲h̲imʿon; voir Gen. XXIX, 33, etc.) et de Samue…

al-Zarkas̲h̲ī

(889 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Badr al-dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Bahādur (ou Muḥammad b. Bahādur b. ʿAbd Allāh, selon certains), auteur prolifique qui vécut dans le Caire mamlūk à une époque d’intense activité intellectuelle.…

Sabt

(681 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.), le sabbat, et de là ( yawm al-)sabt, le samedi (techniquement, du vendredi soir au samedi soir). Le mot tend aussi à signifier «une semaine», du sabt au sabt, ainsi que plus généralement une longue période de temps. Il a eu vocation à désigner le jour qui suit le yawm al-d̲j̲umʿa [voir Ḏj̲umʿa] dès les premiers temps de l’Islam au plus tard [voir Zamān]. Evidemment apparenté au mot araméen s̲h̲abb e , et en fin de compte à l’hébreu s̲h̲abbāt, le terme a pris son accep…

Sad̲j̲da

(950 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.), «inclination», nom de deux sūras ¶ du Ḳurʾān: XXXII, appelée aussi tanzīl al-sad̲j̲da, et XLI, plus couramment appelée fussilat ou ḳāʾ-mīm); le mot figure aussi dans l’expression technique sad̲j̲dat (ou sid̲j̲dat, ou le nom d’action sud̲j̲ūd) al-tilāwa, désignant les 14 passages Ḳurʾāniques (d’autres traditions évoquent 16, 15, 11, 10 ou 4 passages) qui imposent une inclination rituelle à la fin de leur récitation. Ces passages sont habituellement indiqués en marge du texte ḳurʾānique par le mot al-sad̲j̲da. Cette pratique est généralement considérée comme wād̲j̲ib, «obli…

Sidrat al-Muntahā

(416 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.), «le lotus de la limite» décrit dans Ḳurʾān, LIII, 14: «Certes, [Muḥammad] a vu [Ḏj̲ibrīl] une autre fois [que dans LIII, 12] près du lotus de la limite, près duquel est le jardin du refuge... Certes, il a vu l’un des signes les plus grands de son Seigneur». L’exégèse complète de ce passage existe dans un important récit du ḥadīt̲h̲ (repris par exemple dans al-Buk̲h̲ārī, K. manāḳib al-Anṣār et K. baaʾ al-k̲h̲alḳ, et dans Muslim, K. al-īmān; voir aussi al-Ṭabarī, I, 1158-9) qui parle longuement du miʿrād̲j̲ [ q.v.]. Lorsque Muḥammad, accompagné de Ḏj̲ibrīl, eut rencontré Ibrāhīm…

Wars̲h̲

(283 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Saʿīd b. Abd Allāh al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī al-Miṣrī al-Ḳayrawānī, transmetteur de la lecture du Ḳurʾān de Nāfiʿ al-Layt̲h̲ī ¶ [ q.v.]. Il naquit en Égypte en 110/728 et y mourut en 197/812. D’origine copte, Wars̲h̲ fut un étudiant de Nāfiʿ et c’est de ce professeur qu’il aurait reçu son laḳab soit à cause de son teint très pâle ( wars̲h̲, mets préparé avec du lait), soit pour une certaine ressemblance avec un oiseau appelé waras̲h̲ān. Wars̲h̲ enseigna sa transmission du Ḳurʾān à un certain nombre d’étudiants égyptiens; par eux, son enseignement se diffusa, notammen…

Sāra

(597 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, épouse du patriarche biblique Abraham [voir Ibrāhīm]. Elle n’apparaît dans le Ḳurʾān qu’à la faveur de l’exposé des raisons d’être du nom d’isaac (hébreu yiṣḥaḳ «il rit») en référence à Gen. XVII, 15-22, XVIII, 11-15 et XXI, 5-7; ainsi, dans Ḳurʾān, XI, 71-3 et LI, 29-30, Sarah rit face aux messagers qui lui apprennent qu’elle portera un fils malgré son âge (et celui d’Abraham), mais elle n’est pas nommée, et est simplement qualifiée d’ imraʾatuhu «sa femme ( = celle d’Abraham)». Le fait que Sarah ait ri (et donc douté de Dieu), a attiré l’attention des exégètes musu…

Mud̲j̲āhid b. Ḏj̲abr al-Makkī

(439 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, Abū l-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, tābiʿī

al-T̲h̲aʿlabī

(306 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm Abū Isḥāḳ al-Nīsābūrī, exégète du Ḳurʾān et collecteur d’histoires, m. pendant le mois de muḥarram 427/novembre 1035. De nos jours, al-T̲h̲aʿlabī est célèbre pour deux œuvres. Son volumineux tafsīr, al-Kas̲h̲f wa l-bayān ʿan tafsīr al-Ḳurʾān, demeure non-publié si ce n’est l’introduction bibliographique (éd. I. Goldfeld, Quranic commentary in the Eastern Islamic tradition of the first four centuries of the hijra: an annotated edition of the preface to al-Thaʿlabī’s "Kitāb al-kashf wa ’l-bayān ʿan Tafsīr al-Qurʾān", Acre 1984). Dans le passé, o…

