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Ḳoč Ḥiṣār

(437 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of several places in Asia Minor. The meaning — if it is not ¶ simply a corruption of Ḳod̲j̲a Ḥiṣār — is “castle of the ram” and it may be compared with proper names like Ḳoyun Ḥiṣār, Toḳlu Ḥiṣār, Keči Ḥiṣār. 1. Ḳoč Ḥiṣār in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Kang̲h̲ri is a little town on the Dewrek Cai, twenty-five miles north of the town of Kang̲h̲ri. It is on the high road from Constantinople to Boli, Amasia and Erzerūm, between Ḳarad̲j̲a Wīrān and Ṭosia. According to Ewliyā Čelebi, this Ḳoč Ḥiṣār was captured by ʿOt̲h̲mān in 708 (1308) and comp…

Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a Lala

(654 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a famous military commander in the Ottoman history of the xvith century. The date of his birth is not given. He was a native of Ṣoḳol, the ¶ same Bosnian locality from which came the grand vizier Ṣoḳolli [q. v.], and began his service in the imperial serāy. He rose in rank under the grand vizier Aḥmad (1553—1555), but was not in favour with the letter’s successor Rustam Pas̲h̲a, who made him in 1556 lālā to prince Selīm with the object of ruining him. The outcome of this nomination was the contrary of what was expected; Muṣṭafā became the chief originator of the intr…


(901 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, is the Italian form of the name of the Greek town Naupactos which the Turks call Ine Bak̲h̲ti̊. This is how the Turkish form is transcribed, e. g. by Leunclavius ( Annales Turcici, p. 35) while von Hammer ( G. O. R., iii. 318) transcribes it as Aina Bak̲h̲ti̊, which he translates ¶ “Spiegelglück”; in view of the Greek form however it is very probable that the Turks originally pronounced it Ine Bak̲h̲ti̊. The town is situated in the ancient Locris, north of the strait which leads from the Ionian Sea towards the Gulf of Corinth, known since the middle ages as the Gulf of Lepanto. After forming from t…

Sulaimān I

(4,968 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the tenth and the greatest of the Ottoman Sulṭāns, reigned from 1520 to 1566. The Turks call him Ḳānūnī Sulṭān Sulaimān and western authors Soliman the Magnificent. Some Western historians like Leunclavius and, more recently, Jorga call him Sulaimān II, the first Sulaimān having been, according to them, the son of Bāyazīd I who lived at Adrianople. In Turkey however the opinion that Sulaimān the Legislator is the first of the name has prevailed; he is always called Sulaimān Ḵh̲ān Awwal and the ten s̲h̲erfe of the four minarets of the Sulaimānīya mosque signify, according to the Ḥadīḳat al-…

Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a

(678 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Viceroy (Ḵh̲edive) of Egypt from 1854 to 1863. Muḥammad Saʿīd, youngest son of Muḥammad ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā, was born in 1822. His father had a very high opinion of this, his fourth, son whom he sent when only 19 to Constantinople to conduct negotiations regarding the tribute to be paid by Egypt. Saʿīd, who was francophil, was not on good terms with his nephew and predecessor, ʿAbbās I [q.v.]. The latter had done everything possible to induce the Porte to alter the law of succession formulated by the Sulṭān’s firmān in favour of Muḥammad ʿAlī and to s…


(1,245 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, turkicised form of the Arabic tard̲j̲amān (cf. Muḥammad Ḥafīd, al-G̲h̲alaṭāt al-mas̲h̲hūra, p. 110) meaning an interpreter. The word is of Aramaic origin and early entered the Arabic language. Interpreters must have always played an important part in the commercial and diplomatical relations of Islāmic states with foreign peoples, but their activity begins to enter into clearer historical light only in the vith (xiith) century; from that time date the earliest known treaties between Christian towns or states and Muslim rulers of the countries around the M…


