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ʿAbdī

(232 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman historian. Among the Ottoman historians who bore the mak̲h̲laṣ ʿAbdī (cf. Babinger, 432 f.), the secretary ( kātib ) of Yūsuf Ag̲h̲a, chief of the eunuchs, is worthy of mention. He was an eye-witness of the magnificent festivities organized in Adrianople in June and July 1675 on the occasion of the circumcision of the crown-prince Muṣṭafā, son of Muḥammad (Meḥmed) IV, and of the marriage of the princess Ḵh̲adid̲j̲e with the second vizier Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a (cf. Hammer-Purgstall, vi, 307…

Nāḥiye

(155 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(a. nāḥiya “district, vicinity”), an administrative term of the Ottoman empire. It is found as a general term for the subdivisions of a wilāyet or province as early as the 9th/15th century, but only later becomes a specific term for the rural subdivision of a ḳaḍāʾ [ q.v.] or ḳażā ; this latter term may be compared with the French arrondissement and is governed by a ḳāʾim-maḳām [ q.v.], while the nāḥiye is under a mudīr . This official, who used to be appointed by the wālī , the governor of the province, received his instructions from the ḳāʾim-maḳām, to whom he was subordinate. The subdivis…

Mihr-i Māh Sulṭān

(486 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, daughter of the Ottoman sultan Süleymān II the Magnificent (926-74/1520-66). Mihr-i Māh (sometimes also written Mihr-ü-māh: cf. Ḳaračelebi-zāde, Rawḍat ul-ebrār , 458) was the only daughter of Süleymān q.v., as well as F. Babinger, in Meister der Politik , ii2, Berlin 1923, 39-63). While still quite young she was married to the grand vizier Rüstem Pas̲h̲a (cf. Babinger, GOW, 81-2) at the beginning of December 1539 (cf. J.H. Mordtmann, in MSOS, xxxii, Part 2, 37), but the marriage does not seem to have been a happy one. She used her enormous wealth—St. Gerlach in …

Pīrī Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(481 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(?-939/?1532-3), an Ottoman Grand Vizier, belonged to Amasya and was a descendant of the famous D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn of Aḳsarāy and therefore traced his descent from Abū Bakr. He took up a legal career and became successively ḳāḍī of Sofia, Siliwri and Galata, administrator of Meḥemmed IPs kitchen for the poor ( ʿimāret ) in Istanbul, and at the beginning of the reign of Bāyezīd II attained the rank of a first defterdār ( bas̲h̲ defterdār ). In the reign of Selīm I, he distinguished himself by his wise counsel in the Persian campaign (see J. von Hammer, GOR, ii, 412, 417 ff.), was sent in advanc…

Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊

(385 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, secretary of state for the Sultan’s ṭug̲h̲ra , chancellor, in Ottoman administration. The Sald̲j̲ūḳs and Mamlūks already had special officials for drawing the ṭug̲h̲ra, the sultan’s signature. As their official organisation was inherited in almost all its details by the Ottomans, this post naturally was included. Its holder was called nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ or tewḳīʿī . The nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ held the same rank as the defterdār s [ q.v.] and indeed even preceded them, for we find defterdārs promoted to nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊s but never a nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ becoming a defterdār. The nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ was i…

Naṣūḥ Pas̲h̲a

(873 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(d. 1023/1614), an Ottoman grand vizier, was of Christian descent and was born either in Gümüld̲j̲ine [ q.v. in Suppl.] (the modern Komotim, Thrace, Greece) or in Drama. According to some sources (e.g. Baudier and Grimestone, in Knolles), he was the son of a Greek priest; according to others (e.g. Naʿīmā, Taʾrīk̲h̲ 1 283, arnaʾud d̲j̲insi ), of Albanian origin. He came early in life to Istanbul, spent two years in the old Seray as a teberdār (halbardier) and left it as a čawus̲h̲ . Through the favour of the sulṭān’s confidant Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a, he rapidly attained high office. In ¶ quick successio…

Rāmī Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(742 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Ottoman Grand Vizier and poet, was born in 1065 or 1066/1654 in Eyyūb, a suburb of Istanbul, the son of a certain Ḥasan Ag̲h̲a. He entered the chancellery of the Reʾīs Efendi as a probationer ( s̲h̲āgird ), and through the poet Yūsuf Nābī [ q.v.] received an appointment as maṣraf kātibi̊ , i.e. secretary for the expenditure of the palace. In 1095/1684 through the influence of his patron, the newly-appointed Ḳapudān Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a, he became dīwān efendi , i.e. chancellor of the Admiralty. He took part in his chief’s journeys and camp…

