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Ḳara Arslān

(877 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
ibn dāʾūd with the laḳab fak̲h̲r al-dīn, third Amīr of the line of the Ortoḳids [q. v.] of Ḥiṣn Kaifā and great-grandson of the founder of this dynasty. Statements differ regarding the year in which he succeeded his father Dāʾūd b. Suḳmān. According to Abū ’l-Farad̲j̲ Barhebraeus ( Chronicon, ed. Bedjan, Paris 1890, p. 305), Dāʾūd died in the Greek year 1455 (1143—44). The Arabic sources do not give the year; in any case Stanley Lane-Poole, who bases his view that Dāʾūd did not die till about 543 (1148) on a mistaken interpretation of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr ( Kāmil, xi. 73) ( Coins of the Urtuḳí Turkománs

Üsküdār

(699 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the oldest and largest quarter of the Turkish Constantinople on the Asiatic side of the Bosporus, lying at the foot of the hill of Bulg̲h̲urlu, where the Asiatic coast advances farthest to the west, opposite the Tower of Leander (Ḳi̊z Ḳulesi). In ancient times the small town of Chrysopolis (already mentioned in Xenophon’s Anabasis, book vi., ch. vi. 38) existed on this site; it was then a suburb of the still older colony of Chalcedon (now Ḳāḍī Kiöy). Towards the end of the Byzantine Empire the name Scutari had come into use (cf. Phrantzes, ed. Bonn 1838, p. 111; ὅπου τὰ…

ʿOt̲h̲mān III

(291 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, twenty-fifth sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire and son of Muṣṭafā II, succeeded his brother Maḥmūd I on Dec. 14, 1754. He was born on Jan. 2, 1699 ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, i. 56) and had therefore reached an advanced age when he was called to the throne. No events of political importance took place in his reign. The period of peace which had begun with the peace of Belgrade in 1739 continued; at home only a series of seditious outbreaks in the frontier provinces indicated the weakness of the Empire. In the absence of any outst…

Tewfīḳ Pas̲h̲a

(896 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Ḵh̲edive of Egypt (1879—1892), was born on December 15, 1852 as the eldest son of the Ḵh̲edive Ismāʿīl Pas̲h̲a. He was educated in Egypt and began his political career at the age of 19 as president of the Council of State ( al-mad̲j̲lis al-k̲h̲uṣūṣī). On March 10, 1879, after Nubar Pas̲h̲a had resigned, he was appointed Prime Minister by his father. In his cabinet, as was the case in the former, an Englishman was Minister of Finance and a Frenchman Minister of Public Works. But already on April 9 of that year, Ismāʿīl, by a kind of “cou…

Murād V

(430 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Ottoman Sulṭān from May 31 till Sept. 7, 1876. He was born on Sept. 21, 1840 as son of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd and was deprived of all influence on public affairs during the reign of his elder brother ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, who had the plan of altering the succession in favour of his own descendants, so as to deprive Murād of his rights. Murād was called to the throne by the coup d’état of the recently established cabinet, of which Midḥat Pas̲h̲a [q. v.], Muḥammad Rus̲h̲dī and Ḥusain ʿAwnī were the le…

Was̲h̲mgīr b. Ziyār

(827 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Abū Ṭālib (and according to his coins Ẓahīr al-Dawla) or better Wus̲h̲mgīr, if the name means „catcher of quails” (cf. al-Masʿūdī, Murād̲j̲, ix. 30, note), second ruler of the Ziyārid dynasty, reigned 935—965. He only left his native land Ḏj̲īlān, after his brother Mardāwīd̲j̲ [q. v.] had come to power, and had lived until that time the primitive mountaineer life of his people (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, viii. 182). Under Mardāwīd̲j̲ he conquered Iṣfahān and drove from there ʿAlī b. Būye, who had taken that town when he was i…

Selīm III

(3,661 words)

