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Adam and Eve

(3,578 words)

Author(s): Schöck, Cornelia
Adam is the first human being (bashar) and the father of humankind in the Pentateuch and the Qurʾān. “Adam” (Ādam) as an individual person occurs eighteen times in the Qurʾān. In addition, the phrase “the sons of Adam” (banū Ādam) in the sense of “humankind” is attested seven times. The qurʾānic commentators derive the name “Ādam” from adīm al-arḍ (ʿAbd al-Razzāq, Tafsīr, i, 43; ii, 20; Ibn Saʿd, Ṭabaqāt, i, 26; Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, i, 214-5) or from adamat al-arḍ (Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, i, 208), because he was created from “the surface of the earth.” The name of Adam's wife Eve, in the Islamic traditio…

Belief and unbelief in classical Sunnī theology

(5,840 words)

Author(s): Schöck, Cornelia
Belief and unbelief are signified by the Arabic verbal nouns īmān and kufr, respectively. The question “what is ‘belief’?” (mā l-īmān) has been answered in Muslim theology through two different linguistic approaches. One focuses on the relation of name (ism) to sense and explains the intension of “belief” as a technical term of religion (dīn). The other focuses on the relation of name to reference and interprets “belief” as a general expression that represents the extensional class of actions of obedience (ṭāʿa) and submission (islām) to God. 1. Systematical origin of the issue Tenets o…
Date: 2020-02-11


(4,742 words)

Author(s): Schöck, Cornelia
The most prominent pre-Islamic prophet in the Qurʾān and in extra-qurʾānic Islamic tradition (see prophets and prophethood ). Moses' name (Mūsā) is attested 136 times in the Qurʾān, in passages of varying length and narrative complexity. The qurʾānic narratives dealing with Moses and the allusions to him far exceed those relating to other figures of the Islamic history of salvation (q.v.), including Abraham (q.v.). The references to Moses are spread throughout the Qurʾān, with mentions already in the Meccan sūra…


(3,786 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Leeb, Rudolf | Jacobs, Martin | Dan, Joseph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Bible – II. Christianity – III. Judaism – IV. Islam I. Bible 1. Old Testament From the biblical perspective, David, whose name means “darling, beloved,” is the embodiment of the ideal ruler. He governed in the early 10th century bce, allegedly for 40 years, of which seven and a half were in Hebron, the rest in Jerusalem (2 Sam 5:4f.). Although he is the king of whom the Bible has most to tell (Kingship in Israel), he remains a …


(5,988 words)

Author(s): Woschitz, Karl M. | Görg, Manfred | Wischmeyer, Oda | Sparn, Walter | Lohberg, Gabriele | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament– IV. Church History – V. Philosophy of Religion – VI. Dogmatics – VII. Art History – VIII. Practical Theology – IX. Judaism – X. Islam I. Religious Studies Religious conceptions include numinous intermediary beings of the most varied types and origins that mediate between the divine sphere and humanity and also serve higher powers. These are sometimes …