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Chief Rabbi

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Hakham Bashi (Chief Rabbi) Norman A. Stillman

Wine

(14 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Food and Drink - Wine and Alcoholic Beverages Norman A. Stillman

Reinette l’Oranaise

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Daoud, Reinette Sultana Norman A. Stillman

Ratti-Menton, Benoît Ulysse-Laurent-François, Count de

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Damascus Affair (1840) Norman A. Stillman

Hayatizâde Mustafa Efendi

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Abravanel, Moses ben Raphael Norman A. Stillman

Onomastics

(18 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Names and Naming Practices - Kurdistan Names and Naming Practices - Yemen Norman A. Stillman

Heqdesh (Qodesh, Waqf, Ḥabs)

(990 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Charity and social welfare have since ancient times been an integral part of the Jewish communal ethos. Already in biblical times, funds and property could be consecrated to the needs of the Temple (Bet ha-Miqdash) in Jerusalem (e.g., see II Kings 12:5–17; Mishna Temura 7:2, Sheqalim 4:7). The term for dedicated property was heqdesh (consecrat…

North Africa

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Maghreb Norman A. Stillman

Turin

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Italy Norman A. Stillman

Nāʾib

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Nagid Norman A. Stillman

Rio di Janeiro

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Brazil Norman A. Stillman

Anqāwa (Al-Naqawa), Ephraim

(493 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Ephraim ben Israel Anqāwa (fl. late 14th to early 15th century), known to his devotees simply as Rab (Heb. master), was a Sephardi rabbinical scholar, philosopher, and physician who became a leading saint in the Maghrebi Jewish pantheon of holy men (Heb. ṣaddiqim). His tomb in Tlemcen became an important site of pilgrimage (Ar. ziyāra). Ephraim was born in Toledo, where his family ha…

Identité et Dialogue

(14 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Azoulay, André; Assaraf, Robert; Berdugo, Serge Norman A. Stillman

Cizye (Poll Tax)

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Taxation Norman A. Stillman

Izhakova, Barno

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Music Norman A. Stillman

Aben Danan

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ibn Danan Norman A. Stillman

Salom

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Shalom Norman A. Stillman

Ghardaia

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Mzab Norman A. Stillman Bibliography 750

Sanua, James

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ṣanūʿ (Sanua), Yaʿqūb (James) Norman A. Stillman

Anqāwa (Al-Naqawa), Raphael

(429 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Raphael ben Mordechai Anqāwa (Raphaël Encaoua and also Ankaoua in the usual French transcription) was a leading Moroccan halakhic authority. The scion of a distinguished Sephardi rabbinical family, he was born in Salé in 1848. He was a pupil of Issachar Assaraf, the chief rabbi of Salé, whose daughter he married. At the relatively young age of thirty-two, he was appointed dayyan in Salé. His reputation for judicial acumen spread his name throughout Morocco. In 1910, he published his collection of responsa Qarne Reʾem (The Horns of the Buffalo) in Jerusalem, which enhanced his …

Ladino

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Judeo-Spanish Literature Norman A. Stillman

Arabia

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see ; Aden; Bahrain (Bahrayn); Hadramawt;Hijaz; Yemen Norman A. Stillman

Haketia

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Judeo-Spanish - Haketia Norman A. Stillman

Wargla

(461 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Wargla (Warglān; Fr. Ouargla) is an oasis town in the Algerian Sahara located 659 kilometers (410 miles) southeast of Algiers. It was once an important way-station on the caravan route to Timbuktu and West Africa. Nothing is known about the town before the Islamic period. The Muslims of medieval Wargla were adherents of the Kharijite Ibāḍī sect, which was generally tolerant of Jews. The Jewish community in Wargla during the Middle Ages was apparently a Karaite center and is noted as such by Abraham ibn Ezraand Abraham Ibn Da’ud. In his commentary on Exodus 12:11, Ibn Ezra ment…

Geniza

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Cairo Geniza Norman A. Stillman