Author(s): Krāmers, J. H.
, the twenty-eighth Sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, reigned from 1203 (1789) to 1222 (1807). He was born on Ḏj̲umādā I 26, 1175 (Dec. 24, 1761), a son of Sulṭān Muṣṭafā III and the Wālide Sulṭān Mihr-S̲h̲āh (d. 1805; see Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, i. 83) and succeeded on Rad̲j̲ab II, 1203 (Apr. 7, 1789), to his uncle ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd I [q. v.] who had died on that day. Selīm’s reign is characterised by disastrous wars against the European powers and revolts in the interior, showing the weakness of the Ottoman Empire, and at the same time by th…

Olčaitu K̲h̲udābanda

(703 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, eighth Īlk̲h̲ān of Persia, reigned from 1304 till 1317. He was, like his predecessor G̲h̲āzān, a son of Arg̲h̲ūn and a great-grandson of Hūlāgū. At his accession ¶ he was 24 years of age. In his youth he had been given the surname of Ḵh̲arbanda, for which different explanations are given (cf. the poem by Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn reproduced on p. 46 of E. G. Browne, A Literary History of Persia, iii. p. 46 sq. and Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, ii. 115), but E. Blochet, in his Introduction à l’histoire des Mongols (G. M. S., xii. 51), has explained the name as a Mongolian word, meaning “the third”. The Byzantin…

Maḥalla

(176 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Arabic word which, like maḥall from the same root, originally means a place where one makes a halt. Maḥalla thus came to have the special meaning of a quarter of a town, a meaning which has also passed into Turkish (e. g. the Yeñi Maḥalle quarter in Constantinople), into Persian and Hindūstānī (where the popular pronunciation is muḥalla); the term formerly applied to a quarter of a town used to be dār (as in old Bag̲h̲dād). The maḥalla’s are often under the administration of a special official called muk̲h̲tār. In Egypt the word maḥalla is frequently found as the first element in the…

Selīm I

(4,293 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, ninth sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, known in history as Yawuz Sulṭān Selīm, reigned 918—926(=1512—1520). He was one of the sons of Bāyazīd II, born in 872 (= 1467/68) or 875 (= 1470/71) ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, i. 38). Towards the end of his father’s reign, he was governor of the sand̲j̲aḳ of Trebizond. Although his brother Aḥmed, older than he but younger than prince Ḳorḳud, had been designated his successor by Bāyazīd, Selīm also cherished designs on the throne, knowing that he had the support of the greater part of the army.…

Tell al-ʿAmarna

(360 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, site on the right bank of the Nile, opposite the little town of Mallawī, in the province of Minya. The distance between the Nile and the mountains (here called Ḏj̲abal al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Saʿīd) is about 3 miles, while to the north and the south the mountains come close to the river, leaving an area of about 5 miles in length. One of the villages situated here is called al-Tell (or al-Till); Tell al-ʿAmarna seems to be a “European concoction” (Flinders Pétrie) and is properly Tell al-ʿAmārina, from …

ʿOt̲h̲mān I

(1,888 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, very often called ʿOt̲h̲mān G̲h̲āzī, founder of the dynasty of Ottoman sulṭāns and the first in the traditional series of the members of the dynasty. We are only imperfectly acquainted with the life and personality of this founder of a great empire but we may conclude from the fact that his name ¶ has remained attached to the dynasty of the ʿOt̲h̲mān Og̲h̲ullari̊ or Āl-i ʿOt̲h̲mān and is later found in the description of the empire and its inhabitants as ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ or ʿOt̲h̲mānī, that behind the name of ʿOt̲h̲mān there lies a powerful personal…

Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Alayi̊

(791 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(t.), the “ceremony of the sword” also called taḳlīd al-saif or taḳlīd-i s̲h̲ems̲h̲īr. It was the ceremony of investiture of the Ottoman Sulṭāns, which took the place of coronation. The ceremony generally took place shortly after the baiʿat, or homage to the new Sulṭān. The latter, leaving his palace went by barge with great pomp to the faubourg of Aiyūb. Here he disembarked and went to the türbe of Abū Aiyūb al-Anṣārī [q. v.], accompanied by the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām, the Ḳāḍī ʿAsker, the Grand Vizier, the Naḳīb al-As̲h̲rāf and a li…