(2,473 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the town of Salonika in Macedonia, situated at the foot of the Gulf of Salonika, to the east of the mouth of the Wardar and at the foot of a hill which commands it on the north-east. It is the ancient Greek town of Θεσσαλονίκη, founded on the site of Therma by Cassander, who gave the new city the name of his wife, the sister of Alexander the Great (Strabo, VII, vii. 4). Towards the eleventh century, the popular form Σαλονίκιον appears ( Chronicle of the Morea) on which is based the form Ṣalūnīḳ or Ṣalūnīḳ in al-Idrīsī, the Bulgarian form Solun, the western form Salonika and fina…

Mūsā Čelebi

(509 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, one of the younger sons of the Ottoman sulṭān Bāyazīd I. According to some sources he was younger than his brother Muḥammad I [q. v.], who is generally considered as the youngest. Mūsā had been taken prisoner in the battle of Angora (1402) and was left by Tīmūr in custody with the Germiyān Og̲h̲lū Yaʿḳūb Beg. The latter sent him afterwards to his brother Muḥammad in Amasia, and for some time he became Muḥammad’s helper in the reestablishment of Ottoman power in Anatolia; he is even said to hav…

Sulṭān Öñü

(515 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, is the ancient name of the part of Phrygia in Asia Minor, situated to the N.W. of Eski S̲h̲ehir, which was the birthplace of the Ottoman power. The name existed already in the time of the Seld̲j̲ūḳs, for it is mentioned in the Chronicle of Ibn Bībī (Houtsma, Recueil de textes relatifs a l’histoire des Seldjoucides, iii. 217) as a frontier district of the Seld̲j̲ūḳ empire, the protection of which was trusted to frontier warders ( uč begleri) such as Ertog̲h̲rul. Among the early Ottoman historians Nes̲h̲rī (ed. Nöldeke, Z.D.M.G., xiii. 190) mentions Sulṭān Öñü as the place where Erto…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Rūm

(586 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, vizier and, according to some sources, grand vizier under Sulṭān Muḥammad II. As his surname indicates he was a Greek renegade. After having had an education in the palace he was destined for a military career and became at one time beylerbey. The dates of his birth and of his military advancements are not recorded. He had taken part in the final campaign of Muḥammad II against Ḳaramān in 1466 and was charged by the sulṭān with the transfer of parts of the population of the conquered regions to Constantinople, instead of the grand viz…


(1,485 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, surnamed “Ṭawīl”, “the Tall”, one of the most famous of Turkish grand viziers. He was born in the early years of the xvth century in the village of Sokol in Bosnia. His family was called Sokolewitch, of which Ṣoḳolli is the Turkish form. According to a panegyrical biography written about 1570 entitled Ḏj̲awāhir al-Manāḳib (cf. T. O. E. M., N°. 29, p. 257 sqq,), which is regarded as the best authority for the youth of Ṣoḳolli, Sokol means “falcon’s nest”. He was the eldest son and was taken from his parents under the dews̲h̲irme in the early years of Sulaimān I’s reign. …

Murād IV

(1,177 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, fifth son of sulṭān Aḥmad I, and seventeenth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born 28th Ḏj̲umādā I 1021 (July 27, 1612) and called to the throne as a result of the mutiny of the Janissaries and Sipāhīs, which had forced Muṣṭafā I to abdicate, on September 11, 1623. When the lives of Murād and his brothers were in danger, they had been hidden by Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a. But even after his enthronement Murād IV’s position was far from strong. The turbulent and continuously mutinying Janissaries and Sipāhīs were the rea…


(959 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, name of several princes belonging to the Ottoman dynasty: 1. Muṣṭafā Čelebi, eldest son of Bāyazīd I; the date of his birth is not recorded. He disappeared in the battle of Angora (July 1402). This Muṣṭafā is the first Ottoman prince to bear this name, which, like such other names as Bāyazīd and Murād, originated in mystical circles in Asia Minor in the xivth century. According to the Byzantine sources, this Muṣṭafā is the same as the person called by the majority of the Turkish sources: Dözme Muṣṭafā, who came forward in 1419 as pretender to the Ottoman throne against Muḥammad …

Muṣṭafā I

(455 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the fifteenth Ottoman Sulṭān, was born in the year 1000 (1591) as son of Muḥammad III. He owed his life to the relaxation of the ḳānūn authorising the killing of all the brothers of a new sulṭān, and was called to succeed his brother Aḥmad I at the latter’s death on November 22, 1617. But his weakmindedness — which is said to have him made escape death on account of superstitious fear of Aḥmad — made him absolutely incapable of ruling. Aḥmad’s son ʿOt̲h̲mān, who felt himself entitled to the succession, had little difficulty in procuring Muṣṭafā’s deposition in a meeting of the Imperial Dīwān, by …

Muẓaffar al-Dīn

(644 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, fifth S̲h̲āh of Persia of the Ḳād̲j̲ār [q. v.] dynasty, was born on March 25, 1853. He was S̲h̲āh Nāṣir al-Dīn’s second son, the eldest son Ẓill al-Sulṭān being of lower birth by his mother. As crown prince Muẓaffar al-Dīn had been some time governor of Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān (a description of him as crown prince in Curzon, Persia and the Persian Question, i. 413). After his father’s assassination Muẓaffar al-Dīn was enthroned on June 8, 1896. With this new reign the rivalry between England and Russia for commercial and political influence in Persia became ev…


(1,043 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
b. Rustam, a prince of the Bāwand dynasty of Ṭabarīstān [q. v.] regarded as the original author of the Marzubān-nāma, a work in Persian prose containing a series of short stories and fables of a moral and didactic character. This book is known in two versions in elegant Persian of the xiiith century, the author of one of which was Saʿd al-Dīn al-Warāwīnī; he dedicated it to Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Rabīb al-Dīn, vizier of Uzbek b. Muḥammad b. Ildegīz, Atābeg of Ad̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān from 1210 to 1225. These dates give us probable limits for the composition of th…


(259 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, name of two towns, in the region between the two main Nile arms called al-Ḏj̲azīra, generally distinguished as Manūf al-ʿUlyā and Manūf al-Suflā. The latter was situated on the right bank of the western Nile arm, while the former lay more to the east on a smaller canal. Both are described by the geographers as large towns, surrounded by fertile districts and inhabited by wealthy people, especially Manūf al-ʿUlyā, where, according to Ibn Ḥawḳal (p. 92), there resided a governor. The kūra of Manūf al-ʿUlyā is often called the kūra of Damsls and Manūf, while the kūra of Manūf al-Suflā is des…

Maḥmūd I

(1,908 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, twenty fourth Ottoman Sulṭān, reigned 1143—1168 (1730—1754). He was born on the 3rd Muḥarram 1108 (Aug. 2, 1696), the son of Muṣṭafā II — the Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī gives the date 7th Ramaḍān 1107 (April 10, 1696) — and had spent his life in seclusion up to his accession. He came to the throne through the mutiny of the Janissaries under Patrona Ḵh̲alīl, a mutiny which cost the grand vizier Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a, the Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a and the Kiaya Beg their lives, and forced Sulṭān Aḥmad III to abdicate in favour of Maḥmūd; these events took place on the 17th Rabīʿ I, 1143 (Oct. 1, 1730). The muti…


(1,442 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
or S̲h̲ūs̲h̲ter, among the Arabs Tustar, a town in the Persian province of ʿArabistān, the ancient Ḵh̲ūzistān, situated in ¶ about 49° East Long, and 32° N. Lat. It stands on a clif to the west of which runs the river Kārūn [q. v.], the middle course of which begins a few miles north of the town. This position gives the town considerable commercial and strategic importance and has made possible the construction of various waterworks for which the town has long been famous. The main features of these constructions …

Ṣu Bas̲h̲i̊

(621 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, ancient military title in countries of Turkish civilization. Although later popular etymology has always regarded the first element as the word ṣu, “water”, this interpretation ¶ is probably erroneous. In old Eastern Turkish zu (very possibly taken from Chinese) signified army and ṣu-bas̲h̲i̊ therefore meant commander of the army (cf. Maḥmūd Kas̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Dīwān Lug̲h̲at al-Turk, iii. 156; Houtsma, Ein türkisch-arabisches Glossar, Leyden 1884, p. 14, 30). It is not surprising, however, that this title has been connected with the word designating water, …
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