Mangūbī, Shabbetay Elijah

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Karaism Norman A. Stillman

Barqa

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Benghazi Norman A. Stillman

Duwayk, Jacob Saul

(16 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Duwayk (Dweck, Dwek, Duek, Douek, Doweck, Dowek) Family Norman A. Stillman

Ghriba Synagogues

(550 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Ghrība (Coll. Ar. wondrous, unique) is the name given to seven supposedly ancient synagogues in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria which are considered to be holy places and have become pilgrimage sites. The most famous of the Ghrība synagogues is the one in the village of Dighet near Hara Seghira on the island of Jerba. The others are located in Yefren and Mʿanin (actually between Mʿanin and al-Qsir) in the Jebel Nafusa region of Libya, in Le Kef in southern Tunisia and Ariana on the northeastern coast, and in Bône (Būna) and Biskra in Algeria. Many of the Ghrība shrines are in places that …

Bône (Būna)

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Annaba (Bône) Norman A. Stillman

Lyon

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see France Norman A. Stillman

Ibn Farhād, Bābāī

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bābāī ben Farhād Norman A. Stillman

Women

(23 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bar Mitzvah and Bat Mitzvah; Clothing, Jewelry and Make-up; Education; Life Cycle Practices; Marriage; Prostitution; Polygyny; Veiling Norman A. Stillman

Academic Study of Islamicate Jewry

(12,763 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Prior to the second half of the twentieth century, much of the research devoted to the Jews of the Islamic world followed in the paths established by the Wissenschaft des Judentums scholars of the nineteenth century and dealt with the history, literature, and thought of the medieval period. Judeo-Arabic civilization was one of the major foci of Wissenschaft scholarship, as too were aspects of Hispanic Jewish history and culture—but only for the classical Islamic Middle Ages (ca. 850–1250) in the…
Date: 2014-09-03

Tiferet Yisrael School (Ar. al-Madrasa al-Waṭaniyya al-Isrā'īliyya)

(384 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
The Tiferet Yisrael (Glory of Israel) School in Beirut, known in Arabic as al-Madrasa al-Waṭaniyya al-Isrā'īliyya (The Jewish National School), was established by Ḥakham Zakī Cohen and his son Salīm in 1874. It was one of the first and more successful indigenous attempts to create a modern Jewish religious school in the Arab world. Due to financial difficulties, the school closed after one year, but it reopened as a boarding school in 1878 and attracted students from Damascus, Aleppo, Jaffa, and even as far away as Istanbul and Izmir. By 18…

Isaac Ben Na'im

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben Nāʾīm Family Norman A. Stillman

Mustaʿrab

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Toshavim Norman A. Stillman

Ioannina

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Yanina (Yanya, Ioannina) Norman A. Stillman

Qajar Dynasty

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Iran/Persia Norman A. Stillman

Tamnougalt

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Dra’a Norman A. Stillman

Francos

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Italian Jews (Benei Roma); Leghorn (Livorno) Norman A. Stillman

HaLevi

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see also Levi Norman A. Stillman

Paris

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see France Norman A. Stillman

Hilperine, Wolf

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Em ha-Banim Norman A. Stillman

Amram ben Diwan

(457 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Amram ben Diwan is one of the best-known saints (Heb. ṣaddiqim) in the pantheon of Moroccan Jewish holy men. According to tradition, he was a rabbinical emissary (Heb. shadar or meshullaḥ) from Hebron, who arrived in Morocco with his son, Ḥayyim, sometime in the eighteenth century and took up residence in Fez. When Ḥayyim fell gravely ill, Rabbi Amram prayed, offering his life for that of his son, who miraculously recovered. Shortly thereafter, while on a visit to Ouezzane to collect funds for the religious institutions in Hebron, he fell ill and died and was buried in the nearby cemetery of As…

Midelt

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains (Morocco) Norman A. Stillman

Kasba Tadla

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains Norman A. Stillman

Romanelli, Samuel

(588 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Samuel Romanelli was born in Mantua on September 19, 1757. Little is known about his youth, but clearly he had a superb Jewish and secular education in the Italian Jewish tradition. An accomplished linguist, he was fluent in ten languages.  He was a poet, playwright, and translator of European lit…
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