Ṣārlīya

(539 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a sect in Northern Mesopotamia to the south of Moṣul. This sect is also a kind of tribe called Sarlīs and lives in six villages, four of which lie on the right bank and two on thé left of the Great Zāb, not far from its junction with the Tigris. The principal village, where the chief lives, is called Warsak, and lies on the right bank; the largest village on the left bank is Sefīye. The Sarīls, like the other sects found in Mesopotamia (Yazīdīs, S̲h̲abaks, Bād̲j̲ūrān), are very uncommunicative with regard to their belief and religious practices, so that the o…

Kūt al-ʿAmāra

(487 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a place in al-ʿIrāḳ, on the left bank of the Tigris, between Bag̲h̲dād and ʿAmāra, 100 miles S. E. of Bag̲h̲dād as the crow flies. Kūt is the Hindustānī word koṭ meaning “fortress” found in other place-names in al-ʿIrāḳ, like Kūt al-Muʿammir; Kūt al-ʿAmāra is often simply called Kūt. Kūt lies opposite the mouth of the S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Ḥaiy, also called al-G̲h̲arrāf, the old canal connecting the Tigris with the Euphrates, which has several junctions with the Euphrates, e. g. at Nāṣirīya and Sūḳ al-S̲h̲uyūk̲h̲. The plains to the no…

Takrīt

(1,050 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(popular pronunciation Tikrīt, cf. Yāḳūt), a town on the right bank of the Tigris to the north of Sāmarrā (according to Streck the distance is a day’s journey) and at the foot of the range of the Ḏj̲abal Ḥamrīn. Geographically this is the northern frontier district of the ʿIrāḳ. The land is still somewhat undulating; the old town was built on a group of hills, on one of which beside the river, stands the modern town. To the north is a sandstone cliff 200 feet above the level of the river, on which…

Ḳawāla

(526 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(also Cavalla), a seaport on the Aegean Sea, opposite the island of Thasos on the boundary between Macedonia and Thrace. In ancient times Neapolis lay here, the port of the town of Philippi, just as Ḳawāla is now the harbour for the district of Drama. The town is partly built on a promontory which is still surrounded by walls which date from the middle ages; there is a harbour on both sides. An aqueduct has also survived from the middle ages. Ḳawāla was captured by the Turks from the Byzantines…

Ochialy

(536 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Turkish corsair and admiral in the xvith century. He was born in a village of Calabria called Licastelli, about 1500, as, at the time of his death in 1587, he is said to have been over ninety years old. Ochialy is the name by which he is known in Italian sources of the time; the Turkish sources call him Ulud̲j̲ ʿAlī, which name probably was given to him in Northern Africa. It may be the Arabic plural ʿulūd̲j̲ (from ʿild̲j̲), denoting his foreign descent (Hammer, G.O. R.2, ii. 481,751 gives conflicting statements). After being a captured galley slave, he became a Muḥammadan and e…

al-Obolla

(666 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
was in the middle ages a large town in the canal region of the Tigris Delta, east of al-Baṣra. It was situated on the right bank of the Tigris and on the north side of the large canal called Nahr al-Obolla, which was the main waterway from al-Baṣra in a southeastern direction to the Tigris and further to ʿAbbādān and the sea. The length of this canal is generally given as four farsak̲h̲s or two barīds (al-Maḳdisī). Al-Obolla can be identified with ’Απολόγου ’Εμπόριον, mentioned in the Periplus Maris Erythraei (Geogr. Graeci Minores, i. 285) as lying near the coast. In a story told by al-Masʿūdī ( Mur…

Sīnūb

(1,647 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town and seaport on the north coast of Asia Minor between the mouths of the Saḳariya [q. v.] and the Ḳi̊zi̊l I̊rmaḳ [q. v.] and about equidistant from the ports of Ṣamsūn and Ineboli, 75 miles N. E. of Ḳasṭamūnī [q. v.]. It is the celebrated Σινώπη of the ancients and has retained this name. Muḥammadan authors know it by the name of Sanūb (Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, p. 392 and Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī, Masālik al-Abṣār, N.E., xiii. 361), Ṣanūb (Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, ii. 348), Sināb (Anon. Giese, p. 34; Urud̲j̲ Beg, ed. Babinger, p. 73), Sīnūb (ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳ Pas̲h̲a Zāde, and, following him, a…
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