Ṣāliḥ

(863 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, prophète qui, selon le Ḳurʾān fut envoyé au peuple arabe de T̲h̲amūd [ q.v.]. Il est mentionné neuf fois par son nom dans le Ḳurʾān et les versions les plus complètes de l’histoire sont rapportées dans Ḳurʾān VII, 73-9, XI, 61-8, XXVI, 141-59, et XXVII, 45-53; dix-neuf références additionnelles sur T̲h̲amūd, incluant des passages plus approfondis en LIV, 23-32 et XCI, 11-5, fournissent des récits parallèles et des détails spécifiques sans mentionner le nom de Ṣāliḥ. L’histoire de Ṣāliḥ suit le modèle ḳurʾānique classique de la délégation, de la mission, du rejet et de la punition (voir Ḳur…

Salsabīl

(437 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.), nom d’une fontaine du paradis. Elle n’apparaît qu’une fois dans le Ḳurʾān, LXXVI, 18: les justes qui seront au paradis dans l’autre monde «recevront une coupe d’une boisson où aura été mêlé du gingembre (

al-Ṣāffāt

(351 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.), titre de la sūra XXXVII du Ḳurʾān: le mot est employé trois fois dans le texte, y compris dans XXXVII, 1. Dans ce dernier cas, il est généralement interprété dans le tafsīr primitif comme «[les anges] alignés en rangs» (et traduit par «Celles qui sont en rang» [R. Blachère], «Those who range themselves in ranks» [A. Yusuf Ali], et «Die in Reih und Glied stehen» [R. Paret]). Ce sens dérive du verbe ṣaffa, qui s’applique aux chameaux (ou aux unités militaires) rangés en ligne (p. ex. pour le sacrifice, comme dans Ḳurʾān, XXII, 36, qui emploie le pluriel ṣawāff). Le sens de la sèche expression sacramentelle wa-l-ṣāffā i ṣaff an dans Ḳurʾān XXXVII, 1, a été clarifié par association avec d’autres passages ḳurʾāniques. Le pluriel masculin du même mot, al-ṣāffūn, estemployé dans XXXVII, 165 pour désigner des êtres qui «proclament la gloire de Dieu», ce qui est réputé êtr…

al-Sid̲j̲istānī

(317 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, ʿAbd Allāh b. Sulaymān b. al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲, Abū Bakr Ibn Abi Dāwūd, l’un des premiers traditionnistes musulmans, né en 230/844 dans le Sid̲j̲istān et mort en 316/929 à Bag̲h̲dād. Il est l’auteur du Kitāb al-Maṣāḥif ouvrage sur les lectures non canoniques du Ḳurʾān [voir Ḳirāʾa], organisé sous forme de «codex» et apparemment le seul ouvrage de ce style encore existant. Connu pour avoir mémorisé les ḥadīt̲h̲s il écrivit principalement des ouvrages sur des thèmes ḳur’āniques comprenant un ouvrage de tafsīr et un ouvrage de nask̲h̲, (peut-être utilisé comme source par Ibn al-Ḏj̲awz…

S̲h̲amsūn

(369 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, le Samson biblique de Juges XII-XVI (XIIe siècle avant J.-C. selon la chronologie biblique), absent du Ḳurʾān. Al-Ṭabarī, I, 793-5 le situe historiquement dans l’ère chrétienne, juste avant saint Georges (Ḏj̲urd̲j̲īs); al-T̲h̲aʿlabī,

Taṣliya

(600 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.), invocation de la bénédiction de Dieu sur le Prophète Muḥammad. Le mot a beaucoup d’applications, mais il se réfère généralement à la partie du tas̲h̲ahhud [ q.v.] dans le rituel de la salāt [ q.v.], après la tahiyya («salutation») et la s̲h̲ahāda [ q.v.], dans laquelle le fidèle récite la salāt ʿalā l-nabī [ tasliya étant, peut-être, dérivé du sens de «accomplir la salāt»). On connaît une formulation caractéristique de la tasliya à savoir al-salawāt al-ibrāhīmiyya, voir art, Ṣalāt, section III, part. B. Une tasliya est aussi une partie de la réplique à l’ adhān [ q.v.], qu’on appelle …

S̲h̲uʿayb

(423 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, prophète cité dans le Ḳurʾān. Sur la base de XI, 19, il est admis qu’il venait après Hūd, Ṣāliḥ et Lūṭ (Loth) [ q.vv]. Selon XXVI, 176-91, S̲h̲uʿayb fut envoyé aux «Gens du Hallier», aṣḥāb al-ayka, groupe mentionné dans le Ḳurʾān, XV, 78, XXXVIII, 13 et L, 14. Par ailleurs, S̲h̲uʿayb est réputé avoir été envoyé à Madyan dans VII, 85, XI, 84, 94-5 et XXIX, 36. Cette situation est également évoquée dans IX, 70, XX, 40, XXII, 44 et XXVIII, 22-3. Sur l’identité historique et géographique de ces peuples et de ces lieux, voir Madyan S̲h̲uʿayb. Par suite de la mention de Madyan dans le contexte …

Ubayy b. Kaʿb

(252 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.

