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(151 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the word used in western Turkish for village. It is the form in which Turkish has borrowed the Persian gūy (cf. Bittner, Der Einfluss des Arabischen und Persischen auf das Türkische, S.B. Ak. Wien, cxlii., N°. 3, p. 103) or perhaps more correctly kūy (Vullers, Lexicon; Burhān-i Ḳātiʿ; p. 759) meaning originally path, street. In the geographical nomenclature of the Ottoman empire we find many place-names compounded with kiöy, like Bog̲h̲āz Kiöy, Ermeni Kiöy, etc. It seems that these names are not found before the end of the Seld̲j̲ūḳ period. Kiöy in the sense of an open village is opposed to ḳa…


(366 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the patron saint of all wanderers and vagrants such as jugglers, beggars, conjurers, and those who go up and down the country accompanied by animals (goats, asses or apes), who show real or feigned diseases and mutilations, gipsies etc. These people are often classed together as the Banū Sāsān and have a bad reputation, as is evident from the literary references, as almost all classes of swindlers are included under this name. Their arts and tricks are called ʿilm Sāsān. Various traditions seem to exist regarding the father of this trade of begging. According to one story,…


(875 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(a.-t.) (Turkish pronounciation: Selamli̊ḳ), 1) Reception-room in Turkish houses of the upper classes, derived from salām, greeting, welcome. In the general plan of this type of house ( ḳonaḳ) there is an ante-room or court behind the main door, at one side of which a stair-case leads up to the selamli̊ḳ, mā-bain [q. v.] and to the corridor ( sofa), which together form the part of the house allotted to the males. On the other side of the court is the entrance to the harem [q.v.]; there also is the swivel-box ( dolab) through which the women communicate with the harem kitchen. Al-though…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Sulṭān Zāde

(459 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier under Sulṭān Ibrāhīm, was born about 1600 as son of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Bey, son of the former grand vizier Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a (under Murād III), and by his mother a grandson of a princess of the imperial house, whence his surname Sulṭān Zāde. After having been ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ bas̲h̲i̊ in the palace, he adopted a military career, became already in 1630 ḳubbe wezīri and was appointed in 1638 governor of Egypt. In 1642 he was made ¶ commander of the expedition against Azof [q. v.] which town he rebuilt after it had been burned by the Cossacks before its surrender. On his return he formed with the silaḥ…

Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a

(835 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier in the reign of the Ottoman Sulṭān Muḥammad II, often called Welī Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a. He was born in Alad̲j̲a Ḥiṣar (Krug̲h̲ewatz) in Serbia, of Christian parents; according to Chalcocondylas, his father was Greek and his mother Serbian. Taken in his youth to Adrianople, he was brought up at the court of Murād II, and began his public career on the occasion of the accession of Muḥammad II in 1451. Soon afterwards he became Beglerbeg of Rūm-ili; according to the historian Ramaḍān Zāde Meḥmed (Küčük Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲ī) he had been also Ḳāḍiʿasker [q. v.]. As Beglerbeg, he took part…


(529 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a small volcanic island in the Mediterranean Sea between Sicily and Tunis (60 miles south of Cape Gtanitola and 45 miles east of Cape Bon [Ras Addar]; area 40 sq. miles), now called Fantellaria. The name Ḳawṣara (variously written in the MSS.) goes back to the classical Cossyra (cf. Pauly-Wissowa’s Realenzyklopädie der klass. Altertumswiss., xi. 1503). The island, famous for its antiquities (cf. Orsi, Pantellaria in Monumenti dei Lincei, 1899, ix. 450—539), was already important in ancient times for intercourse between Sicily and the African coast and played an…


(129 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, or in the official style, Talk̲h̲īṣī, was the individual appointed to prepare the précis called talk̲h̲īṣ [q. v.] and to take it to the palace where it was handed over to the chief of the eunuchs. The Talk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i was therefore an official of the grand vizier’s department; in addition to preparing the talk̲h̲īṣ, he took part in several official ceremonies. The talk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām was not — at least in the later period — in direct communication with the palace; documents presented by him had to pass first of all through th…

