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Jewish Wars

(920 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
Term for a series of violent conflicts between Jews and non-Jews in the eastern Mediterranean between the 2nd cent. BC and the 2nd cent. AD, beginning with the Maccabean revolt against the  Seleucids ( Maccabees;  Judas [1] Maccabaeus). In the narrower sense, the three major Jewish revolts against Roman rule in the 1st and 2nd cents. AD. [German version] I. The ‘Jewish War’ The best-known - thanks to the completely preserved works of the Jewish historian and contemporary  Iosephus [4] Flavius - conflict (AD 66-70) began in the spring/summer of 66 as a p…


(201 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
[German version] (δωρεά, dōreá; ‘gift, present’). As a technical term the word has so far been attested only from Ptolemaic Egypt ( Ptolemies), though the underlying practice of giving away land is known from all Hellenistic monarchies ( Hellenistic politics). In Egypt the dōreaí are well documented as an independent category of land holding. The institution can be traced to both Oriental and Macedonian roots. It concerns the transference of land holding and/or any income derived from it by the kings to individuals among their follower…


(372 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
[German version] (Μακκαβαῖοι; Makkabaîoi). Jewish priestly family from Modeïn north-west of Jerusalem (named after its historically most important representative Judas [1] Maccabaeus); also called Hasmonaeans. From 167 BC onwards the M. led the Jewish uprising against the religious persecution of Antiochus [6] IV and his Hellenizing Jewish party liners (so-called Maccabean Revolt). After the recapture of Jerusalem and the rededication of the Temple (III.) for the traditional Jewish cult in 165 BC, …


(377 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pompeius (Κάναθα; Kánatha). City in the South Syrian region of Ḥaurān (today's Qanawā), c. 90 km south-southeast of Damascus, on the western edge of the Ḥaurān mountains themselves (Ǧabal Durūz). Located on the slope above the important ancient road Damascus-Bostra; possibly already mentioned in the OT (Num. 32,42; 1 Chr. 2,23). In the mid 1st cent. BC, C. was the first city in Ḥaurān to be established as a Greek polis by the Romans Pompeius or Gabi…


(356 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
[German version] Christian creed in Greek; at the Council of Calchedon in AD 451 recited for the first time in its entirety together with the Nicaenum and attributed to the Council of Constantinople in 381. The Nicaeno-Constantinopolitanum (NC) contains the most important formulas of the Nicaenum, e.g. the homooúsios (ὁμοούσιος), but not the condemnations (anathemata). It is about a quarter longer than the Nicaenum; especially the section on the Holy Spirit has been much expanded: with Father and Son the Spirit is part of the union of rule, w…


(117 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
[German version] (λαοί/ laoí: plural word for Greek laós ‘folk’, approximate meaning ‘people’). In the Hellenistic monarchies (cf. Hellenistic states), especially in documentary sources (i.e. inscriptions, papyri), term for the indigenous subjects, in particular the rural population under the direct control of the royal administration. In the royal lands in the narrower sense, these were also called laoi basilikoí (‘the king's people’). The term does not refer to any specific social or legally defined class but comprises, from the point of view of the …


(322 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Pompeius | Theater (Κάναθα). Stadt in der südsyr. Landschaft Ḥaurān (jetzt Qanawāt), ca. 90 km südsüdöstl. von Damaskos, am Westrand des eigentlichen Ḥaurāngebirges (Ǧabal Durūz). Hanglage oberhalb der wichtigen ant. Straße Damaskos-Bostra. Möglicherweise bereits im AT erwähnt (Nm 32,42; 1 Chr 2,23). Um die Mitte des 1. Jh.v.Chr. von den Römern Pompeius bzw. Gabinius (erstmals?) als erster Ort im Ḥaurān als griech. Polis konstituiert, zeitwe…


(5,313 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
I. History [German version] A. Term Hellenization is understood here to be a complex acculturation phenomenon composed of different processes operating on several levels. In addition to the area of language and literature, Greek ideas and forms of expression were also adopted in architecture, fine arts, as well as in religion and cult; non-Greek patterns of sociopolitical organization were also adapted to fit the Greek model (polis state, forms of organizations and associations,  gymnasium). All of th…


(4,745 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
I. Geschichte [English version] A. Begriff Unter H. wird im folgenden ein komplexes Akkulturationsphänomen verstanden, das sich aus verschiedenen, auf mehreren Ebenen ablaufenden Prozessen zusammensetzte. Neben dem sprachlich-lit. Bereich wurden auch in Architektur, bildender Kunst sowie in Religion und Kult griech. Vorstellungen und Ausdrucksformen rezipiert; es wurden auch nichtgriech. Muster soziopolit. Organisation in solche griech. Prägung umgeformt (Polisstaat, Formen des Vereinswesens, Gymnasio…


