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FDR and the Jews

(124 words)

Author(s): Brietman, Richard | Lichtman | Allan J.
Bibliographic entry in Chapter 12: The U…

FDR and the Jews

(110 words)

Author(s): Breitman, Richard | Allan J. Lichtman
Bibliographic entry in Chapter 9: The Un…

Rūpiyya

(641 words)

Author(s): Allan, J. | Bosworth, C.E.
, an Indian coin, a rupee. In the later 9th/15th and early 10th/16th centuries, the silver tanka [ q.v.] of the sultans of Dihlī had become so debased that when S̲h̲īr S̲h̲āh (947-52/1540-5) reformed the coinage, the name could no longer be given to a silver coin. To his new silver coin, corresponding to the original fine silver tanka, he therefore gave the name rūpiyya = rupee, i.e. the silver coin (Sanskrit, rūpya , rūpaka ), and tanka became a copper denomination. The weight of the rupee was 178 grains (11.53 gr) and it rapidly established itself in popular favour. Un…

Mīrzāpur

(458 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, a district and town in the Uttar Pradesh province, formerly the United Provinces, of the Indian Union, forming a district in the Benares division of that province, with an area of 5,238 sq. miles, and with a population (1971 census) of 731,403 for the district and 80,768 for the town. Some 7% of the population are Muslims, and have shown a tendency to increase in proportion to the Hindus, owing to their greater vitality, containing as they do a smaller proportion of the very poor. The district…

Ṣadīḳī

(133 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(the transcription often used by Indian numismatists of what s̲h̲ould correctly be Ṣiddīḳī ), the name given by Tīpū Sulṭān of Mysore [see mahisur ] to a gold coin of the value of two pagodas (Port, pardao , the name of a gold coin long current in South India in pre-modern times and for which various etymologies have been propounded; see Yule-Burnell, Hobson-Jobson , a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases, 652-7, 672-8), weighing 106 grains ( = 6.87 gr). The name Ṣiddīḳī derives from the epithet borne by the first caliph Abū Bakr [ q.v.] al-Ṣiddīḳ, in accordance with Tīpū’…

Paysā

(139 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, Paisā (Hindi), English form pice, a copper coin of British India = 3 pies or ¼ anna. Under the Mug̲h̲als, the name paisā became applied to the older dām, introduced by S̲h̲īr S̲h̲āh, 40 of which went to the rupee, as the unit of copper currency; the name found on the coins however is usually simply fulūs or rewānī . Paisā is the general name for the extensive ¶ copper coinage coined in the 18th and 19th centuries by the numerous native states which arose out of the Mug̲h̲al empire (see J. Prinsep, Useful tables, ed. E. Thomas, London 1858, 62-3). In the currencies of modern India and Pakistan, 100 pais…

Murādābād

(570 words)

Author(s): Allan, J. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a district in the Rohilkhand division in the north-west of Uttar Pradesh in the Indian Union (formerly the United Provinces of British India), with an area of 2,290 sq. miles/5,930 km2 and a population (1961 census) of 1,973,530 of whom 62% were at that time Hindu and 37% Muslim, the latter being stronger in the rural areas than the urban centres; the concentration of Muslims, almost wholly Sunnīs, is one of the thickest in the whole of Uttar Pradesh. Almost all the population is either Hindi- or Urdu-speaking. Nothing is k…

Mohur

(479 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, an Indian gold coin. The name is the Persian muhr , which is a loanword from the Sanskrit mudrā , seal or die. The earliest occurence of the word on coins is on the forced currency of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ where it has the literal meaning of “sealed” or “stamped”. By the 10th/16th century it had come to be used as a popular rather than precise name for gold coins in general. Very little gold had been issued in India for two centuries before the reign of Akbar. One of his reforms was the issue of an extensive coinage in gold. In addition to many pieces which had onl…

Rupīya

(348 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(p.), an Indian coin, a rupee. In the latter xvth and early xvith centuries the silver tanka [q. v.] of the sulṭāns of Dehlī had become so debased that when S̲h̲er S̲h̲āh (1539—1545) reformed the coinage, the name could no longer be given to a silver coin. To his new silver coin, corresponding to the original fine silver tanka, he therefore gave the name ruplya = rupee, i. e. the silver coin (Sanskrit, rūpya, rūpaia), and tanka became a copper denomination. The weight of the rupee was 178 grains (11.53 grms.) and it rapidly established itself in popular favour. Under th…

Med̲j̲īdīye

(61 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
In February 1844 (Muḥarram 1260) in the reign of ʿAbd al-Med̲j̲īd the Turkish coinage was entirely re-organised on European models and this currency is known as the Med̲j̲īdīye. The name Med̲j̲īdīye was also given to the largest silver piece in the new coinage: the 20 piastre piece of this new issue; it weighed 372 grains (24.08 grammes). (J. Allan)