Ḳasṭallanī

(283 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
( kestelī , kestellī ), muṣliḥ al-dīn muṣṭafā , Ottoman theologian and Ḥanafī jurist, d. 901/1495-6. He was a native of Kestel (Latin Castellum ), a village near Bursa, where later in his career he built a mosque; from this village comes his nisba of Kestel(l)ī or, more grandiloquently, Ḳasṭallānī. He studied at Bursa under the famous scholar K̲h̲iḍr Beg, mudarris at the Sulṭān madrasa there, and after concluding his legal and theological studies became himself a teacher in Mudurnu, in the Urud̲j̲ Pas̲h̲a madrasa at Dimetoḳa (Demotica), and then in one of Meḥemmed II’s newly-fo…

Merkez

(329 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Muṣliḥ al-Dīn b. Muṣṭafā, the head of an Ottoman Ṣūfī order and saint. Merkez Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mūsā b. Muṣṭāfā b. Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ b. Had̲j̲dar belonged to the village of Ṣari̊ Maḥmūdlu in the Anatolian district of Lād̲h̲ikiyya. He was at first a pupil of the Mollā Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, son of Ḵh̲iḍr Beg [ q. v.], and later of the famous Ḵh̲alwatī S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Sünbül Sinān Efendi, founder of the Sünbüliyya, a branch of the Ḵh̲alwatiyya, head of the monastery of Ḳod̲j̲a Muṣṭāfā Pas̲h̲a in Istanbul (see Bursali̊ Meḥmed Ṭāhir, ʿOt̲h̲mānli müʾellifleri , i, 78-9). When th…

ʿÖmer Efendi

(366 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Ottoman historian, according to popular tradition originally called Elkazović or Čaušević, who belonged to Bosna-Novi (Bosanski-Novi). Of his career we only know that he was acting as ḳāḍī in his native town when fierce fighting broke out on Bosnian soil between the Imperial troops and those of Ḥekīm-Og̲h̲lu ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a (1150/1737). ʿÖmer Efendi at this time wrote a vivid account of the happenings in Bosnia from the beginning of Muḥarram 1149/May 1736 to the end of D̲j̲umādā I 1152/end of March 1…

ʿAzmī-Zāde

(568 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
muṣtafā , Ottoman poet and stylist, as a poet known under the name of Ḥāletī. Born in the so-called laylat al-berāt in Istanbul on 15 S̲h̲aʿbān 977/23 Jan. 1570. He was the son of ʿAzmī-Efendi, who was the well-known and well-respected tutor of Murād IV as well as a poet, writer, and translator (died 990/1582). As a pupil of Saʿd al-Dīn [ q.v.] who became famous as a historian, he studied law, and to him he owed his special love for historical investigation. He became müderris at the madrasa of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī-Ḵh̲ātūn in Istanbul, but in 1011/1602-3 he was transferred to Damascus as a ¶ judge. Two ye…

Ḳoyun Baba

(235 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, lit “father of sheep”, a Turkish saint. He is thought to have been a contemporary of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bektās̲h̲ [see bektās̲h̲iyya ] and is said to have received his name from the fact that he did not speak, but only bleated like a sheep five times a day at the periods for prayer. Sulṭān Bāyezīd II, called Walī , built a splendid tomb and dervish monastery on the site of his alleged grave at ʿOt̲h̲mānd̲j̲i̊ḳ (near Amasya, in Anatolia) which was one of the finest and richest in the Ottoman empire. Ewliyā Čelebi in his Travels ( Seyāḥet-nāme , ii, 180 ff.) describes very ful…

Ramaḍān Og̲h̲ullari̊

(681 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, a petty Anatolian dynasty. The earlier history of the Ramaḍān og̲h̲ullari̊ is, like that of most of the minor Anatolian begs ( mülūk-i ṭewāʾif ), wrapped in obscurity. According ¶ to tradition, this Turkoman family came in Ertog̲h̲rul’s time from Central Asia to Anatolia where they settled in the region of Adana and founded their power. Their territory comprised the districts of Adana. Sīs, Ayās, a part of the territory of the Warsaḳ Turkomans, Tarsūs, etc. The date of the earliest known prince of the dynasty, Mīr Aḥmad b.…

ʿAbdī Efendi

(144 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman historian. The only information about his life is that he worked under the sultans Maḥmūd I and Muṣṭafā III, i.e. about 1730-64. His history, called either simply ʿAbdī Taʾrīk̲h̲i , or Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Sulṭān Maḥmūd Ḵh̲ān , deals mainly with the antecedents of Patrona Ḵh̲alīl’s rebellion and with the revolution itself (1730-1) and is one of the main contemporary sources for this event. MSS are to be found in Istanbul, Esʿad Efendī, 2153 and Millet Kütübk̲h̲ānesi 409. (Fr. Babinger) Bibliography F. R. Unat, 1730 Patrona ihtilali hakkinda bir eser Abdi tarihi, Ankara 1943 Osmanli Müel…

Newʿī

(559 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Yaḥyā b. Pīr ʿAlī b. Naṣūḥ , an Ottoman theologian and poet, with the nom de plume ( mak̲h̲laṣ ) of Newʿī, was born in Malg̲h̲ara [see malḳara ] (Rumelia), the son of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Pīr ʿAlī, in 940/1533. Up to his tenth year he was taught by his learned father and then became a pupil of Ḳaramānīzāde Meḥmed Efendi. His fellow pupils were the poet Bāḳī [ q.v.] and Saʿd al-Dīn, the famous historian [ q.v.]. He was an intimate friend of the former. He joined the ʿulamāʾ , became müderris of Gallipoli in 973/1565 and after filling several other offices became a teacher in the Medrese of Mihr u Māh Sulṭān [ q.v.].…

Nedīm

(535 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Aḥmed , an Ottoman poet, born in Istanbul, the son of a judge named Meḥmed Bey who had come from Merzifun. His grandfather (according to Gibb, HOP, iv, 30) was a military judge named Muṣṭafā. Aḥmed Refīḳ mentions as his great-grandfather Ḳara-Čelebi-zāde [ q.v.] Maḥmūd Efendi, who also was a military judge. The genealogy given by Aḥmed Refīḳ is, however, wrong because he confuses Ḳaramānī Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] with Rūm Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a. The statement that Aḥmed Nedīm is descended from D̲j̲elāl al-Dīn is therefore simply the result of confusion. Little is known of his life. He was a müderris

ʿĀṣim

(460 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, aḥmad , imperial historiographer of the Ottoman empire, born in ʿAyntāb (the modern Gaziantep) in south-eastern Anatolia about the year 1755. He was the son of Seyyid Meḥmed, a clerk of the court, who became famous as a poet under the name of Ḏj̲enānī. His family was one of the old-established ones in the place. In his early youth he acquired an equally fluent knowledge of Arabic and Persian, and this helped him in later years to achieve his fame as a translator ( müterd̲j̲im ) of well-known dictionaries. To begin with, Seyyid Aḥmed was the secretary of th…

Newres

(466 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, the names of two Ottoman poets. 1. ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ , known as Newres, or more accurately, Newres-i Ḳadīm, “Newres the Elder”, to distinguish him from ʿOt̲h̲mān Newres [see below], came from Kirkūk in northern ʿIrāḳ and was probably of Kurdish origin. He seems, however, to have come to Istanbul at an early age to prosecute his studies. Here he became a müderris but in the year 1159/1746 entered upon a legal career. According to the Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , he held the office of ḳāḍī in Sarajevo and Kütahya. His sharp tongue, which found particular expressi…

Nīksār

(579 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, the classical Neo-Caesarea in Bithynia, a town lying on the southern rim of the Pontic mountain chain of Asia Minor (the modern Turkish Kuzey Anadolu Dağlari) on the right bank of the Kelkit river. It is situated at an altitude of 350 m/1,150 feet in lat. 40°35′ N. and long. 36°59′ E. The nucleus of the town is picturesquely situated at the foot of a hill, crowned by the ruins of a mediaeval castle which was erected from the material provided by the numerous buildings of antiquity there. Here in remote antiquity was Cabira and after its decline …

Nefʿī

(813 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(980-1044/1572-1635), the greatest satirist of the Ottomans. ʿÖmer Efendi, whose nom-de-plume ( mak̲h̲laṣ ) was Nefʿī came from the village of Ḥasan Ḳalʿa near Erzerūm (eastern Anatolia). Not much is known of his early life. He spent his early years in Erzerūm where the historian ʿĀlī [ q.v.], who was a defterdār there, became acquainted with him. During the reign of Aḥmed I, fate brought him to the capital Istanbul where he worked for a time as a book-keeper. He failed in an attempt to gain the sultan’s favour or that of his son, the unfortunate ʿOt̲h̲mān II, with some brilliant ḳaṣīdas . It wa…
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