Murād Pas̲h̲a

(522 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Turkish grand vizier under Aḥmad I, was a Croatian by birth and was born about 1520. He served the empire as military commander and later as wālī in different provinces (Egypt, Yaman, Anatolia) and was made prisoner by the Persians in the battle of Tabrīz (Sept. 1585), where Čig̲h̲āle’s army was defeated. In 1601 he was pas̲h̲a of Budin and in 1603 commander-in-chief on the Hungarian front. In these posts he repeatedly conducted for the Porte peace negotiations with Austria. He was the chief negotiator of the peace of Z…


(730 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town in Persia, on the main road from Media to Ḵh̲urāsān, situated in the old province of Kumis (Comisene; cf. Marquart, Êrânšahr, p. 71), between Ṭihrān (in the middle ages Raiy) and Dāmg̲h̲ān, at the foot of the Alburz mountain and on the border of the great Kawlr. The form Simnān is most frequently found (e. g. Yāḳūt); the modern pronunciation is rather Semnun. The foundation of the town is ascribed to Taḥmūrat̲h̲ (al-Ḳazwīnī), and it is probably of considerable antiquity, although it is not mentioned in the so…


(534 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of the leader of a religious movement in Ḵh̲urāsān, directed against the ʿAbbāsids. The rising began in 150 (767) and spread rapidly in the districts of Herāt, Bādg̲h̲īs, Gand̲j̲-Rustāḳ and Sid̲j̲istān; the sources say that it had 300,000 adherents. The first opposition it met with was at Marw al-Rūd̲h̲ but the rebels killed the Arab leader al-Ad̲j̲t̲h̲am with a number of his officers. On hearing this, the caliph al-Manṣūr sent his general Ḵh̲āzim b. Ḵh̲uzaima to his son al-Mahdī at Nīsābūr and the latter ordered Ḵh̲āzim to attack the rebels with 20,000 men. ¶ After several chec…

Ḳi̊rḳ Kilise

(621 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
A town in Eastern Thrace, situated twenty-four miles to the east of Adrianople, ¶ on the southern slope of the Istrand̲j̲a mountains, which run parallel to the coast of the Black Sea from the north-west to the Southeast. It was conquered from Byzantium during the reign of Murād I, a few years after the capture of Adrianople and after the great defeat of the Serbians near this town (766). The chronology of the conquest is very uncertain, for neither the early Turkish chroniclers nor the Byzantine mention it. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa ( Chronologia historica, Venice 1697, p. 116) and Saʾd al-Dīn ( Tād…


(2,220 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the Turkish form of the name of the town of Trebizond, in Greek ΤραπεζοῦΣ. Situated at the southeast cerner of the Black Sea on a very hilly coast which is separated from the rest of Asia Minor and Armenia by a high range of mountains, this town, like the population of the country immediately around it, has always led a more or less isolated existence, from which it only emerged in those periods when ¶ its geographical position made it become an important point on the great trade-routes. Trebizond is mentioned for the first time by Xenophon ( Anabasis, iv. 8) and is said to have been a very…

Muʿīn al-Dīn Sulaimān Parwāna

(842 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, vice-regent of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire in Asia Minor after the Mongol invasion of that territory. His father Muhad̲h̲d̲h̲ib al-Dīn ʿAlī al-Dailamī (in some sources, such as the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Guzīda, Muʿīn al-Dīn is called “al-Kās̲h̲ī”, which implies origin from Kās̲h̲ān) had been a minister during the reign of Kaik̲h̲usraw II and had been able, after the battle of Köse Dag̲h̲ (1243), to secure for a time the continuation of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ dynasty in Asia Minor, by his intercession with the Mongol general Baid̲j̲ū (Ibn Bībī, p. …


(2,962 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, or rather tanhẓīmāt-i k̲h̲airīye (“beneficent legislation” from the expression: ḳānūn tanẓīm etmek = “to draft a law”) is the term used to denote the reforms introduced into the government and administration of the Ottoman empire from the beginning of the reign of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd and inaugurated by the charter generally called the k̲h̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲erīf of Gülk̲h̲āne. The expression tanẓīmāt k̲h̲airīye is first found in the latter years of the reign of Maḥmūd II. The other end of the period of the tanẓīmāt is put about 1880, when the absolute rule of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II began. The tanẓīmā…


(1,328 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, 1) the name of the founder of a Turkoman dynasty in Asia Minor in the viith century a. h. (thirteenth a. d.), the dynasty which was the first to succumb to the Ottomans; 2) the name of the territory ruled by this dynasty, I now a sand̲j̲aḳ of Turkey. ¶ 1. Ḳarasī is said to be a contraction of Ḳara ʿĪsā or Ḳara Ese, the name of a Turkoman chief, a vassal of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭān G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Masʿūd, who conquered the province of Mysia for him from the Byzantines in the reign of Andronicos II Palaiologos (Ducas, p. 13). The name of the father of Ḳarasī …


(233 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the desert region that lies west of Kūfa along the alluvial plain of the Euphrates. It is higher than the low-lying ground by the river and forms the transition to the central Arabian plateau. According to the authorities quoted by Yāḳūt (iii. 359), al-ṭaff means an area raised above the surrounding country; the name is not found after the xiiith century. The district contains a number of springs, the waters of which run southwest (cf. Ibn al-Faḳīh, p. 187). The best known of these wells was al-ʿUd̲h̲air. From its geographical position al-Ṭaff was the …


(151 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the Turkish word for black or dark colour in general. It is commonly used with this meaning as the first component of geographical names, for example Ḳara Āmīd (on account of the black basalt of which this fortress is built), Ḳara Dag̲h̲ (on account of its dark forests), etc. Beside Ḳara we find in place-names the form Karad̲j̲a. In personal names it refers to the black or dark brown colour of hair or to a dark complexion. It has, however, at the same time also the meaning “strong, powerful” and has ¶ to be interpreted in this sense in the name Ḳara Osmān or in names like Ḳara Arslān…

Maḥmūd II

(2,502 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the twenty-ninth sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigned from 1808 until 1839. He was the son of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd I and was born on the 20th July 1784 (13th Ramaḍān 1199, cf. Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, i. 73). He succeeded to Muṣṭafā IV on July 28, 1808, directly after the tragic events, which had led to the assassination of Salīm III [q. v.]. Maḥmūd himself had a narrow escape from the fate of Salīm. Until his coming to the throne he had lived in seclusion and during the preceding year his intercourse with the ¶ dethroned sultan had undoubtedly exercised a great influence on Maḥmūd’s ideas, …


(1,355 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
is the name — derived from the Turkoman dynasty of the Ḳaramān-Og̲h̲lu [q.v.] — 1) of a district in Asia Minor, 2) of a town in Turkey, capital of a Ḳaḍā of the same name. The boundaries of the district of Ḳaramān (Ḳaramān-ili, Caramania) have varied. All the lands which were permanently under the Ḳaramānids are occasionally so called, that is Lycaonia, the Cilician Taurus and the whole southern Anatolian coast territory as far as Adalia. When the Ḳaramānids were finally overthrown, their lands became one Ottoman province (wilāye…


(562 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of the members of an irregular militia, which formed part of armed forces of the Ottoman empire during the early centuries of its existence; they were chiefly ¶ employed as soldiers on the fleet in the period when the Turkish navy consisted mainly of the corsair vessels, which the Sulṭāns employed for their naval expeditions. The word lewendi seems to have been borrowed like many other naval terms from the Italian. The Italian word would have been levantino (Sāmī, Ḳāmūs-i Türki) or levanti (Ḏj̲awdat Pas̲h̲a) and was originally used by the Venetians for the soldiers wh…
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