Paisā

(103 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(Hind.), anglicé pice, a copper coin of British India = 3 pies or ¼ anna. Under the Mog̲h̲uls the name paisā became applied to the older dām, introduced by S̲h̲ēr S̲h̲āh, 40 of which went to the rupee, as the unit of copper currency; the name found on the coins however is usually simply fulūs or rewānī. Paisā is the general name for the extensive copper coinage coined in the xviiith and xixth centuries by the numerous native states which arose out of the Mog̲h̲ul empire (cf. J. Prinsep, Useful Tables, ed. E. Thomas, London 1858, p. 62 sq.). (J. Allan)

Pāʾī

(64 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(Hind.), anglicé pie, the smallest copper coin of British India = 1/12 of an anna. Originally, in the East India Company’s early experiments for a copper coinage, the pie as its name implies, was the quarter of an anna or pice [cf. paisā]; since the Acts of 1835, 1844 and 1870, however, the pie has been ⅓ of a pice. (J. Allan)

Pawlā

(22 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, the name given in the Mug̲h̲al emperor Akbar’s monetary system to the ¼ dāmpaysā ). (J. Allan)

Pāra

(316 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(p. ‘‘piece, fragment”), a Turkish coin of the Ottoman and early Republican periods. It was originally a silver piece of 4 aḳčes , first issued early in the 18th century; it soon replaced the aḳče as the monetary unit. The weight, originally 16 grains (1.10 grammes), sank to one-quarter of this weight by the beginning of the 19th century and the silver content also depreciated considerably. The multiples of the silver pāra were 5 ( bes̲h̲lik ) pāras ; 10 ( onli̊ḳ ); 15 ( onbes̲h̲lik ); 20 ( yigirmiparali̊ḳ ); 30 ( zolota ) and 40 ( g̲h̲urūs̲h̲ or piastre). Higher denominations: 60 ( altmi̊s̲h̲li̊ḳ

Pāʾī

(80 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(Hindi “quarter”), English form “pie”, the smallest copper coin of British India = 1/12 of an anna. Originally, in the East India Company’s early experiments for a copper coinage, the pie, as its name implies, was the quarter of an anna or pice [see paysā ]; after the Acts of 1835, 1844 and 1870, however, the pie was ⅓ of a pice. (J. Allan) Bibliography Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases 2, 705. ¶

Larin

(695 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(p., lārī ), a silver coin current in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean in the 16th and 17th centuries. It takes its name from the town of Lār [ q.v.], the capital of Lāristān at which it was first struck; cf. Pedro Texeira ( Travels , Hakluyt Soc, London 1902, 341): “There is also the city of Lar... whence are called laris, a money of the finest silver, very well drawn and current throughout the East”, and Sir Thomas Herbert speaking of Lār in 1627 ( Some yearstravels , London 1665, 130): “near this byzar the lames are coyned, a famous sort of money.” The lar…

Minicoy

(270 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, a coral island in the Arabian Sea midway between the Laccadive and the Maldive Islands; it belongs like the former to the Ālī Rājā of Cannanore but ethnographically and geographically has more claim to be attached to the Maldive group. It is six miles long but very narrow, being only 1¾ square miles in area. The population is about 3,000. The people, who are probably of Singhalese origin, have been Muḥammadans since the xivth century. The language is Mahl but the Arabic character is used. They are strictly monogamous. A girl’s consent is required for her marriage an…

Zer Maḥbūb

(134 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, “beloved gold”, a Turkish gold coin (sequin). In the reign of Aḥmad III (1115-1143 = 1703—1730) a new gold sequin was issued weighing 40 grains (2.6 grammes), in addition to the older sequin of 53 grains (3.44 grammes) ( funduḳ altūnī) which continued to be issued alongside of it. This coin, known as the zer maḥbūb, remained in circulation till the great Med̲j̲īdīye recoinage of 1280 (1844), being reduced in weight to 37 grains (2.4 grammes) by Selīm III (1203—1222 = 1789—1807) and to 25 grains (1.62 grammes) in the last years of Maḥ…

Mit̲h̲ḳāl

(130 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(a.), the weight of a thing; this is the meaning of the word in the Ḳurʿān; a particular weight for weighing precious metals, jewels, drugs, etc., probably the oldest unit in the Arab Troy system. The mit̲h̲ḳāl corresponds to the Roman solidus of the Constantinian system which the Arabs adopted in Syria. ʿAbd al-Malik took it over for his unit of gold when he reformed the currency in 77 (696). His dīnār weighed a mit̲h̲ḳāl of 65.5 grains (4.25 grammes), hence mit̲h̲ḳāl is used as a synonym for d…

Tari

(127 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, a gold coin, a quarter-dīnār. When the Fāṭimids conquered Sicily in the second decade of the fourth (tenth) century they struck quarter-dīnārs ( rubaʿ) there in large numbers. This denomination was new to Muḥammadan coinage and the fact that it was also introduced into Syria by the Fāṭimids suggests that it was intended to take the place of the Byzantine tremissis. The issue of this denomination was continued by the Norman Dukes who succeeded the Fāṭimids. For the history of the tari as an Italian denomination, which does not concern us here, see the article tareno in E. Martinori, La Moneta…
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