S̲h̲aʿyā

(328 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(ou As̲h̲aʿyāʾ), Isaϊe, fils d’Amos, prophète envoyé à Israël, qui n’est pas mentionné sous son nom dans le Ḳurʾān (encore que le tafsīr le cite en relation avec Ḳurʾān, XVII, 4), mais bien connu dans la littérature des ḳiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, notamment pour avoir prévu la venue de Jésus [voir …

al-ṢIddīḳ

(535 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.), nom donné au premier calife Abū Bakr et qui signifie «l’éminemment véridique» et «celui qui renforce la vérité». La tradition lexicographique considère la forme du mot comme un adjectif intensif (W. Wright, Grammar, I, 137-8) indiquant les extrêmes de la vérité, ṣidḳ [ q.v.]. ¶ Le mot apparait six fois dans le …

Yāfit̲h̲

(426 words)

Author(s): Heller, B. | Rippin, A.
, the Japheth of the Bible. He is not mentioned by name in the Ḳurʾān (although he is alluded to in VII, 64, X, 73, XI, 40, XXIII, 27 and XXVI, 119), but the exegetes are familiar with all the sons of Noah [see nūḥ ]: Ḥām, Sām [ q.vv.] and Yāfit̲h̲ (the pronunciation Yāfit is mentioned as possible in al-Ṭabarī, i, 222). The Biblical story (Gen. ix. 20-7) of Ḥām’s sin and punishment and the blessing given to Sām and Yāfit̲h̲ is known in Muslim legend, but it is silent about Noah’s planting the vine and becoming intoxicated. Al-Kisāʾī totally tr…

Zakariyyāʾ

(558 words)

Author(s): Heller, B. | Rippin, A.
, also Zakariyyā, the father of John the Baptist, reckoned in the Ḳurʾān (VI, 85) along with John, Jesus, and Elias as among the righteous. The name most likely entered Arabic via its Syriac rendering. The Ḳurʾān gives the substance of Luke i. 5-25, as follows: Zakariyyāʾ guards the Virgin Mary [see maryam , at Vol. VI, 630] in the niche ( miḥrāb ) and always finds fresh fruits there. He prays to God; angels announce to him that a son will be born to him, Yaḥyā, a name not previously given to anyone, a pious man, a prophet, Jacob’s hei…

al-Sāmirī

(718 words)

Author(s): Heller, B. | Rippin, A.
"the Samaritan", is the name in Ḳurʾān, XX, 85, 87 and 95 of the man who tempted the Israelites to the sin of the Golden Calf. The sin itself is mentioned twice in the Ḳurʾān. In the first narrative, VII, 148-57, the story is told of the sin of Israel and Aaron as in Exodus, xxxii, but with the elaboration that the calf cast out of metal was "lowing" ( khuwār ). The second version, XX, 83-98, presents al-Sāmirī as the tempter of Israel in the same situation. At al-Sāmirī’s bidding, the Israelites cast their ornaments into the fire and he made …

S̲h̲ayṭān

(3,072 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Rippin, A.
(a.), evil spirit, demon, devil. 1. In pre-Islamic Arabia. According to the lexicographers, s̲h̲ayṭān is derived from the verb s̲h̲aṭana “to detain somebody in order to divert him from his intention and his destination”, s̲h̲aṭan being “a cord” and s̲h̲āṭin “an evil man”. The verbs s̲h̲ayṭana and tas̲h̲ayṭana signify “to behave like the shayṭan ”. The s̲h̲ayṭān is an evil, rebellious spirit, inhabiting Hell-Fire; he cannot be seen, but he is imagined as a being of great ugliness (al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, Ḥayawān , vi, 213). Proverbs underline his wickedness, his c…

Muḳātil b. Sulaymān

(679 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M. | Rippin, A.
b. Bas̲h̲īr al-Azdī al-K̲h̲urāsānī al-Balk̲h̲ī , Abu ’l-Ḥasan, traditionist and commentator on the Ḳurʾān, was born in Balk̲h̲ and lived in Marw, Bag̲h̲dād and Baṣra, where he died in 150/767 at an old age according to some biographers. He is also said to have taught in Mecca, Damascus and Beirut. Muḳātil’s prestige as a traditionist is not very great; he is reproached with not being accurate with the isnād . His exegesis enjoys even less confidence. The biographers vie with one another in telling stories which illustrate his mendacity and p…

al-Sāmirī

(687 words)

Author(s): Heller, B. | Rippin, A.
, «le Samaritain», est dans ḳurʿān, XX, 85, 87 et 95 le nom de l’homme qui entraîna les Israélites au péché du Veau d’Or. Ce péché lui-même est mentionné deux fois dans le ḳurʿān. Dans le premier récit, VII, 148-57, l’histoire du péché d’Israël est racontée comme dans Exode, XXXII, avec ce trait supplémentaire que le veau de métal «mugissait» ( k̲h̲uwār). La seconde version, XX, 83-98, présente al-Sāmirī comme le tentateur d’Israël dans la même situation. A l’instigation d’al-Sāmirī, les Israélites jettent leurs ornements au feu pour en faire ce veau mugi…
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