(116 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Brother of Gorgus (Μιννίων/ Minníōn). M. of Iasus [5], brother of Gorgus, whom he supported in his efforts. He was honoured with him in Iasus and on Samos (see Gorgus). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [German version] [2] Follower of Antiochus [5] III, c. 200 BC Close follower of Antiochus [5] III, for whom he led a deputation commissioned to conduct negotiations with the Romans in 193 BC; in the king's subsequent war with Rome he was one of the Seleucid commanders in the battle of Magnesia in 190 BC (Magnesia [3]; Liv. 35,15,7-16,6; 37,41,1). Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) Bibliogra…


(559 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
(Ἀντιοχίς; Antiochís). [German version] [1] Tenth Attic phyle Tenth Attic phyle following the reform of the phyles by  Cleisthenes (IG II2 1700 ff.); its eponymous hero was  Antiochus, a son of Heracles. In the 4th cent. BC, A. encompassed one asty deme, six mesogeia demes, and also six paralia ones; with 28 bouleutai, they were stronger represented than either of the other two trittyes. In 308/7 BC, three demes changed over into the Macedonian phyles of Antigonis or Demetrias ( Atene,  Colonae,  Thorae), but returned to A. after the abolishment…


(465 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
(Κύρρος; Kýrrhos). [German version] [1] Macedonian city Macedonian city near the modern Aravissos between Pella and Edessa, existed already in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 2,100,1); was to be the site of one of the gigantic temples supposedly planned by Alexander the Great (Diod. Sic. 18,4,5); half-finished partial structures in an ancient quarry near C. could be connected with this intended construction project [1]. An unpublished inscription (cf. [2]) attests to a municipal authority concerned with the bu…


(393 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
(Κύρρος). [English version] [1] Stadt in Makedonien Maked. Stadt beim h. Aravissos zw. Pella und Edessa, existierte schon im 5. Jh.v.Chr. (Thuk. 2,100,1); sollte Bauplatz eines der von Alexander d.Gr. angeblich geplanten Riesentempel werden (Diod. 18,4,5); halbfertige Bauteile in einem ant. Steinbruch bei K. könnten mit diesem Bauvorhaben zusammenhängen [1]. Eine unveröffentlichte Inschr. (vgl. [2]) belegt eine polit. Gemeinde, die sich um Straßen- und sonstige Baumaßnahmen kümmerte. Unter den maked. P…


(1,011 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Belke, Klaus (Vienna) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Λαοδίκεια; Laodíkeia). [German version] [1] Port-town in north-west Syria, modern Latakia This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Limes | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Λ. ἐπὶ τῇ θαλάσσῃ; L. epì têi thalássēi). Port in north-west Syria (now Latakia or al-Lāḏiqīya), not far from the Bronze Age Ugarit (Ra's Šamra). Founded by Seleucus I around 300 BC together with its sister towns of Antioch, Apamea and Seleucea (the so-called North Syrian Tetrapolis) and equipped with an…


(879 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Belke, Klaus (Wien) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Λαοδίκεια). [English version] [1] Hafenstadt in NW-Syrien, h. Latakia Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Bildung | Coloniae | Handel | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Limes | Pompeius | Syrien | Theater | Straßen (Λ. ἐπὶ τῇ θαλάσσῃ). Hafenstadt im nordwestl. Syrien (jetzt Latakia bzw. al-Lāḏiqīya), Lage unweit des brz. Ugarit (Ras Šamra). Um 300 v.Chr. zusammen mit den Schwesterstädten Antiocheia, Apameia und Seleukeia von Seleukos I. gegründet (sog. nordsyr. “Tetrapolis”) und mit einem Kunsthafen ausgestattet. Die …


(4,438 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀντίοχος; Antíochos). [German version] [1] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3]. His indiscipline led to the Athenian defeat at Notion in 407 BC and the subsequent removal of Alcibiades as strategos (Hell. Oxy. 8 Chambers; Xen. Hell. 1,5,11 ff.; Diod. Sic. 13,71; Plut. Alcibiades 10; 35 f.; Lysander 5). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography W. M. Ellis, Alcibiades, 1989, 31, 91-93. [German version] [2] I. Soter King of the Seleucids, 281-261 BC Called Soter (‘Saviour’) for his victory over the Galatians -- perhaps the …


(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…


(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …