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Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Yegen

(395 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier under Maḥmūd II. He was called Yegen “the Nephew” because he stood in that relationship to Kel Yūsuf Efendi, a high official in the financial administration ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, iv. 659); he also began his career by holding different financial offices, and was also ḳapi̊ k i ayasi̊ of the grand vizier Topal ʿOt̲h̲mān Pas̲h̲a (1732). In 1737 he became ḳāʾim-maḳām in Constantinople during the absence of the grand vizier ʿAbd Allāh Pas̲h̲a. The latter was successful that year against the Austrians on the Danube frontier (taking of Fetḥ Islā…


(496 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a little village, which was built on the great group of artificial mounds, that cover the ruins of the royal palaces of Nineveh, opposite the town of al-Mawṣil, to the east of the Tigris. The name of this village is not found in the middle ages nor in the Turkish authors of the xviith century; it has been thought, however, that the name is connected with the dynasty of the Ḳara Ḳoyunli, which reigned in this region ¶ in the xvth century (von Oppenheim). After being for the most part destroyed by Kurds in 1836, the village was moved to the alluvial plain between the mounds …

Muḥammad Gurd̲j̲ī Pas̲h̲a

(659 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
Two Turkish grand-viziers are known under this name. 1. The one who is also called k̲h̲ādim muḥammad pas̲h̲a began his political career after having been a eunuch in the imperial palace; in 1604 he became wālī in Egypt, where he was able to establish some order; after that he was twice ḳāʾim-maḳām of the grand-vizierate in the capital, in 1611 and in 1615; in the meantime he had held governorships in Erzerūm, Bosnia and Belgrad. He was called to the grand-vizierate in the days of Sulṭān Muṣṭafā I’s second reign, when the Janissaries and the Sipā…


(354 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a place noted for its Assyrian excavations, situated on the plain to the northeast of Mosul, at a distance of 12 miles (5 hours by caravan) from the town and eight miles from the Tigris at the south west of the foot of the Ḏj̲abal Maḳlūb, and on the left bank of the Ḵh̲awser. At this place the village of Ḵh̲orsābād was situated in the year 1843; inhabited by the S̲h̲abak [q. v.] it was the village that Botta, the first explorer bought, and transplanted the inhabitants to another place in the plain, so that ¶ he might be able to begin excavating. Ḵh̲orsābād is mentioned by Yāḳūt …

Muḥammad VI

(550 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
Waḥīd al-Dīn, last Sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, was born on January 14, 1861, as son of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd. He was called to the throne on July 3, 1918, after the death of his brother Muḥammad V Res̲h̲ād, the former heir to the throne Yūsuf ʿIzz al-Dīn, son of ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, having died in 1916. When on October 30, 1918, nearly four months after his accession, the armistice of Mudros was signed, he was the ruler of an empire that seemed to be at the mercy of its former enemies, whose milita…

S̲h̲arīf Pas̲h̲a

(804 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Egyptian statesman in the reigns of the Ḵh̲edives Ismāʿīl and Tawfīḳ. He was of Turkish origin and was born in 1823 in Cairo where his father was then acting as ḳāḍī ’l-ḳuḍāt sent by the Sulṭān. When some ten years later the family was again temporarily in Cairo, Muḥammad ʿAlī had the boy sent to the military school recently founded by him. Henceforth his whole career was to be spent in the Egyptian service. S̲h̲arīf was a member of the “Egyptian mission” sent to Paris for higher education (cf. the article k̲h̲edīve) which included the future Ḵh̲edives Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a, Ismāʿīl Pas̲h̲…


(1,459 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town in Upper Galilee, 30 miles East of ʿAkkā and N. E. of the Lake of Tiberias, about 1600 feet above sea level on a bill which al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī calls Kanʿān (so also Cuinet) and which is called Ḏj̲ibāl ʿĀmila in Yāḳūt, iii. 399 (whose statements are otherwise wrong; on this see Gaudefroy-Demombynes, p. 23). It was only through the Crusades that it first attained importance, for before the xiiith century it is not mentioned by any Arab geographer. But it must have already existed in the second century as Ṣephath is found in the Jerusalem Talmud (Tract. Ros̲h̲ Ha…

Murād I

(2,007 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, According to the common tradition the third ruler of the Ottoman state, was a son of Ork̲h̲ān and the Byzantine lady Nīlūfer. Although some Ottoman sources profess to know the year of his birth ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, i. 74 gives the year 726 = 1326), this date, like all dates given by Turkish sources relating to this period, is far from certain. The name Murād (Greek sources such as Phrantzes have ’ΑμουράτηΣ, from which later Latin sources make Amurath, while contemporary Latin sources from Italy have Moratibei) must have orig…


(176 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, large town in Lower Egypt, on the right bank of the Damietta branch of the Nile, capital of the province al-Daḳahlīya. Another canal or branch of the Nile went from here to As̲h̲mūm in a north-eastern direction. It was originally a camping place for the army, founded in 616 (1219) by al-Malik al-Kāmil, when he tried to recapture Dimyāṭ, then occupied by the Crusaders. In 1249 the Crusaders were defeated in the neighbourhood of al-Manṣūra by al-Sulṭān al-Muʿaẓẓam Tūrāns̲h̲āh, on which occasion …


(321 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, or, according to Abu ’l-Fidāʾ (p. 116), Minf, the ancient Egyptian capital Memphis, on the left bank of the Nile, not far from Cairo, is well known in Arabic literature as a very old town. The geographers cite, among the kūra’s of Egypt, that of Manf and Wasīm (cf. e.g. Ibn Ḵh̲ordād̲h̲bih, p. 81), but the town was already ruined in Muḥammadan times (al-Yaʿḳūbī, Kit. al-Buldān, p. 331) —by ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ, according to Abu ’l-Fidāʾ ( loc. cit.) — and was no more than a village in the time of Ibn Ḥawḳal (p. 106). Most Arab writers speak of the ancient traditions connected with Manf, often t…

Selīm II

(1,601 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, eleventh Sulṭān of Turkey, reigned from 974—982 (1566—1574). He was born probably in 930 (1524). He was the son of Suleimān I and the celebrated Ḵh̲nrrem Sulṭān (Roxelana) ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, i. 39, gives three different dates) and was the eldest of the latter’s four children: Selīm, Bāyazīd, Ḏj̲ahāngīr (d. 1553) and Mihrmāh (became wife of the Grand Vizier Rustem Pas̲h̲a). Ḵh̲urrem Sulṭān favoured Bāyazīd and to secure his succession to the throne she brought about by her intrigues and influence over Suleimān the exe…

Muḥammad Damad Pas̲h̲a

(489 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grandvizier, also called Öküz Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, was the son of a farrier of Constantinople and was educated (rather unusual at that time for a boy from Constantinople) in the imperial palace for a military career. He left the palace as siliḥdār, but we do no not know his career until he was appointed, in 1016 (1607—1608), governor of Egypt. Here he was successful in the energetic suppression of a Mamlūk revolt and when he returned in 1610 to the capital with two years’ tribute, he was appointed Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a, being at the same time…


(1,031 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Turkish form of the name of the island of Lemnos in the Aegean Sea between Mount Athos and the mainland of Asia Minor about 50 miles S. E. of the entrance to the Dardanelles. In ancient times a possession of Athens, in the middle ages it belonged to the Byzantine empire;. in this period, in 901, the island was sacked by the Muslim inhabitants of Crete. Towards the end of the middle ages Lemnos had passed into the hands of the Italians who called the island Stalimene (formed with the addition o…


(619 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town in Asia Minor, situated in the northern part of Cappadocia, to the south of the middle course of the Tozanli̊ Ṣu, the ancient Iris. The town is situated on both sides of a mountain valley opening to the north and between the town and the river there is a beautiful plain. In a northeastern direction, facing the river, lay in ancient times the well-known town of Comana Pontica, the name of which still survives in the village of Gümenek; the site of Toḳat was occupied by a fortress called Dazimon (on this identification cf. Ramsay, The Historical Geography of Asia Minor, London 1890, p. 329 sqq.…


(2,162 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(p.) or Ḳuhistān is the arabicised form of the Persian name Ḳūhistān meaning a mountainous country (derived from kūh, “mountain” with the suffix- istān) and corresponds to the Arabic designation al-Ḏj̲ibāl. As the Iranian plateau is very mountainous, we find many more or less extensive areas in it to which the name Ḳūhistān has been given, as Yāḳūt has already remarked (iv. 204). Many of these names have disappeared in course of time. Thus Ḳazwīnī (ed. Wüstenfeld, p. 228) says that the term Ḳūhistān is used for Media, which other geographers always call al Ḏj̲ibāl. In the S̲h̲āh-nāma of Fir…


(15,652 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(Khedive). The Persian word k̲h̲adīw or k̲h̲idīw meaning “lord” is one of the titles occasionally given to Muḥammadan rulers since the Middle Ages (cf. the xvith century Turkish historian ʿĀlī, Kunh al-Ak̲h̲bār, Constantinople, v. 17). This title was conferred in 1867 by the Ottoman Sulṭān ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz on Ismāʿīl Pas̲h̲a, the viceroy of Egypt. Though, since the firmān of 1841, the function of Pas̲h̲a of Egypt was already hereditary in the family of Muḥammad ʿAlī, Ismāʿīl desired a title indicating that his rank was higher than that of the other Ottom…


(764 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, town in Western Armenia near the southern bank of the Murād Ṣu (Arsanias), some 70 km. as the crow flies to the west of Ḵh̲ilāṭ. In pre-Muḥammadan times it was the principal town of the district of Taraun (Hübschmann, Idg. Forsch., xvi. 326; J.Saint-Martin, Mémoires Historiques et Géographiques sur l’Arménie, i., Paris 1818, p. 102). In Islāmic times the name Ṭarūn ¶ (as spelled by Yāḳūt, iv. 534) is sometimes used for the town itself as in Ṭabarī, iii. 1408 (cf. J. Markwart, Süd-Armenien und die Tigrisquellen, Vienna 1930, p. 354). The tradition of the Armenian historians conne…

Ḳara Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊

(630 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, leader of a serious rebellion in Asia Minor from 1599 to 1602. His proper name was ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm and he was chief of the corporation of Segbāns ( Segbān bölük bas̲h̲i̊). His followers consisted of Kurds, Turkomans and a large body of soldiers who had fled from the army in Hungary, chiefly on account of the Grand Vizier Čig̲h̲āla’s harsh and cruel treatment of them. They are therefore called Firārīs; another name is Ḏj̲alālīs; their rebellion is known as the Ḵh̲urūd̲j̲-i d̲j̲alāliyān. Ḳara Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊’s first act was the occupation of Ruhā or Urfa (= Edessa) in 1008 a. h. The former Beglerbe…

Ṣubḥī Muḥammad

(177 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Turkish historiographer. He was born at the beginning of the xviiith century (the date is unknown) as son of Beylikd̲j̲i Ḵh̲alīl Fehmī Efendi. He entered upon a long administrative career, beginning with the office of dīwān kātibi. Soon after, before 1150/ 1737, he was appointed waḳʿa-nuwīs as successor to S̲h̲ākir Ḥusein Bey and he combined this position with other functions till the end of the year 1156 (Feb. 1744) when he was appointed beylikd̲j̲i. The waḳʿa-mtwīslik was then given into the charge of Sulaimān ʿIzzī [q. v.]. Ṣubhī Efendi died in Ṣafar 1183 (June 1769). His Taʾrīk̲h̲ was…


(4,097 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the most important of the various Turkoman dynasties, which arose in Asia Minor after the break up of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire at the end of the viith (xiiith) century. They were for a time the most serious rivals of the Ottomans. The name goes back in the first place to the Turkoman chief Ḳaramān, who attained a certain degree of independence during the Mongol troubles in the middle of the viith (xiiith) century and was granted by the Sultan Rukn al-Dīn a territory, from which he himself had come, in Cilicia. His native district was then known as Ḳamar al-Dīn-Ili (no…
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